Hikoya

Lesota tarixi - tarix

Lesota tarixi - tarix


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

LESOTHO

Lesoto qirolligi to'liq Janubiy Afrika Respublikasi bilan o'ralgan. Asl aholisi Bushmen bo'lsa -da, boshqa aholi 1500 -yillardan 1800 -yillarga qadar atrofdagi mamlakatlardagi turli qabilalar to'qnashuvlaridan qochqin sifatida kelgan. 1868 yilda Britaniya protektoratiga aylandi, faqat bir asr o'tgach (1966) mustaqillikka erishildi. Mamlakatning siyosiy yo'li toshli edi va ko'p vaqtlar mustaqillikdan beri konstitutsiya buzilgan edi. Harbiylar 1990 -yillarning boshlarida bir muddat hukmronlik qilishdi va saylovlar bilan bog'liq muammolar bor edi, shu jumladan 1998 yil may oyida ham, ularning natijalarining ishonchliligi haqida savollar tug'ildi.


  • Hudud: Afrika
  • Aholisi: 2,1 million (2018)
  • Maydoni: 30 350 kvadrat kilometr
  • Poytaxti: Maseru
  • Hamdo'stlikka qo'shildi: 1966, Buyuk Britaniyadan mustaqil bo'lgandan keyin
  • Hamdo'stlik yoshlari indeksi: 49 mamlakatdan 47 tasi

Korrupsiyaga qarshi kurash

Kotibiyat Lesoto hukumatiga korruptsiyaga qarshi kurashda yordam bermoqda. Bir strategiya - bu tovarlar va xizmatlarni sotib olayotganda takliflar va shartnomalarni e'lon qilish.

Hamdo'stlik yordami bilan Lesoto korruptsiyaga qarshi rejalarni amalga oshirishda muvaffaqiyat qozondi. Transparency International korruptsiyani anglash indeksida u nisbatan yaxshi ko'rsatkichga ega.

Ta'lim

Lesoto ta'lim tizimidagi boshqaruv va salohiyatni yaxshilashga yordam berish uchun Hamdo'stlik ta'limi siyosati asoslaridan foydalangan.

Kotibiyat Lesoto bilan birgalikda o'g'il bolalar ta'limidagi muammolarni hal qilmoqda.

Jinsiy tenglik

Kotibiyat Lesotoga ayollar va qizlarga nisbatan zo'ravonlikning iqtisodiy xarajatlarini (VAWG) o'lchash uchun ma'lumot to'plashga yordam berdi. Bu xarajatlarni o'lchash vositasini ishlab chiqdi, ikkinchi misol sifatida Lesoto.

Savdo

2019 yil dekabr oyida Kotibiyat ekspertlari Lesoto bilan savdo siyosatini qayta ko'rib chiqishdi. Shuningdek, ular mamlakatga yangi mahsulotlar va eksport uchun yangi bozorlarni kashf etishda yordam berishdi.

Tabiiy boyliklar

Kotibiyat Lesotoga Xalqaro dengiz tubi ma'muriyati (ISA) bilan yanada muvaffaqiyatli ishlashni maslahat berdi. Bu mamlakatga uning qonuniy majburiyatlari, ISA qoidalari va ISA to'lov tizimi haqida bilib olishga yordam berdi.


Lesoto - tarix va madaniyat

Lesotoning tekisliklari, platolari va tog'lari minglab yillar davomida bosib olingan bo'lsa -da, mamlakat tarixi voqealarga boy, ammo nisbatan qisqacha. Basoto xalqining boy madaniyati an'anaviy Afrikadir, mag'rurlik va erni himoya qilish, xristian dinida mavjud bo'lgan qadimgi qabilalar urf -odatlarining kun tartibida.

Tarix

Hozir Lesoto deb nomlanuvchi mamlakatning kelib chiqishi taxminan 40 ming yil oldin San-ovchi-yig'uvchi bushman qabilalari davriga borib taqaladi. Yaqin ming yillar mobaynida bu erga turli qabilalar joylashdi. Mintaqa 1822 yil oxirida qirol Mashoeshoe I davrida yagona birlashgan tashkilot sifatida paydo bo'ldi.

19 -asr boshlarida Afrika ochila boshladi, G'arb mustamlakachiligining qabila shohliklariga beqarorlashtiruvchi ta'siri ichki nizolarni keltirib chiqardi. Lesoto, keyinchalik Basutoland nomi bilan tanilgan, 1818 yildan 1828 yilgacha qirol Shaka Zulunga qarshi 10 yillik urushda qo'shni qabilalar bilan birlashgan. Yangi davlatning evolyutsiyasi keyinchalik Keyp-koloniyada joylashgan Gollandiya va Britaniya mustamlakachilari bilan aloqa orqali shakllangan. Mashoeshoe I tomonidan Basutolandga taklif qilingan xristian missionerlari Sesoto tilida matbaa kiritishga yordam berishdi.

19 -asrning qolgan qismida G'arb bilan aloqa odatiy hududiy nizolarni qamrab oldi, garchi Basutoland turli qabilalar va mustamlaka imperiyalari vakillari bilan diplomatik kanallar ochishga muvaffaq bo'lgan. Qurol savdogarlari qurollarni Basoto xalqiga dastlab Korana xalqi bilan urushda ishlatish uchun sotishgan, lekin keyinchalik evropaliklarga, jumladan, Key hududidan majburan olib kelingan Boer ko'chmanchilariga tajovuz qilishda ishlatilgan.

Erkin shtat-Basoto urushi paytida Burlar ustidan qozonilgan g'alaba Mashoeshoe I tomonidan ishlab chiqilgan, ammo 1867 yilgi mojaroda Basutolandning so'nggi mag'lubiyati qirol Britaniya qirolichasi Viktoriyadan yordam so'rab murojaat qilgani bilan tugagan, natijada Basutoland protektoratga aylangan. Basutoland chegaralari 1869 yilda imzolangan ingliz va bur generallari o'rtasida tuzilgan shartnomada belgilandi va shu tariqa mamlakatni avvalgi hajmining yarmigacha qisqardi.

Britaniyaning Basutoland ustidan ta'siri butun mustamlaka davri mobaynida o'zgarmay qoldi, mamlakat to'liq mustaqillikka erishdi va 1966 yilda Lesoto nomini oldi. Birinchi umumiy saylovlarda hukmron Basoto milliy partiyasi fuqarolik nizolari va siyosiy kurashlar bilan Basoto Kongress partiyasi foydasiga chetlatildi. 1985 yilda harbiy to'ntarishgacha davom etdi. Keyinchalik hokimiyat qirol Moshoeshoe II qo'liga o'tdi, u tez orada harbiylarning ko'nglini yo'qotdi va surgunga qochishga majbur bo'ldi.

Uning o'rniga o'g'li King Letsie III o'rnini egalladi, lekin tartibsizliklarni bostira olmadi va ko'p vaqtini harbiylar va odamlarning injiqligiga qarab hokimiyatda va tashqarisida o'tkazdi. 1998 yilga kelib, 1994 yildagi navbatdagi to'ntarishdan so'ng, mamlakat tinchlik to'g'risida ovoz berishga qaror qildi va xalqaro kuzatuvchilar tomonidan adolatli deb qabul qilingan jarayon orqali Lesoto Demokratiya Kongressini sayladi. Muxolifat partiyalarining e'tirozlariga qaramay, Lesoto nisbatan barqarorlik va tinchlikka erishdi.

Madaniyat

Basoto xalqi o'zining noyob merosi bilan faxrlanadi, chunki u mustamlakachilik davridan G'arbning ta'siri va Janubiy Afrikaning atrofidagi aparteidning shafqatsiz siyosati ta'sirisiz afrikalik bo'lib qoladi. Garchi mamlakat 99 foiz xristian bo'lsa -da, hatto diniy urf -odatlar an'anaviy urf -odatlar va e'tiqodlardan kuchli ta'sir ko'rsatadi, masalan, o'liklarni o'lik holda sharqqa dafn qilish, shunda ular avlodlari kerak bo'lganda tong otishi mumkin.

Lesoto davlat madhiyasi, Lesoto Fatse la Bonta'ta Rona, Otalar yurti, millat madaniyati uchun hal qiluvchi ajdodlar merosini yoritib beradi. Mamlakatning madaniy yuragi bo'lgan Thaba Bosiu millatning tug'ilgan joyi va Basoto hukmdorlarining dafn qilingan joyi hisoblanadi. Ko'p odamlar haligacha an'anaviy qishloqlarda yoki hali ham yashamaydigan Komo g'orlarida yashaydilar va hamma Basoto mamlakatning tabiiy boyliklarini himoya qilish kerak deb hisoblaydi, chunki ular muqaddas deb hisoblanib, odamlarga ruhiy rishtalar bilan bog'langan.

Fasllar va qishloq xo'jaligining turmush tarzi bilan bog'liq an'anaviy qabilaviy musiqa va raqs bu erda madaniyatning muhim qismini tashkil qiladi va an'anaviy qo'l san'atlari haqiqiy foydalanish uchun va esdalik sovg'alari sifatida ishlab chiqariladi. Mustamlakachilik davridan qolgan qoldiqlarga missionerlar va erta ingliz ko'chmanchilarining avlodlari, shuningdek, golland ko'chmanchilarining afrikaans tilida so'zlashadigan qarindoshlari kiradi. Hozirgi vaqtda ikkala guruh ham basoto jamiyatiga mustahkam qo'shilgan va mamlakatga va afrikaliklarning turmush tarziga sodiq.


Tarkibi

Uchinchi darajali tarqalish zonasidan janubga ko'chish paytida, Bantu tilida so'zlashadigan odamlar hozirgi Lesotoni tashkil etadigan erlarni, shuningdek, hozirgi Lesoto atrofidagi unumdor erlarning yanada kengroq hududini joylashtirishga kelishdi. Bu odamlar o'ziga xos "Janubiy Soto" shevasida gapirishgan va o'zlarini Basoto deb atashgan. 19 -asr boshlarida Basoto xalqlarida bir qancha jiddiy buzilishlar bo'lgan. Bir qarashda aytilishicha, bularning birinchisi, zululandlardan Lifaqane (yoki Mfecane) tarkibida ko'chirilgan zulular urug 'bosqinchilaridir, ular avval g'arbga, keyin shimolga ko'chishganda duch kelgan bosoto xalqlarini vayron qilgan. Ikkinchisi, zuludan shimolga o'tmagan, birinchi Voortrekkerlar kelganidan ko'ra, ularning ba'zilari shimoldagi qiyin sayohatlari davomida mehmondo'stlikka ega bo'lishgan. Voortrekkerning dastlabki hisob -kitoblarida Basotoning tog'li chekinishi atrofidagi erlar qanday yoqilgani va vayron qilinganligi tasvirlangan. [4]

Biroq, Afrikaning butun janubiy mintaqasi uchun tarixning bu talqini munozarali masala. Rad etishga urinishlardan birini Norman Eterington kiritdi Buyuk treklar: Janubiy Afrikaning o'zgarishi, 1815-1854 (Longman, 2001). Eteringtonning ta'kidlashicha, Mfecane kabi hech narsa sodir bo'lmagan, zulular mintaqadagi boshqa guruhlarga qaraganda talonchilik qilmagan va Voortrekkerlar bo'sh ko'rgan erni na Zulu, na Basoto hal qilmagan, chunki bu odamlar pasttekislikdagi pasttekisliklarni qadrlamagan. yaylov sifatida. [5]

Erkin davlat - Basoto urushlari tahriri

1818 yilda Moshoeshoe I / m oʊ ˈ ʃ w eɪ ʃ w eɪ / turli bosoto guruhlarini birlashtirdi va ularning qiroli bo'ldi. Moshoeshoe hukmronligi davrida (1823–1870) an'anaviy Basoto erlariga joylashib olgan burlar bilan qator urushlar (1856–68) olib borildi. Bu urushlar natijasida "yo'qolgan hudud" deb nomlanuvchi katta miqdordagi er yo'qotildi.

1843 yilda Grikualand burlari bilan shartnoma imzolandi va inglizlar bilan 1853 yilda kichik urushdan keyin shartnoma tuzildi. Boers bilan er yuzidagi bahslar 1858 yilda Senekal urushi va yana jiddiyroq 1865 yilda Seqiti urushi bilan qayta tiklandi. Boerlar bir qancha harbiy muvaffaqiyatlarga erishdilar, ehtimol 1500 bosoto askarlarini o'ldirishdi va Thaba Bosiu shartnomasiga binoan saqlab qolishlari mumkin bo'lgan juda ko'p ekin maydonlarini qo'shib olishdi. [6] Keyingi mojaro Taba Bosiuning muvaffaqiyatsiz hujumiga va Boen komendanti Luv Vepenerning o'limiga olib keldi, lekin 1867 yilga kelib Moshoeshoe erining katta qismi va uning qal'alarining ko'p qismi egallab olindi. [7]

Mag'lubiyatdan qo'rqib, Moshoeshoe Buyuk Britaniyaning yordami uchun Oliy komissar Filipp Edmond Vodxausga murojaat qildi. [7] 1868 yil 12 -martda Britaniya Vazirlar Mahkamasi bu hududni Britaniya himoyasi ostiga qo'yishga rozi bo'ldi va Burni tark etishga buyruq berildi. 1869 yil fevralda inglizlar va burlar Protivatorlik chegaralarini belgilab beruvchi Shimoliy Alival konventsiyasiga rozi bo'lishdi. [7] Kaledon daryosining g'arbidagi haydaladigan erlar Bur qo'lida qoldi va ularni yo'qolgan yoki bosib olingan hudud deb atashadi. Moshoeshoe 1870 yilda vafot etdi va uni dafn qilindi Thaba Bosiu.

Cape Colony tomonidan qo'shib olish

1871 yilda protektorat Keyp Koloniyasiga qo'shildi. Basoto inglizlarga qarshilik ko'rsatdi va 1879 yilda janub boshlig'i Moorosi qo'zg'olon ko'tardi. Uning kampaniyasi bostirildi va janglarda u halok bo'ldi. Basoto keyinchalik Moorosi erlarining bo'linishi uchun o'zaro kurashga kirishdi. Britaniyaliklar 1878 yildagi Keyp tinchligini saqlash qonunini Basutolandni qamrab olish uchun uzaytirdilar va mahalliy aholini qurolsizlantirishga harakat qildilar. Koloniyaning katta qismi qurolli urushda (1880-1881) qo'zg'olon ko'tarib, uni bo'ysundirish uchun yuborilgan mustamlakachi ingliz kuchlariga katta talafot etkazdi. 1881 yildagi tinchlik shartnomasi vaqti -vaqti bilan janglarni bostira olmadi. [8]

Crown colony sahifasiga qaytish

Keyptaunning hududni nazorat qila olmasligi 1884 yilda Basutoland hududi sifatida toj nazoratiga qaytishiga olib keldi. Koloniya Oranj daryosi koloniyasi, Natal koloniyasi va Keyp koloniyasi bilan bog'langan edi. U ettita ma'muriy okrugga bo'lingan: Berea, Leribe, Maseru, Mohale's Hoek, Mafeteng, Qacha's Nek va Quting. Koloniya Buyuk Britaniyaning rezident komissari tomonidan boshqarilgan, u erda ishlagan pitso (milliy yig'ilish) irsiy mahalliy boshliqlarning bir bosh boshliq ostida. Har bir boshliq o'z hududidagi palatani boshqargan. Birinchi rahbar Moshoeshoyning o'g'li Lerotodi edi. Ikkinchi Boer urushi paytida koloniya neytral edi. 1875 yildagi aholi soni 125 mingdan, 1901 yilda 310 mingga, 1904 yilga kelib 349 ming kishiga ko'paydi.

1910 yilda Janubiy Afrika Ittifoqi tashkil etilgach, koloniya hali ham inglizlar nazorati ostida edi va uni Ittifoqqa topshirishga harakat qilindi. Ammo Basutoland aholisi bunga qarshi chiqishdi va Milliy partiya o'zining aparteid siyosatini o'rnatgach, qo'shilish ehtimoli to'xtatildi. 1959 yilda yangi konstitutsiya Basutolandga birinchi saylangan qonun chiqaruvchi hokimiyatni berdi. Bu 1965 yil aprelda umumiy qonun chiqaruvchi saylovlar bilan davom etdi.

Basotoland Protektoratida va to'q sariq rangli davlatga aylangan mamlakatlarda seototopon xalqlarning turli taqdirlari e'tiborga loyiqdir. To'q rangli erkin davlat Bur hukmronlik qiladigan hududga aylandi. Boer urushi oxirida u inglizlar tomonidan mustamlakaga aylandi va keyinchalik bu koloniya Buyuk Britaniya tomonidan to'rt provinsiyadan biri sifatida Janubiy Afrika Ittifoqiga qo'shildi. U hanuzgacha Janubiy Afrika Respublikasining bir qismi bo'lib, hozirda Erkin davlat deb ataladi. Bundan farqli o'laroq, Basotholand, Sahroi-Sahroi mintaqasidagi boshqa ikkita Britaniya Protektoratlari bilan bir qatorda (Bechuanaland va Svazilend) Janubiy Afrika Ittifoqi tarkibiga kirishiga yo'l qo'yilmadi. Bu protektoratlar 1960 -yillarda Britaniya tomonidan mustaqil ravishda mustaqillikka olib kelingan. Protektoratga aylangach, Basotholand va uning aholisi Afrikaner hukmronligiga bo'ysunmadilar, bu ularni aparteidni boshdan kechirishdan qutqardi va shu tariqa Buyuk Britaniyaning xayrixoh boshqaruvi ostida gullab -yashnadi. Basotholandning Basoto aholisi sog'liqni saqlash va ta'lim olish imkoniyatiga ega bo'ldilar va mustaqillik tufayli siyosiy ozodlikka erishdilar. Ammo inglizlar tomonidan himoyalangan bu erlar, boylarga berilgan "yo'qolgan hudud" ga qaraganda, daromad va boylik ishlab chiqarish imkoniyatlariga qaraganda ancha kichik edi.

1955 yilda Basutoland Kengashining ichki ishlarini qonuniylashtirish to'g'risidagi iltimosidan so'ng, 1959 yilda yangi konstitutsiya Basutolandga birinchi saylangan qonun chiqaruvchi hokimiyatni berdi. 1965 yil aprelda umumiy qonuniy saylovlar bo'lib o'tdi, unda kattalar umumiy saylov huquqi bilan Basoto Milliy Partiyasi 31 ta, Basutoland Kongress Partiyasi (BCP) 65 o'rinning 25 tasini qo'lga kiritdi.

1966 yil 4 oktyabrda Lesoto Qirolligi to'liq mustaqillikka erishdi, konstitutsiyaviy monarxiya tomonidan boshqariladigan ikki palatali Senat va Milliy Assambleyadan iborat parlament. 1970 yil yanvar oyida mustaqillikdan keyingi birinchi saylovlarning dastlabki natijalari Basoto milliy partiyasi (BNP) nazoratni yo'qotishi mumkinligini ko'rsatdi. Bosh vazir Leabua Jonatan boshchiligida, hukmron BNP raqib Basotholand Kongress partiyasiga (BCP) hokimiyatni berishdan bosh tortdi, garchi ko'pchilik BCP saylovlarda g'alaba qozongan deb hisoblar edilar. Bosh vazir Leabua Jonatan saylov qonunbuzarliklarini keltirib, saylovlarni bekor qildi, favqulodda holat e'lon qildi, konstitutsiyani to'xtatdi va parlamentni tarqatib yubordi. 1973 yilda tayinlangan Muvaqqat Milliy Assambleyasi tuzildi. Hukumat ko'pchilik ovozlari bilan, bu asosan Bosh vazir Jonatan boshchiligidagi BNP vositasi edi. Jonatan rejimi Basoto elektrchilarini va mahalliy aholini begonalashtirishidan tashqari, Janubiy Afrika Afrika milliy kongressi (ANC) ning transchegaraviy operatsiyalarini Lesoto qo'llab-quvvatlagani uchun mamlakatning quruqlik chegaralarini deyarli yopib qo'ydi. Bundan tashqari, Janubiy Afrika, agar Jonatan hukumati mamlakatda ANC mavjudligini yo'q qilmasa, Lesotoga qarshi to'g'ridan -to'g'ri choralar ko'rish bilan ochiq tahdid qildi. Hukumatga bo'lgan bu ichki va tashqi muxolifat Lesotoda zo'ravonlik va ichki tartibsizlikni keltirib chiqardi, natijada 1986 yilda harbiylar egallab olindi.

1986 yil yanvar oyida Harbiy Kengash qaroriga binoan, davlat ijro etuvchi va qonun chiqaruvchi vakolatlari qirol Lesoto mudofaa kuchlari (RLDF) rahbarlari tomonidan tayinlangan Harbiy Kengash tavsiyasiga binoan o'tishi kerak edi. Jastin Lexanya boshchiligidagi harbiy hukumat Lesotoni qirol Moshoeshoe II va qirol tayinlagan fuqaro kabineti bilan kelishgan holda boshqargan.

1990 yil fevral oyida qirol Moshoeshoe II ijro etuvchi va qonun chiqaruvchi vakolatlaridan mahrum qilindi va Lexanya tomonidan surgun qilindi va Vazirlar Kengashi tozalandi. Lexanya ishtirokchilarni qurolli kuchlar intizomiga putur etkazishda, mavjud hokimiyatni ag'darishda va Lesotoning chet eldagi obro'siga putur etkazgan tashqi siyosatga to'sqinlik qilishda aybladi. Lexanya 1992 yil iyunigacha mamlakatni demokratik, fuqarolik boshqaruviga qaytarish maqsadida Lesoto yangi konstitutsiyasini ishlab chiqish uchun Milliy Ta'sis Assambleyasi tashkil etilganligini e'lon qildi. Ammo bu o'tishdan oldin, Lexaniya 1991 yilda kichik armiya ofitserlari qo'zg'oloni bilan hokimiyatdan chetlatilgan edi. Bu harbiy kengash raisi lavozimida Fisoane Ramaemani tark etdi.

Moshoeshoe II dastlab qirolga faqat tantanali vakolat berilgan hukumatning yangi qoidalari bo'yicha Lesotoga qaytishdan bosh tortganligi sababli, Moshoeshoying o'g'li qirol Letsie III etib tayinlandi. 1992 yilda Moshoeshoe II 1995 yilgacha qirol Letsi otasining foydasiga taxtdan voz kechguniga qadar Lesoto shahriga oddiy fuqaro sifatida qaytdi. 1996 yilda Moshoeshoe II avtohalokatda vafot etgach, qirol Letsie III yana taxtga o'tirdi.

1993 yilda yangi konstitutsiya qabul qilindi, u qirolni hech qanday ijro etuvchi hokimiyatsiz qoldirib, uni siyosiy ishlar bilan shug'ullanishni taqiqladi. Keyin ko'p partiyali saylovlar o'tkazildi, unda BCP katta g'alaba bilan hokimiyat tepasiga ko'tarildi. Bosh vazir Ntsu Moxhele 65 a'zoli Milliy Assambleyada har bir o'rinni egallagan yangi BCP hukumatini boshqargan. 1994 yil boshida siyosiy beqarorlik kuchaydi, chunki birinchi navbatda armiya, keyin politsiya va qamoqxona xizmatlari isyonlar bilan shug'ullanishdi. 1994 yil avgustda qirol Letsie III ba'zi harbiylar bilan birgalikda to'ntarish uyushtirdi, parlamentni to'xtatdi va hukmron kengashni tayinladi. Biroq, ichki va xalqaro bosimlar natijasida, bir oy ichida konstitutsiyaviy tarzda saylangan hukumat tiklandi.

1995 yilda tartibsizliklar yuz berdi, shu jumladan may oyida politsiya ish haqini oshirishni talab qildi. Aksariyat hollarda, 1995-96 yillarda Lesoto konstitutsiyaviy tuzumiga jiddiy qiyinchiliklar bo'lmagan. 1997 yil yanvar oyida qurollangan askarlar politsiya zo'ravonlik qo'zg'olonini bostirdilar va qo'zg'olonchilarni hibsga oldilar.

1997 yilda BCP rahbariyatidagi keskinlik bo'linishni keltirib chiqardi, bunda doktor Mokhele BCPdan voz kechdi va Lesoto Demokratiya Kongressini (LCD) tashkil etdi, keyin esa parlamentning uchdan ikki qismi. Bu harakat Mokhexlega bosh vazir va yangi hukmron partiya rahbari bo'lib qolishga imkon berdi, shu bilan birga BCPni muxolifat maqomiga o'tkazdi. BCPning qolgan a'zolari o'zlarining yangi maqomini muxolifat partiyasi sifatida qabul qilishdan bosh tortdilar va sessiyalarga qatnashishni to'xtatdilar. 1998 yil may oyida yana ko'p partiyali saylovlar bo'lib o'tdi.

Mokhele bosh vazirlik muddatini tugatgan bo'lsa -da, sog'lig'i yomon bo'lgani uchun u ikkinchi muddatga prezidentlik uchun kurashmadi. Saylovlar LCD -ning katta g'alabasini ko'rdi va yangi kengaytirilgan parlamentda 80 o'rindan 79tasini qo'lga kiritdi. Saylovlar natijasida Moxelning Bosh vazir o'rinbosari Pakalitha Mosisili yangi bosh vazir bo'ldi. Saylovlarning katta g'alabasi muxolif partiyalarni saylov byulletenlari bilan ishlashda jiddiy qonunbuzarliklar borligini va natijalar soxta ekanligini da'vo qilishiga sabab bo'ldi. Saylov jarayonini tekshirish uchun Janubiy Afrika Taraqqiyot Hamjamiyati (SADC) tomonidan tayinlangan Langa Komissiyasining xulosasi xalqaro kuzatuvchilar va mahalliy sudlarning saylov natijalariga bu hodisalar ta'sir qilmaganligi haqidagi fikriga mos keldi. Saylov natijalari xalqning xohish -irodasini aks ettirgani aniqlanganiga qaramay, mamlakatda muxolifat noroziliklari kuchaygan. Namoyishlar 1998 yil avgust oyining boshlarida qirol saroyi oldida zo'ravonlik namoyishi va misli ko'rilmagan darajada zo'ravonlik, talon -taroj, qurbonlar va mulkni yo'q qilish bilan yakunlandi. Sentyabr oyining boshlarida qurolli xizmatlarning kichik a'zolari isyon ko'tarishdi. Lesoto hukumati harbiy to'ntarishning oldini olish va mamlakatda barqarorlikni tiklash uchun SADC ishchi guruhining aralashishini so'radi. Shu maqsadda Janubiy Afrika va (keyinchalik) Botsvana qo'shinlaridan iborat Boleas operatsiyasi 1998 yil 22 sentyabrda isyonni bostirish va demokratik yo'l bilan saylangan hukumatni tiklash uchun Lesotoga kirdi. Armiya qo'zg'olonchilarini harbiy sud oldiga olib kelishdi.

Barqarorlik Lesotoga qaytganidan so'ng, 1999 yil may oyida SADC ishchi guruhi mamlakatdan chiqib ketdi va LDFga mashg'ulot o'tkazish uchun faqat kichik ishchi guruhi (Zimbabve qo'shinlari qo'shildi) qoldi. Bu orada, 1998 yil dekabr oyida mamlakatdagi saylov tuzilmasini qayta ko'rib chiqish bilan shug'ullanuvchi Muvaqqat siyosiy hokimiyat (IPA) tuzildi va Milliy Assambleyada muxolifat bo'lishini ta'minlash uchun proportsional saylov tizimini ishlab chiqdi. Yangi tizim Assambleyaning 80 ta saylangan o'rindig'ini saqlab qoldi, lekin 40 o'rinni proportsional asosda to'ldirish uchun qo'shildi. Saylovlar 2002 yil may oyida ushbu yangi tizim bo'yicha o'tkazildi va LCD yana 54% ovoz bilan g'alaba qozondi. Ammo, birinchi marta, muxolifatdagi siyosiy partiyalar muhim o'rinlarni qo'lga kiritishdi va ba'zi qonunbuzarliklar va general -mayor Lexaniyaning zo'ravonlik tahdidlariga qaramay, Lesoto o'zining birinchi tinch saylovini o'tkazdi. Hozirgi vaqtda to'qqizta muxolifat partiyasi 40 ta proportsional o'ringa ega, BNP eng katta ulushga ega (21). LCD displeyda 80 ta saylov okrugidagi 79 o'rindiq mavjud.

2014 yil iyun oyida Bosh vazir Tomas Tabane parlamentni o'z koalitsiyasi ichidagi ziddiyat tufayli to'xtatdi, bu esa hukumatga putur etkazayotgani haqidagi tanqidlarga sabab bo'ldi. [9] Avgust oyida, Thabane general -leytenant Kennedi Tlay Kamolini armiya boshligidan olib tashlashga uringanidan so'ng, bosh vazir davlat to'ntarishi sodir bo'lganligi haqida mamlakatdan qochib ketdi. Kamoli davlat to'ntarishi sodir bo'lganini rad etdi. [9]


Lesoto

Quyoshli osmon va yoqimli iqlim mamlakati bo'lgan Lesoto qirolligi ilgari Basutoland nomi bilan mashhur bo'lgan. Kichkina tog 'mamlakati, Lesoto butunlay Janubiy Afrika bilan o'ralgan va Lesoto tarixi kuchli qo'shnisi tarixi bilan chambarchas bog'liq. 1700 -yillarning oxiri va 1800 -yillarning boshlarida Afrikaning janubini qamrab olgan urushlar va ko'p sonli aholini qirib tashlaganida, turli xalqlarning qoldiqlari hozirgi Lesoto tog'li hududlariga qochib ketishdi. Moshoeshoe (Mo-shwe-shwe deb talaffuz qilinadi) Buyuk ularga himoya berdi. Deb nomlangan qal'ani qurish Taba Bosiu (Tungi tog ') 1824 yilda poytaxt Maseru shahridan o'n besh mil narida, Moshoeshoe o'zining 21 mingga yaqin izdoshlarini Basoto millatiga birlashtirdi. O'zining donoligi va davlat arbobi bilan mashhur bo'lgan Moshoeshoe Afrika adabiyotida ko'plab asarlar mavzusidir. Moshoeshoe ruhi Lesoto fuqarolarining mustaqilligi, an'anaviy hunarmandchiligi va oilalarida g'ururlanib yashaydi.

XIX asr o'rtalarida, 1856 yildan 1868 yilgacha, inglizlar va bur ko'chmanchilari bosotoni mag'lub etish uchun muvaffaqiyatsiz urinishdi. 1868 yilda Moshoeshoe Britaniyadan himoya so'raganda, Basutoland Britaniya Protektoratiga aylandi. 1870 yilda Moshoeshoe vafotidan so'ng, bu hudud Britaniyaning Keyp Koloniyasi tasarrufiga o'tdi, u Basotoni qurolsizlantirishga urinib ko'rdi, lekin qaytarildi. 1884 yilda Basutoland Britaniya mustamlakachi ma'muri tomonidan boshqariladigan Britaniya protektoratiga aylantirildi. Oqlarga er olish taqiqlangan edi va Britaniya Basutolandni qo'shni oq hukmron koloniyalar tomonidan o'zlashtirilmasligini ta'minladi. 1966 yilda Basutoland protektoratasi Lesoto mustaqil qirolligiga aylandi. 1980 -yillar davomida Janubiy Afrikadagi siyosiy beqarorlik, 250 ming Lesoto fuqarosi shaxtalarda ishlagan va Janubiy Afrikaning Tog'li suv loyihasini nazorat qilishi Lesotoning ichki nizolarini yanada kuchaytirgan. 1986 yildagi qonsiz harbiy to'ntarish bir necha yillar davomida hukumat tuzilmalarini o'zgartirishga va siyosiy beqarorlikka olib keldi. 1998 yilda Janubiy Afrika va Botsvana poytaxt Maseruni vayron qilgan fuqarolik zo'ravonligining boshlanishiga aralashdi.

2001 yilda qirol Letsie III parlament konstitutsiyaviy monarxiya rahbari sifatida hukmronlik qildi. Qishloq xo'jaligiga yaroqli erlar kam bo'lganligi sababli, Lesoto aholisi, asosan, qo'shnilaridan uzoqda joylashgan kichik oilalarda yashaydigan chorvadorlardir. Odamlar Sesoto (janubiy Sotho nomi bilan ham tanilgan) so'zida gaplashadi, bantu tili, ular Janubiy Afrikaning ko'plab Bantu aholisi bilan bo'lishadi, ulardan Evropaning mustamlakachilik kuchlari tomonidan Afrikaga qo'yilgan chegaralar ajratilgan. Ingliz tili ikkinchi rasmiy tildir.

Tarixiy evolyutsiya: Parij Evangelist Missionerlik Jamiyatining frantsuz missionerlari 1830 -yillarda Lesotoga birinchi marta G'arb rasmiy ta'limini olib kelishdi. Maktablar soni kam edi va ro'yxatga olish darajasi past edi. Maktablar o'qish va yozishni boshlang'ich darajada o'rgatishga, o'g'il bolalar uchun oddiy kasb -hunar ko'nikmalarini o'rgatishga va qizlarga uy hunarmandchiligini o'rgatishga qaratilgan edi. XIX asrning ikkinchi yarmida Lesotoda Rim -katolik missionerlari joylashib, maktablar ochdilar. 1930 -yillar davomida Rim -katoliklik kengaydi va 1980 -yillarning o'rtalariga kelib, Rim -katolik cherkovi va Lesoto Evangelist cherkovi, Parij Injil Missionerlik Jamiyatining vorisi, har biri mamlakatning boshlang'ich maktab o'quvchilarining 40 foizini qamrab oldi. Dastlabki paytlarda asosiy e'tibor diniy maqsadlar va iqtisodiy ehtiyojlarga qaratilgandi. O'rta maktablar faqat 1948 yilda birinchi to'rttasi qurilganida vujudga kelgan, ulardan faqat bittasida yuqori sinflar bor edi. Kichik va o'rta maktablar uchun imtihonlar Janubiy Afrikada 1961 yilgacha, o'rta maktablar Janubiy Afrikadagi o'qish imtihonidan Kembrij chet eldagi maktab sertifikatiga (COSC) o'tkazilgunga qadar o'rnatildi.

Shunday qilib, bir asrdan ko'proq vaqt mobaynida ta'lim faqat missionerlarning mulki bo'lgan. Garchi Lesoto Protektorat bo'lgan bo'lsa -da, inglizlar Basoto ta'limiga qiziqish bildirishmagan va 1966 yildagi Mustaqillikdan keyin missionerlar ta'lim va maktabni tashkil etish, o'quv dasturlari bilan ta'minlash, o'qituvchilarning maoshini to'lash, o'qituvchilarning professional ko'magi uchun mas'ul bo'lgan. va qulayliklar bilan ta'minlash. Ko'pincha cherkov zallari sinflar sifatida ishlatilgan va ko'pincha o'qitish va o'qish ochiq havoda o'tkazilgan. Lesotoning qattiq qishi samarali o'qishga yordam bermadi.

Dastlab o'qituvchilarni o'qitish missiyalar boshqaradigan kollejlarda amalga oshirilgan. 1947 yilda to'rtta kollej bor edi va bu 1959 yilga kelib 7 taga etkazildi. 1975 yilda Milliy o'qituvchilar tayyorlash kolleji asosan cherkovlar tomonidan boshqariladigan kichik o'qituvchilar tayyorlash kollejlari o'rnini egalladi. Missiyalar bir xil darajada kasbiy tayyorgarlik bilan shug'ullangan va o'g'illarga ham, qizlarga ham tegishli ko'nikmalarni o'rgatish uchun "sanoat maktablari" tashkil etilgan. Lerotoli Texnik Instituti Lesoto aholisi, Paramount bosh Lerotoli tashabbusi bilan, qurilish xarajatlariga pul qo'shganidan keyin tashkil etilgan. 1970 -yillar davomida Lerotoli politexnika kengaytirildi va bir qator o'rta maktablarda kasb -hunar fanlari joriy etildi.

Iloji boricha o'sha paytdagi Basutoland fuqarolari ta'lim olish uchun Buyuk Britaniyaning Hamdo'stlik davlati bo'lgan qo'shni Janubiy Afrikaga borar edilar. Biroq, Janubiy Afrika Bantu Ta'lim to'g'risidagi qonunni kiritganida, uning birinchi ta'lim qonunchiligi segregatsionistik qadriyatlarni kuchga kiritdi. aparteid, Dengizga chiqa olmaydigan tog'li xalqning o'z ta'lim dasturlarini ishlab chiqishdan boshqa imkoni yo'q edi va bugungi kunda uning ta'lim tizimi Janubiy Afrikaning kam tizimini aks ettiradi. Lesoto ta'lim tizimi, ko'p jihatdan, Janubiy Afrikada rivojlanib borayotganiga qarama -qarshi tarzda ishlab chiqilgan. Lesoto geo-siyosiy holati ma'lum miqdordagi tashqi moliyaviy yordamni rag'batlantirdi, ularning katta qismi ta'limni rivojlantirishga qaratilgan. Binobarin, ko'p millatli xususiyatlar rivojlanayotgan ta'lim tuzilmalarida namoyon bo'ladi.

Shunga qaramay, tashqi yordamga qaramay va bu mamlakat hukumati 1920 -yillardan boshlab ta'lim bilan shug'ullansa ham, uni cherkovlar bilan ta'minlash mas'uliyatini bo'lishsa -da, rasmiy ta'lim tizimining ko'p qismi hanuzgacha missiyalar tomonidan boshqariladi va asosan ular tomonidan boshqariladi. Rim -katolik cherkovi, Lesoto Evangelist cherkovi va Lesoto Anglikan cherkovi va Ta'lim vazirligi tomonidan boshqariladigan uchta yirik cherkov. 1970-yillarning o'rtalariga qadar Lesoto umumiy imtihon komissiyasi va umumiy universitet bilan mintaqadagi boshqa ikkita sobiq Britaniya protektoratlari-Svazilend va Botsvana bilan bo'lishdi.

Savodxonlik darajasi Afrikadagi eng yuqori ko'rsatkichlardan biri bo'lgan Lesoto, erkaklar uchun 72 foiz va ayollar uchun 93 foizni tashkil etadi, an'anaviy ravishda ingliz uslubidagi rasmiy ta'lim tizimi mavjud bo'lib, u hanuzgacha afro-markazli emas, evro-markaziy hisoblanadi. Angliyada o'rnatilgan Kembrij chet eldagi maktab sertifikati (COSC) - bu talabalar o'rta maktabning beshinchi kursi E shakli oxirida topshiradigan yakuniy tashqi imtihon. Ta'lim va imtihon mezonlari, shuningdek, maktabni tugatish imtihonidan keyingi oliy ma'lumot, hali ham katta darajada Maseruda emas, balki Angliyada belgilanadi. Ingliz tili ham o'qitish vositasi, ham o'qitiladigan fan. Agar kimdir COSCdan o'tishni xohlasa, ingliz tilida ruxsat olish majburiydir. O'quv dasturining tarix, geografiya, biologiya kabi boshqa sohalari ham shunga o'xshash xavotirlarni isbotlaydi. Darsliklarning hech biri Afrikadagi vaziyat uchun yozilmagan. Ma'lumotlarning aksariyati flora va faunaga yoki faqat Evropa va AQShda uchraydigan geografik joylarga tegishli. Tarixiy voqealar hech qachon Afrika nuqtai nazaridan tasvirlanmagan. Mavhum tushunchalar amaliy tajriba uchun ozgina imkoniyatlarni beradi. Angliya va AQShdan olingan materiallarni to'ldirishga urinishlar amalga oshirildi.

1966 yildagi Mustaqillik bayramida Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkiloti va donorlik agentliklari o'zlarini qo'llab -quvvatlashlari kerak bo'lgan ta'lim dasturlarini aniqlashga yordam berishdi va asosan "chet ellik" mutaxassislar va mablag 'bilan ta'minlashdi. Asosiy e'tibor o'quv dasturlarini ishlab chiqishga qaratildi va milliy dasturlar xalqaro tadbirlarga qo'shildi. Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkiloti va boshqa donorlik agentliklarining sa'y -harakatlari sekinlashganda, Jahon banki Lesoto ta'lim bo'yicha bosh maslahatchilaridan biriga aylandi. Bank "o'z -o'ziga ishonch" ni ta'kidlagan bo'lsa -da, u moliyaviy qo'llab -quvvatlovchilar va transmilliy korporatsiyalarning mumkin bo'lgan eng katta foyda olishiga bo'lgan ehtiyojiga e'tibor qaratdi. Shunday qilib, ko'pchilik aytganidek, yangi turdagi iqtisodiy mustamlakachilik. Ta'lim sohasidagi e'tibor, o'z mamlakatidagi odamlarga o'z farzandlariga haqiqiy potentsialini etishishiga yordam berish uchun kerak bo'lgan narsalarga emas, balki xalqaro bozorni tovarlar va xizmatlar bilan ta'minlaydigan ishchilarni o'qitish va o'qitish zarurligiga qaratildi. Qirolning donoligiga to'liq ishonadigan hokimiyatning merosxo'r tuzilmalari tufayli va ota -onalar savodsiz bo'lganlari uchun va o'z xohish -istaklari va tashvishlarini bildirish vazifasini bajara olmaganlar, ta'lim tuzilmalari ehtiyojlari va xarakteriga begona edi. Lesoto xalqi ularga yana bir bor yuklandi. Boshqalar tomonidan ular uchun belgilangan mezonlarga javob bera olmaydi. Xalqaro qarzning kelib chiqishi va buning oqibatida xalqaro qarzni to'lashdan ko'ra ahamiyatsiz bo'lib qolgan ta'lim tizimining vayron bo'lishi, ta'limni ko'pchilik uchun imkonsiz qiladi.

Siyosiy, ijtimoiy va madaniy asoslar: Boshqa Afrika mamlakatlarida bo'lgani kabi, Lesoto ingliz tilini milliy til va o'quv vositasi sifatida tanlagani, ko'pchilik xalqlar uchun Sesoto ona tili bo'lgan mamlakatda o'qituvchilar va talabalar uchun dilemma paydo bo'lgan. . Officially the medium of instruction in Lesotho's schools is Sesotho until about the fourth grade when the medium of instruction becomes English. In reality, however, a mixture of languages is often used until secondary schools, and even then students have very little opportunity to use English. The National University of Lesotho has special programs to improve the communication skills of new entrants. These programs do not, however, come to grips with the under-lying issues faced by students and educators in the Kingdom of Lesotho.

It is an extremely exacting requirement for students whose first language is Sesotho to speak English as fluently as those who speak it as a first language, to study all subjects in a language totally foreign in style, cultural base and concept to their own, and to have to compete with others in their mother tongue. Furthermore, in a newly independent nation, being able to decide on the national language rather than having one imposed on the country, is a moment of great national and cultural pride. Not being able to use that language as the medium of instruction throughout the education system creates the implicit suggestion that country's own language is inadequate and therefore inferior. And this is definitely not a desirable attitude to have in a nation that is going through the process of decolonization.

Since one-half the world's scientific knowledge is available in English and those who have attained the necessary English language skills have access to the international world of science, technology, commerce, and politics as well as the Internet, it would seem that a Euro-centric bias in education would allow greater access to international education and research. It can, however, also be seen as one of the reasons for the high failure and drop out rate, especially in those cases where students are not adequately prepared to live between two cultures in a way their parents were never expected to.

The dichotomy that the children of Lesotho live in becomes apparent when one remembers that, even in modern times, traditional African society is centered around the extended family homestead, the principal social unit. Education of the young is the responsibility of the entire community that tries to instill values of respect and obedience. Each member of the community shares responsibility for the whole community. Thus, asking a young boy to be a herd boy and take responsibility for the community's cattle and sheep is not considered child labor, but merely the chore assigned to this member of the community. The whole community transmits the cultural knowledge, ways, and traditions that are related to children's surroundings, to prepare them not only for adulthood and for employment, but for every stage of life, from birth to what is called being "almost an ancestor."

By contrast, Western formal education, an import often in direct contrast to traditional African education, strives for change. It relies less on the lived values and knowledge of the community than on curriculum and an abstract examination system set by faceless entities. In Lesotho's case the latter are totally uninvolved people who reside somewhere in Britain, setting the Cambridge Overseas School Certificate with British children in mind who have grown up far from the arid mountain regions of Lesotho. The students of Lesotho negotiate this cultural rift every day, yet little attention has been paid to helping them deal with what can often be an almost schizophrenic experience between two realities. Despite the disruptive nature of Western style formal education, parents generally wish their children to have access to a Western style education, especially because it will give access to formal sector employment. Yet, they also wish them to be grounded in the traditional practices of the Lesotho culture. At present the students in Lesotho's education system have few role models who can accompany them on this path.

The process of acculturation and of learning to live between cultures is made even more difficult for the children of Lesotho when fathers are part of the migrant labor force and spend long periods in the gold mines of South Africa and the mothers have to take on more responsibility than usual. The continuous absence of large numbers of the male population is destructive to cultural structures in general. The extended family system has traditionally provided a great deal of security for all its members. Yet with so many of its members gone, there is a new tension that has lasting effects on the academic progress of Lesotho's children. Consequently, the place of the children in the society often becomes ambiguous, and they exhibit negative attitudes toward formal learning. The absence of fathers could be part of the problem behind both the high drop out rate in Lesotho's schools and the relatively small number of students who go beyond primary school.

Approximately 25 percent of children do not attend school, particularly in rural areas where families involved in subsistence activities need the help of their children to survive. In many cases families cannot afford the costs associated with school attendance. Uniforms, books, and other educational materials are beyond the means of many families where family stress, poverty, the spread of HIV/AIDS, and divorce have led to a rise in child homelessness and abandonment, creating growing numbers of street children. Boys are more affected by nonattendance than girls. Even though in traditional rural Basotho society, livestock herding by young boys is a rite of passage and a prerequisite to manhood in the community, the absence of fathers makes this a heavy burden when boys must often tend flocks all day for months at a time. The legal working age is twelve.

Some of the main challenges facing Lesotho's educators are the lack of financial resources needed to meet the growing demand for well educated local teachers, the need for literacy and for vocational and technical training outside the formal academic setting. Attempts are being made to introduce more practical subjects and so to make education relevant. However, one of the spillovers of British education is that these subjects are still regarded as second rate, inferior to a purely academic education that leads to a position of status in the community as well as to white collar jobs.

In 1998, the government announced plans to eliminate school fees to help more children gain access to education. Yet, although the government has devoted substantial resources to primary and secondary education, and education takes up approximately 25 percent of the country's budget, children's rights and welfare have not been adequately addressed.

Education is not compulsory even at primary levels as the government lacks the resources to finance it fully. This situation is due partially to the increasing international debt, and Lesotho's increasing structural dependence on the rest of the world, South Africa in particular. The country is increasingly reliant upon remittances from migrant workers. Additionally, the interests rates imposed on foreign loans made by the international banks and the restructuring demands made by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, affects the country's ability to provide essential health and education services.


Lesotho - History

Lesotho gained independence from Britain on October 4, 1966. In January 1970 the ruling Basotho National Party (BNP) appeared set to lose the first post-independence general elections when Prime Minister Leabua Jonathan annulled the election. He refused to cede power to the Basotho Congress Party (BCP) and imprisoned its leadership.

The BNP ruled by decree until January 1986 when a military coup forced the BNP government out of office. The Military Council that came into power granted executive powers to King Moshoeshoe II, who was until then a ceremonial monarch. In 1990, however, the King was forced into exile after a falling out with the army. His son was installed as King Letsie III.

The chairman of the military junta, Major General Metsing Lekhanya, was ousted in 1991 and then replaced by Major General Phisoane Ramaema, who handed over power to a democratically elected government of the BCP in 1993. Moshoeshoe II returned from exile in 1992 as an ordinary citizen. After the return to democratic government, King Letsie III tried unsuccessfully to persuade the BCP government to reinstate his father (Moshoeshoe II) as head of state.

In August 1994, Letsie III staged a coup which was backed by the military and deposed the BCP government. The new government did not receive full international recognition. Member states of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) engaged in negotiations aimed at the reinstatement of the BCP government. One of the conditions put forward by the King for the return of the BCP government was that his father should be re-installed as head of state. After protracted negotiations, the BCP government was reinstated and the King abdicated in favor of his father in 1995, but Moshoeshoe II died in a car accident in 1996 and was again succeeded by his son, Letsie III. The ruling BCP split over leadership disputes in 1997.

Prime Minister Ntsu Mokhehle formed a new party, the Lesotho Congress for Democracy (LCD), and was followed by a majority of members of parliament (MPs), which enabled him to form a new government. The LCD won the general elections in 1998 under the leadership of Pakalitha Mosisili, who had succeeded Mokhehle as party leader. Despite the elections being pronounced free and fair by local and international observers and a subsequent special commission appointed by SADC, the opposition political parties rejected the results.

Opposition protests in the country intensified, culminating in a violent demonstration outside the royal palace in August 1998. When junior members of the armed services mutinied in September, the government requested a SADC task force to intervene to prevent a coup and restore stability. A military group of South African and Botswana troops entered the country in September, put down the mutiny, and withdrew in May 1999. Looting, casualties, and widespread destruction of property followed.

An Interim Political Authority (IPA), charged with reviewing the electoral structure in the country, was created in December 1998. The IPA devised a proportional electoral system to ensure that there would be opposition in the National Assembly. The new system retained the existing 80 elected Assembly seats, but added 40 seats to be filled on a proportional basis. Elections were held under this new system in May 2002, and the LCD won again. However, for the first time, due to the inclusion of proportional seats, opposition political parties won significant numbers of seats.

The February 2007 elections resulted in another LCD victory. While acknowledging the LCD victory, opposition parties continued to assert that some of the proportional seats were allocated incorrectly. Nine parties held all 40 of the proportional seats. The National Independent Party (NIP) formed an informal alliance with the LCD, leading to its share of 21, the largest of any minority party.

The 2007 elections remained an active point of contention for years. Opposition parties called for the reallocation of seats, revision of the electoral law, and formal designation of a leader of opposition. The Christian Council of Lesotho (CCL) began mediating the conflict in 2009. Little progress was made until early 2011. In a major breakthrough, the CCL, with the assistance of an expert facilitated by the UN Development Program (UNDP), held a meeting in which all parties agreed on the amendments to be made to the proposed electoral bill. All parties also agreed to use a single-ballot system in future elections, eliminating the possibility of the contentious informal alliances of 2007.

On April 22, 2009, a failed assassination attempt was made on Prime Minister Mosisili at his residence. Two suspects were arrested in Lesotho, and seven suspects were arrested in South Africa. Those seven were handed over to Lesotho authorities on April 19, 2011, following a prolonged extradition process. The suspected mastermind and financier of the attempted coup is in South Africa awaiting his extradition process. The eight suspects (one died of natural causes in custody) are on trial, facing charges of murder, attempted murder, robbery, kidnapping, illegal possession of firearms, contravention of the Internal Security Act of Lesotho, and conspiracy to kill the Prime Minister.

After a year of internal LCD fighting, Prime Minister Mosisili fired the Communications Minister and the Minister to the Prime Minister s Office in late January 2012. In February 2012, the Prime Minister and 44 supporters abandoned the LCD but remain in power with a new party, the Democratic Congress (DC). Of the 80 constituency-based seats, the DC now controls 45, the LCD 21, and the All Basotho Convention (ABC) 11. On February 29, parliament passed a symbolic motion of confidence in the Prime Minister as the opposition parties walked out in protest.


Lesotho - History of the Basotho

The emergence of Basotho as a nation occurred around 1818 when King Moshoeshoe (1786-1870) formed alliances with an amalgam of clans and chiefdoms of southern Sotho people who occupied the area which is presently the Northern and Eastern Free State and Western Lesotho from about 1400 AD.

Moshoeshoe was born at Menkhoaneng in the Northern part of present-day Lesotho in 1786. He was the first son of Mokhachane, a minor chief of the Bakoteli, a branch of the Koena clan. While still under the tutelage of his father Lepoqo, as he was called at the time, played an important role in augmenting the power of the Bakoteli subclan by bringing the senior Sekake group and a number of Bafokeng clans, including the Makara and Ratsiu groups, under his father's control.

In 1820, at the age of 34, Moshoeshoe moved to Butha-Buthe Mountain with his followers and became chief in his own right, albeit a very minor chief. This coincided with the advent of a highly turbulent period that engulfed the whole of southern Africa and affected the economic and political lives of virtually all the people of the region.

Several unrelated factors were responsible for this, but it was the conflict among the Nguni people in Natal and the arrival of white settlers across the Orange River which had the most far reaching impact on the history of the Basotho and Lesotho.

An important development at this time was the rising military dictatorship of the Zulu King, Shaka, whose attacks on neighbouring clans in northern Natal caused ripple effects which were felt as far afield as Lesotho. This was part of a process of nation building among the Nguni in Natal in the early 1820s which was characterised by the creation of larger political units and centralised structures of authority.

To compound an already difficult situation, a severe draught hit the region in the early 1800 and sparked off unprecedented competition between these kingdoms for control of prime pasture land and fertile cropping areas. Weaker chiefdoms were either swept aside or absorbed by the centralised structures.

Independent clans such as the Amangwane, under Chief Matiwane, were forced to flee Zululand. In the process they displaced sections of the Zizi and Hlubi people who fled across the Drakensburg in 1818 from the Upper Tugela river basin, followed a short while later by the Amangwane themselves who were being further harassed by Shaka's armies.

The Hlubi people under Chief Mpagazitha, created a new stream of refugees as they in turn fell upon the Batlokoa people who were at that time living in the area of the present-day Harrismith. The Tlokoa, Hlubi and Ngwane became three separate marauding bands who,seized grain and cattle from each other and from any smaller groups of people they encountered.

These plundering raids, compounded by the drought situation, brought about famine so severe that groups of people in several parts of Lesotho turned to cannibalism. This difficult time, known as Lifaqane, was one of the darkest periods in the history of Lesotho.

Faced with all this widespread devastation of the Lifaqane period, the Basotho were forced to adapt or perish. They soon realised that the most efficient defence strategy against marauding armies was the mountain fortress. Each of the principal chiefs selected a suitable sandstone plateau surrounded by cliffs as their stronghold -the Tlokoa near Ficksburg, the Hlubi near Clocolan and the Ngwane not far from the Berea district of Lesotho.

Meanwhile, Moshoeshoe was attacked by the Tlokoa at his Butha Buthe fortress in 1824. Although Moshoeshoe and his people were not defeated, the clash had exposed the weakness of Butha Buthe as a stronghold. So Moshoeshoe decided to move to the Qiloane plateau, later to be called Thaba Bosiu, as the new site of refuge and defence.

Thaba Bosiu proved to be an impregnable fortress. In was successfully defended against an Amangwane army in 1828 against the Batlokoa during Moshoeshoe's absence on a cattle raid in 1829 and against the Ndebele of Mzilikaziin 1831.

Meanwhile, Moshoeshoes's power and influence grew as he offered a friendly hand to his defeated enemies, giving them land and assistance to cultivate crops. Even former cannibals were converted into useful citizens in this way. The Basotho nation was thus largely created from refugees who were shattered remnants of clans scattered by the Lifaqane. It was further strengthened by alliances as Moshoeshoe chose wives from other clans including daughters of the long-established Bafokeng chiefs.


Independence Day of Lesotho is celebrated every year on October 4. But do you know who colonized Lesotho? How Lesotho became an independent country? Have a look at a brief overview of Lesotho’s history here:

The history of modern Lesotho (earlier known as Basutoland) begins in the early 1800’s when Sotho tribesman escaped the armies of the Zulus and took shelter in the highlands of modern Lesotho. In the 1820s, Moshoeshoe 1, unified various Sotho groups who had fled the armies of the Zulus, as a single nation. By 1822, Lesotho became a single entity, under King Moshoeshoe I.

Things started to go wrong when in the 1830’s, white settlers called Afrikaners, or Boers, began encroaching on the Sotho domain, leading to protracted border wars. The fight between Boers and Moshoeshoe continued for 30 years.

In the 1860’s, Moshoeshoe fought a series of wars with Boer settlers, who tried to collapse his empire and colonize his lands. Having lost a great portion of his territory, King Moshoeshoe asked Queen Victoria for British help. She agreed, and Britain made Basutoland a protectorate in 1868.

The colonial era in Lesotho began in 1870, following King Moshoeshoe I’s death. In 1871, Lesotho was placed under the control of Cape Colony. Britain resumed direct control in 1884 after a war erupted between the government of Cape Colony and the Basotho.

In 1910, the Cape Colony and other British colonies united to form the Union of South Africa which later became the Republic of South Africa. The Britains were of the view that Basutoland would eventually be incorporated into South Africa but-the Basotho consistently refused to be merged even with the South African government’s repeated requests.

The Basutoland National Council was created and in 1955 it asked the British government for internal self-government. Between 1959 and 1960, Basutoland was granted its first elected legislature. As a result of the general elections in 1965, the leader of the Basutoland National Party – Chief Joseph Leabua, became the first Prime Minister of the country, with Moshoeshoe II as King.

On October 4, 1966: Basutoland was granted complete freedom, and the country’s name was changed to Lesotho.

Interesting Facts about Lesotho

  • Lesotho will turn 53, on 4th October 2021
  • A person from Lesotho is called a Mosotho. Citizens of Lesotho are collectively Basotho
  • Lesotho’s native language is Sesotho
  • Lesotho is among the landlocked nations of the world
  • Lesotho has one of the world’s smallest road networks – the only paved highway is the Kingsway
  • Lesotho sits in the clouds. The country is very mountainous, and has the “highest lowest point” of any country!
  • It has wonderful waterfalls and magnificent landscapes

Lesotho National Flag & Symbols

The National Flag of Lesotho features horizontal stripes of blue, white, and green tricolor with a black mokorotlo (a Basotho hat) in the center.

  • Blue color represents – sky or rain
  • Green color represents – prosperity
  • White color represents – peace

The Mokorotlo in the center of the flag is a type of straw hat widely used for traditional Sotho clothing and is the national symbol of Lesotho.


The First Lesotho Banknotes

The first Maloti banknotes were very bright, colorful and overall very artistic, in my opinion. They have African tribal patterns embedded in the design and it gives the design a very tasteful design. The Lesotho 10 Maloti features the coat of arms in the very center as well as King Moshoeshoe II on the right hand side. The king experienced a lot of political turmoil during his reign and his son King Letsie III is currently in power. The reverse features a man on a horse in front of crops. In 1989 a new redesigned series of banknotes were put into circulation. Also new denominations ranging up to 200 Maloti were printed too.

Lesotho 200 Maloti | 1994 | P-20a |
Source: Banknote World Educational

In 2010 a newly designed series of banknotes were released by the central bank. They feature King Moshoeshoe II, King Letsie III, and also King Moshoeshoe I on the front. They have anew modern design and up to date security features. The new Maloti also feature images of everyday life in Lesotho and also images of agriculture.

Lesotho 50 Maloti | 2013 | P-23b |
Source: Banknote World

Lesotho has no coast on the sea nor on a lake. This type of country is called landlocked, meaning it is surrounded by land. All of Lesotho's trade must either be flown in by aeroplane, or brought in by land. Lesotho's position is unusual: it is completely surrounded by South Africa and has no borders with any other country. This type of country is called an enclave. Lesotho is one of the only three enclaved countries in the world (the other two are San Marino and the Vatican City). This makes Lesotho's relationship with South Africa very important to them both.

Lesotho has many mountains and is one of the most mountainous countries in the world. All of Lesotho is at least 1,400 m above sea level. People sometimes travel there to ski in winter. The many mountains in Lesotho mean that it rains there a lot. Lesotho uses some of its water to generate electricity and sells some of the water to South Africa.

Lesotho became a country in 1818, but it was then called Basutoland. A man called Moshoeshoe brought several of the groups of people in the area together and formed a new country with him as its king. This new country came under attack from its enemies and in 1868 Moshoeshoe asked Queen Victoria of Great Britain for help. Great Britain said it would help if Lesotho became part of the British Empire.

Lesotho eventually gained its independence on 4 October 1966. Now it is a member of the British Commonwealth. King Letsie III is the ruler of Lesotho.


Videoni tomosha qiling: Пирамидани қандай қурилганини сири очилибди..? #piramide #tiktok #tarix (Iyul 2022).


Izohlar:

  1. Addis

    that we would do without your remarkable phrase

  2. Ancenned

    Likely is not present

  3. Barn

    Men uning nuqtai nazarini to'liq baham ko'raman. Menga bu g'oya yoqadi, men siz bilan to'liq qo'shilaman.

  4. Aziz

    Kechirasiz, men bu iborani o'chirib tashladim

  5. Bart

    Juda qiziq savol

  6. Gorman

    Ma'lumot uchun katta rahmat, bu haqiqatan ham yodda tutishga arziydi, aytmoqchi, men tarmoqning biron bir joyida bu mavzu bo'yicha mantiqiy hech narsa topa olmadim. Haqiqiy hayotda men o'zimni qanday tutishni yoki shunga o'xshash narsaga kelganda nima deyishni bilmasligimga ko'p marta duch kelganman.

  7. Ubayy

    I can speak much on this theme.



Xabar yozing