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Agincourt jangi tongi

Agincourt jangi tongi


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Agincourt jangi: nega inglizlar g'alaba qozondi?

Agincourt tasodiflarga qarshi katta g'alaba qozondi. O'lgan frantsuzlarning umumiy soni 6000 dan oshgan bo'lishi mumkin, inglizlarning qurbonlari, o'lganlari va yaradorlari 500 dan oshmagan va 100 ga yaqin bo'lgan. Bundan tashqari, 1500 dan 1600 gacha mahbus inglizlar qo'liga o'tgan. Frantsuz zodagonlarining eng taniqli a'zolari o'ldirilgan yoki asir olingan.

Kichik kredit ingliz oliy qo'mondonligiga tegishli. Qirol Genrix V yosh feodalist bo'lib, keraksiz urushni qo'zg'atdi va keyin o'z qo'shinini dushman hududi orqali strategik ma'nosiz yurish bilan ko'rsatdi. Uning jang olib borishi odatiy edi: u o'z chizig'ini ingliz tilining odatiy amaliyotiga muvofiq shakllantirdi va uning taktikasi oddiy mudofaa uslubi edi.

Shubhasiz, frantsuz oliy qo'mondonligiga nisbatan kamroq kredit bor va bu erda jang natijasini tushuntirishning bir qismi yotadi. Ammo frantsuzlarning samarali qo'mondonlik va nazoratni amalga oshira olmasliklari, odamlarning qobiliyatsizligidan ko'ra, ularning 44 armiyasining feodal xarakteriga bog'liqdir. Bu mohiyatan, har biri shon -shuhratga, mashhurlikka, talon -tarojga va olijanob mahbuslarga intilgan xo'jayinlar yig'indisi edi. Feodal xudbinlik va intizomsizlik, ehtimol, eng katta frantsuzlar nima qilgan bo'lsa ham, jangga olib kelishi mumkin edi.

Boshqa tomondan, ingliz qurolli askarlari oz sonli armiyasini tashkil qilishgan va ular uzoq vaqtdan beri qurolli "kamon va hisob" taktikasi an'analariga ega edilar. Uzoqdan o'q otganlarning raketa o'qlari, qurollangan odamlarning mudofaa kuchi va kerak bo'lganda, qurollangan odamlarning hujumli zarbasi 1415 yilgi ingliz armiyasini umuman murakkab harbiy mashinaga aylantirdi. bu uning raqiblari.

Bunday armiya bo'lishi mumkinligi, aniqrog'i, 15-asr boshlarida Angliyaning feodalizm-lite, aniqrog'i, tez orada vorislar safida birinchi o'rinda turadigan boy dehqon sinfining-"emanomaniya" ning ko'tarilishining guvohligi edi. zamonaviy dunyoni tug'adigan radikal qo'zg'olonlar.

Bu maqola 2015 yil oktyabr oyi sonidan Harbiy tarix masalalari. Jurnal haqida va obuna bo'lishni bilish uchun bu erni bosing.


Agincourt: aslida nima bo'ldi

Agincourt - Angliyaning eng zo'r lahzalaridan biri sifatida afsonaviy, lekin tarixchi Enni Karrining aytishicha, faktlar bizning g'alabaga bo'lgan qizg'in nuqtai nazarimizni tasdiqlamaydi - va Genrix Vning xatti -harakatlari yilnomalarda ko'rsatilgandek olijanob bo'lmagan bo'lishi mumkin.

Endi bu musobaqa yopildi

E'lon qilingan: 2019 yil 6 -noyabr, 18:05

Genrix Vning 1415 yil 25 oktyabrda frantsuzlar ustidan qozongan mashhur g'alabasi Agincourt nafaqat sodir bo'lgan voqea, balki o'sha paytdan beri uning afsonasi qanday rivojlangani bilan ham ajoyib jangdir. Tudorning yangi ixtirosi, Shekspirning "biz baxtli bo'lganlar kam" obrazini yaratishga olib keldi, eng ta'sirli bo'ldi, lekin har bir asr o'z qo'shiqlarini yaratdi.

Masalan, 1914 yildagi Birinchi jahon urushidagi Mons jangidan ko'p o'tmay, jurnalist inglizlarga yordam berish uchun osmonda ingliz kamonchilarining, Agincourt kamonchilarining arvohlari paydo bo'lgani haqidagi hikoyani yaratdi. Bu o'ziga xos afsonalar bizni o'sha davrga qaytaradi, chunki bir necha ingliz yilnomalarida Genri armiyasi uchun jang qilgan Sent-Jorj haqida aytilgan. Biroq, bugungi kunda tushuntirishlarni qidirishda, tarixchi ehtiyotkorroq bo'lishi va detektiv usullarini qo'llashi kerak. Birinchi vazifa - iloji boricha ko'proq dalil topish, ikkinchisi - haqiqatni izlab tanqidiy baholash. Xuddi tergovchi singari, tarixchi ham shubhali guvohliklardan ehtiyot bo'lishi va qattiq dalillarni izlashi kerak. So'nggi o'n yil mobaynida o'tkazgan tadqiqotlarim shuni ko'rsatadiki, Agincourt haqidagi keng tarqalgan taxminlar isbotlanmaydi.

Detektivlar tadbirda ishtirok etganlardan intervyu olish baxtiga muyassar bo'lishdi. Tarixchi jangdan keyingi yillarda yozilgan guvohlarning bayonotlari bilan shug'ullanishi kerak. Hamma muammolarni ko'taradi. Jon Xardin kampaniyada bo'lganini da'vo qilgandi, lekin 40 yil o'tib, uning yilnomalarida ko'rsatgan hisob-kitoblari aniq va u xizmat qilgan kapitan kampaniya paytida Bervik-apn-Tvidda bo'lgan. Xardin, shuning uchun o'zi Agincourt afsonasini yaratuvchisi edi.

Anonim Gesta Henrici Quinti (Genrix V ning ishlari), Genrix qo'shini bilan ruhoniy yozgan, guvohlarning eng qadimgi hikoyasi va qiziqarli tafsilotlarga to'la. Bu xolis emas, chunki u qirolning maqtovi sifatida yozilgan va bu jang Xudoning Genriga roziligining namoyishi sifatida ishlatilgan. Ko'p inglizcha hisoblardan mahrum bo'lganlarni o'ldirish ongli ravishda qurilgan Gesta Qirolni hech kim bilmaydi: "Ammo birdaniga, Xudoning g'azabi tufayli hech kim bilmaydi, dushmanning orqa himoyachisi o'z pozitsiyasini qayta tiklayapti, degan baqir-chaqir ko'tarildi. qilich bilan o'ldirilgan yoki ularni ta'qib qilganlardan keyin ".

Flamand yilnomachisi Jan de Vaurin bizga 15 yoshda ekanligini va jangda frantsuz armiyasi bilan bo'lganligini aytadi. Uning so'zlariga ko'ra, u "jang paytida 19 yoshda va Angliya qiroli bilan birga bo'lgan Burgundiya gersogi Filippning" Oltin jun "ordeni qiroli Jan Le Fevrdan ma'lumot olgan. Bu vaqtning barcha ishi ". Garchi ularning matnlari jozibali bo'lsa -da, ular deyarli bir -biriga o'xshash va burgundiyalik sodiqlikning yana bir yozuvchisi Enguerran de Monstreletning xronikasi bilan bir xil. Hamma ko'p yillar o'tgach yozgan va o'ylash jang hikoyalarida juda xavfli narsa bo'lishi mumkin.

Guvohning oxirgi guvohi ser Gilbert de Lannoy edi, u jangda o'z tajribasi haqida yozgan. Bu qisqa, lekin foydalidir, chunki u Genrix mahbuslarni o'ldirish to'g'risida buyruq chiqarguncha qo'lga olingan edi. Tiz va boshidan yaralangan, u jang to'xtaganida va inglizlar uyumlarni qidirish uchun kelganida, o'liklar bilan yerda yotganini aytadi. Uni olib chiqib, 10-12 jarohatlangan mahbuslar bilan yaqin atrofdagi uyga olib ketishdi. Lannoyning aytishicha, har bir kishi o'z mahbuslarini o'ldirishi kerak bo'lgan buyruq kelganda, Brabant gersogi Entoni jangga kelganida, uy yoqib yuborilgan, lekin u qochib qutulib, faqat Angliyaga olib ketilgan.

Dalillarni o'rganish

Biroq, boshqa frantsuz yozuvchilari Genrining qotillik buyrug'ini turli frantsuz lordlariga topshirish mas'uliyatini yuklaydilar. Bu bizga yilnomalar haqidagi asosiy haqiqatni eslatadi. Jang haqidagi barcha hisobotlar partiyaviy edi. Frantsuzlar uchun Agincourt shunday falokat bo'lganki, kimdir aybdor bo'lishi kerak edi, lekin aynan kim yozuvchining siyosiy mansubligiga bog'liq edi. Ularning hisoblari Burgundiya va Armagnak fraktsiyalari o'rtasida davom etayotgan ziddiyat sharoitida juda siyosiylashtirilgan edi.

Birgina misolni keltirish uchun: Monstrelet, Vaurin va Le Fevr ataylab, Dyuk Filipp, Charolays grafligi, "butun qalbi bilan inglizlarga qarshi kurashda bo'lishni xohlagan", lekin otasi Dyuk Jon haqidagi hikoyani o'z ichiga olgan. Burgundiya o'z gubernatorlariga uni Gent yaqinidagi Aire qal'asida "hech qanday xabarni eshitmasligi va jangning belgilangan kunini bilib olmasligi uchun imkon qadar xavfsiz va yashirincha" saqlashni buyurdi. Shunday qilib, Dyuk Filippning yo'qligida bir umr xijolat bo'lib qolganini tushuntirish mumkin edi, Dyuk Jon endi qarama -qarshilik ko'rsatmaydi.

Garchi guvohlarning hikoyalari va boshqa xronikalardagi hikoyalar jangni qayta tiklashda muhim ahamiyatga ega bo'lsa -da, biz detektivlar guvohlar va gumon qilinuvchilar aytganlariga ishonishidan boshqa narsani aytganimizdek qabul qila olmaymiz. Yaxshi hikoya aytib berish istagida, Agincourt -dagi ko'plab zamonaviy yozuvchilar har bir yilnomaning eng yaxshi qismlarini olib, ularni bir -biriga bog'lab, muammosiz hikoya qilish tuzog'iga tushib qolishgan. Detektiv singari, tarixchi ham mumkin bo'lgan stsenariylarni aniqlash uchun ziddiyatli guvohliklarni solishtirishi kerak. Yilnomachilarning sub'ektivligidan aziyat chekmaydigan boshqa turdagi dalillarni topish kerak.

Biz jinoyat sodir etilgan joy sifatida tahlil qiladigan maydonga ega bo'lish baxtiga muyassar bo'lamiz, lekin undan ham ko'proq ma'muriy yozuvlar bor. Masalan, Frantsiya shimolidagi shaharlarning shahar yozuvlari bizga qo'shinlarning yo'llari va harbiy tayyorgarlik haqida aniq ma'lumot olishga yordam beradi. Ammo haqiqatan ham bizni yutuqqa olib chiqadigan manbalar ingliz va frantsuz tojlari tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan moliyaviy yozuvlardir, chunki ular armiya sonining muhim masalasida to'liq ishonchli dalillarni beradi va hatto bizga alohida askarlarning ismlarini ham beradi. Bu davrga kelib barcha askarlarga maosh to'landi. Shunday qilib, ularning xizmatlari haqidagi dalillar Kew milliy arxivida saqlanadigan ingliz xazinachisi va frantsuz chambre des comptes yozuvlarida, Parij milliy kutubxonasida va turli mintaqaviy arxivlarda topilgan.

Bu dalillarning barchasini tahlil qilib, yilnomalarni tanqidiy, qiyosiy o'rganish bilan birlashtirib, qanday xulosaga kelishimiz mumkin? Armiya to'lash uchun soliqlarni oshirish to'g'risidagi hujjat tufayli biz frantsuzlar 6000 qurolli qurol va 3000 kamonchi ko'tarishni taklif qilgan kuchlar hajmini aniq ko'rsatamiz. To'plamlar va to'lovlardan biz bu armiyaning yig'ilishini sentyabr oyining o'rtalariga qadar kuzatishimiz mumkin, garchi Harfleni Genridan qutqarish uchun hali erta emas.

Bu Genrixning Harfleurdan shimolga yurishini to'xtatgan va Britaniya kutubxonasida topilgan frantsuz jang rejasi tuzilgan armiya edi. Shubhasiz, frantsuzlar Genrini Somga yoki Peron yaqinidagi jangga olib kelmoqchi edilar, lekin u o'z armiyasini mumkin bo'lgan o'zaro ta'sirdan uzoqlashtirdi. U Sommani kesib o'tishga muvaffaq bo'lgach, frantsuzlar Kalega etib kelishidan oldin uni ushlab olishsa, tezda harakat qilishlari kerak edi. 20 oktyabr kuni unga jangchilarni yuborish uchun xabarchilar yuborilgan. Ehtimol, tanlangan joy Arrasning g'arbida joylashgan Aubigny bo'lishi mumkin. Genri dastlab bu yo'nalishda harakat qildi, lekin keyin yana dushmanidan qutulish umidida qirg'oq tomon burildi.

Bu shuni anglatadiki, frantsuzlar Pikardiya va Bar va Brabant kabi shimoliy-sharqiy chegara erlari tomonidan mustahkamlanishiga umid qilib, endi o'z joylarining o'zgarishi haqida xabar berishlari kerak edi. Aniq dalillar borki, 25 oktabr kuni ertalab barcha qo'shinlar Agincourtga kelmagan. Brabant gersogi, albatta, kechga yetib keldi, Bretan gertsogi faqat Amyengacha yetib keldi. Orlean gersogi faqat 24 oktyabrda kelgan bo'lishi mumkin.

Bundan tashqari, u hozir bo'lishi va armiyaga rahbarlik qilishi kerakligi haqidagi qaror, shuningdek, inglizlarning tahdididan qo'rqib, 50 yil oldin Poytye falokatidan ogoh bo'lgan qirol va Dofinga ham, kechki payt Ruanda qabul qilingan. jangda ularning ishtirokini xavf ostiga qo'yish. Dastlab, Armagnak partiyasi rahbari sifatida Orlean va Burgundiya gersogi Jon o'rtasidagi janjal davom etayotganidan xavotirda bo'lganligi sababli, ikkala gersogga qo'shin yuborish, lekin shaxsan kelmaslik buyurilgan. Garchi ba'zi qo'shinlar birinchi 9000 qo'shilgan bo'lsa -da, Agincourtdagi frantsuz qo'shinlari soni 12000 dan oshmasligi mumkin. Deyarli barcha yilnomachilar bizga frantsuzlar yo'qolgan qo'shinlar o'z vaqtida etib kelishiga umid qilib, jangni iloji boricha kechiktirganini aytishadi.

Raqamlar o'yini

Xo'sh, Genrix armiyasi haqida nima deyish mumkin? U Angliyani tark etgan armiya hajmini osongina kuzatishimiz mumkin. Moliya yozuvlari shuni ko'rsatadiki, u 320 kishi bilan qo'shin etkazib berish uchun shartnoma tuzgan. Lancashire va Janubiy Uelsdan 500 ta kamonchi qo'shildi (Shimoliy Uels Glin Dwr qo'zg'olonidan keyin sodiqlikda hali ham noaniq deb hisoblanardi) va ehtimol Cheshirdan 650 kishi bo'lsa, bizda 11,850 yoki undan ko'p bo'lgan armiya bor. Bunga biz indentatsiyalangan, lekin hech qanday ma'lumot saqlanmagan odamlarni, duradgorlar, konchilar va boshqalarni qo'shishimiz mumkin, garchi, garchi, hamma qurolli qit'adan yollangan bo'lsa, bu inglizlar "artilleriya inqilobida" ortda qolganligini ko'rsatadi. ”.

Kampaniyadan so'ng qo'shinlar bilan ta'minlanganlar o'z hisoblari bilan G'aznachiga hisobot topshirishgani sababli, biz Xarflerda qancha odam o'lganini, qanchasi dizenteriya bilan kasallanganligini va garnizonga joylashtirilganini kuzatamiz. Masalan, qurolsozlar Xarflerda qolib ketishgan, bu Genrining boshqa hech qanday fath qilish niyatida emasligini isbotlaydi. Bu dalillarni birlashtirib, yurishdagi armiya va shuning uchun jangda 9000 atrofida edi.

Armiyalar o'rtasidagi haqiqiy farq ularning kattaligiga emas, balki tarkibiga bog'liq edi. 12000 frantsuzlarning 75 foizga yaqini qurollangan edi. Inglizlar uchun mos keladigan ulush kampaniyaning boshida bo'lgani kabi 20 foizni tashkil etdi. Inglizlarning shunchalik kam sonli qurolli askarlari borligi haqidagi bilim frantsuzlarni ruhlantirdi va ularning birinchi jangda g'alaba qozonishini kutish uchun avangardga ko'proq qo'shin olib kirishiga sabab bo'ldi. Bilmaslik yoki ingliz kamonchilarining kuchini tushunmaslik ularni ikkinchisi xavfini etarlicha baholamaslikka majbur qildi.

7000 dan ziyod, va qoziqlar va erning yolg'onlari bilan himoyalangan, otliqlar zarbasi bilan nokaut qilish uchun juda ko'p edi. Ko'rinishidan, frantsuzlar o'z kamonchilarini va kamonchilarini qarshi harakatlarga jalb qilmaganga o'xshaydi, garchi biz bunday qo'shinlar ko'tarilganligini ish haqi hisobidan ko'rsatishimiz mumkin. Natijada, avangardning o'q otish to'sig'iga kirishni davom ettirishdan boshqa chorasi qolmadi, bu tajriba uchun oldindan tayyorgarlik bo'lishi mumkin emas edi. Ularning aksariyati ojiz qolganda, ko'plari bo'ynidagi xanjar bilan o'ldirilgan yoki yaralangan. Ularning taqdiri boshqa frantsuz qo'shinlarini jangga kirishga ko'ndirdi. Agincourt qo'rqoqlik va xiyonat ayblovlari, frantsuzlar uchun o'lim darajasi va inglizlar uchun bir xil darajada pastligi bilan ajralib turardi.

Zodagonlarning so'yilishi

Agar qirol Genrix qo'shinini to'xtatib qo'yganidan keyin vahima qilmaganida, frantsuzlarning o'lim darajasi shunchalik yuqori bo'lishi shubhali. Frantsuzlarning qayta guruhlanish xavfi haqiqat bo'ladimi yoki yo'qmi - va hech qachon hech qanday hujum qilinmaganiga hech qanday dalil yo'q - Genrixning javobi allaqachon taslim bo'lgan askarlarni so'yish edi.

Keyingi ingliz kampaniyalarida xizmat qilgan yilnomachi Piter Bassetning so'zlariga ko'ra, "shuncha zodagonlar o'ldirilgan". Angliya qirollik yozuvlaridan aniqlanishi mumkin bo'lgan mahbuslar soni, chunki toj fidoyilikda qatnashish huquqiga ega edi - yilnomachilar da'vo qilganidan ancha kam. Genrixning reaktsiyasi uning butun kampaniyadagi xatti -harakatining alomatidir. Harbiy mahorat dalillari bo'lsa -da, masalan, kamonchilarni himoya qilishda, umuman olganda, u ishonchsizlikni namoyon etdi, chunki u muvaffaqiyatsizlikdan qo'rqardi. Shuning uchun u frantsuzlar nihoyat qo'lini majburlamaguncha, u nikohdan qochdi.

Uni va uning shohligini o'zgartirgan Agincourt edi. U 1415 yilda bosqinchining o'g'li sifatida va o'z unvoniga ishonmagan holda bostirib kirgan. Hatto uni Sautgemptondan jo'nash uchun tanlagan kuni - 1 avgustda taxtdan tushirish rejasi ham bor edi. U Xudoning tanlagan shohi va jangchisi sifatida ishonch bilan qaytdi. Endi hech kim uning qirollik unvoniga yoki Frantsiyaga bo'lgan ehtirosiga qarshi chiqa olmaydi. Inglizlar butun tarixidagi eng og'ir soliqqa tortilgan davrlarga, shuningdek, harbiy jihatdan eng talabchan davrga kirdilar. Frantsiyada Armagnacs qo'mondonlari qo'lga olinganidan beri mag'lubiyatga uchradi, etakchi burgundiyaliklar esa shahid vafot etdi.

Enni Karri muallifi Agincourt: yangi tarix (Tempus nashriyoti, 2005). Bu butun kampaniya va jang haqida gapirib beradi. U ham yozgan Agincourt jangi: manbalar va talqinlar (Boydell, 2000). Bu yilnomalar va adabiy manbalar, shuningdek ma'muriy yozuvlarning tarjimalari va muhokamalarini o'z ichiga oladi.

Agincourt: vaqt jadvalini

1259: Parij shartnomasi. Genrix III (Angliya qiroli 1216–72) Normandiya, Anjou va Meynga bo'lgan da'vosidan voz kechadi va Akvitaniya gersogi sifatida Lui IXga hurmat bajo keltiradi.

1328: Qirol Karl IVning o'limi. Edvard III (Angliya qiroli 1327–77) Charlzning singlisi Izabellaning o'g'li deb da'vo qilsa ham, uning amakivachchasi Filipp VI taxtiga o'tirdi.

1337: Filipp Edvardning Akvitaniyadagi erlarini musodara qildi. Yuz yillik urush boshlanadi. Uch yil o'tgach, Eduard rasman o'zini Frantsiya qiroli deb e'lon qiladi.

1346: Eduard Normandiyaga bostirib kiradi va frantsuzlarni Kretsida mag'lub etadi, keyinchalik uzoq qamaldan keyin Kale shahrini oladi.

1356: Uels shahzodasi Edvard, Puitiersda frantsuzlarni mag'lubiyatga uchratib, Jon IIni asirga oladi.

1360: Brétigny shartnomasi, Eduard III ga Akvitaniya, Kale va Pontiyda taxtga da'voni tashlab, Yuhanno II ni qo'yib yuborish evaziga to'liq suverenitet beradi.

1369: Charlz V urushni qaytadan boshladi. Edvard III Frantsiya qiroli unvonini qayta oladi va uni vorisi Richard II (Angliya qiroli 1377–99) saqlab qoladi.

1399: Richard Genrix IV (Angliya qiroli 1399–1413) tomonidan taxtdan chetlatilgan. Keyingi o'n yil ichida Frantsiyada armagnaklar va burgundlar o'rtasida fuqarolar urushi rivojlanadi.

1415: Genrix V (Angliya qiroli 1413–22) 1359 yildan buyon Frantsiyaga eng yirik bosqini boshladi. Agincourt 25 oktyabrda bo'lib o'tadi. Ikki yil o'tgach, u butun Normandiyani tizimli ravishda bosib olishni boshlaydi.

1419: Burgundiya gersogi Jon qo'rqmas, Parijda Daufin Charlz boshchiligidagi Armagnaklar tomonidan o'ldiriladi.

1420: Troyes shartnomasida Genrix V Charlz VI ning vorisi sifatida tan olingan va bir necha kundan keyin Charlzning qizi Ketringa uylanadi. Genri 1422 yilda qaynotasidan bir necha hafta oldin vafot etadi.

1431: Genrix VI (Angliya qiroli 1422–61) - Frantsiya qiroli.

1450: Inglizlar Normandiyadan, uch yildan keyin esa Akvitaniyadan quvib chiqariladi. Faqat Calais ingliz qo'lida qoladi.


Boucicaut o'z davrining eng buyuk hazilchilaridan biri va mohir taktik edi. U, shuningdek, frantsuzlar o'tgan asrda Crecy va Poitiersda inglizlarning qo'lidan o'tgan mag'lubiyatlardan xabardor edi va shunga o'xshash natijadan qochishga qaror qildi.

O'z-o'zidan yuguradigan inglizcha kamon. Kredit: Jeyms Kram / Commons.

Bu odamlar har hafta mashg'ulot o'tkazdilar va yuqori malakali professional qotillar edilar. Bunga, shubhasiz, qirol har doim kamonchilarni doimiy etkazib berishini ta'minlash uchun, har yakshanba kuni kamondan o'q otishni majburiy qilib qo'ygan ingliz qonunlari yordam bergan.


Agincourt jangi

1413 yilda Angliya qiroli Genrix IV vafot etdi va taxtda Genrix V taxtga o'tirdi. Yuz yillik urush (1337-1453) davom etdi, ingliz qirollari Frantsiya va uning hududini, frantsuz qirollari taxtini da'vo qilishdi va frantsuz qirollari vatanini quvib chiqarishni xohlashdi. Ingliz Genrix V urushni ta'qib qilganda, Burgundiya gersogi Jon bilan ittifoq tuzdi, u betaraf qolishga va Frantsiya hisobidan hududiy yutuqlar evaziga Genrix V ’ ning vassali bo'lishga va'da berdi. 1415 yil aprelda Genrix V Frantsiya qiroli Charlz VI ga urush e'lon qildi, 12000 kishilik kuchini Sautgemptonga yig'di va 10 -avgustda Sena og'ziga qo'nish uchun La -Manshdan o'tdi.

13 avgustdan boshlab Genri Honfleur portini qamal qildi. 22 sentyabrda u frantsuzlarning ko'p qismini quvib chiqarib, ularning o'rniga inglizlarni qo'ydi. Faqat eng kambag'al frantsuzlarga qolishga ruxsat berildi va ular sadoqat qasamyod qilishlari kerak edi. Qamal, kasallik va garnizon vazifalari Genrix V armiyasini tugatdi, atigi 6000 kishi qoldi.

Nima sababdan Genrix V yuksiz yoki artilleriyasiz, Honfleurdan Kalegacha quruqlik bo'ylab yurishga qaror qildi. Uning qo'shini 6 -oktabrda jo'nab ketgan og'ir sharoitlarda kuniga 18 mil masofani bosib o'tib ketdi. Inglizlar frantsuz qo'shinlari tomonidan to'sib qo'yilgan birin -ketin yo'lni topdilar, shuning uchun Genrix V qo'shinni sharqqa, Sommaga olib chiqib ketdi. Yuqori suv va frantsuzlar bunga to'sqinlik qilishdi, u Athiesga (Perondan 10 mil g'arbda) etib borguncha, inglizlar himoyalanmagan o'tish joyini topdilar.

Ruanda frantsuzlar Frantsiya konstektori Charlz d ’ Bu kuch Somme bo'ylab o'tishdan oldin inglizlarni deyarli ushlab qoldi. Genrix V ’ ning izini topish qiyin emas edi, chunki u frantsuz fermalarini yoqib yuborgan. (Genri bir marta olovsiz urush xantalsiz kolbasaga o'xshaganini aytgan. ”)

D ’Albert inglizlarning oldiga keldi va Agenkourt saroyi yaqinidagi Kalega boradigan asosiy yo'lda blokirovka o'rnini o'rnatdi, u erda Genrix qo'shinlari 24 oktyabr kuni ular bilan uchrashishdi. hajmi. Uning odamlari oziq -ovqat etishmasdi va g'azablangan mahalliy aholi ingliz ovchilari va sayg'oqchilarini o'ldirishardi. Genri V mahbuslarni qo'yib yuborishni buyurdi va Honfleurni qaytarishni va Kalega xavfsiz o'tishi evaziga etkazilgan zararni to'lashni taklif qildi. Frantsuzlar beshdan bittagacha raqamli ustunlikka ega bo'lib, hech qanday murosaga kelmasdilar. Ular Genrix Vdan Frantsiyadagi Guyennadan boshqa hamma narsaga bo'lgan da'vosidan voz kechishni talab qilishdi.

Frantsuz zodagonlari jangga qo'shilishni xohlashdi va Albertni hujumga majbur qilishdi, lekin u o'sha kuni ularning talablariga qarshilik ko'rsatdi. O'sha kechada Genrix V mutlaq sukunatni buyurdi, bu frantsuzlarni ruhiy tushkunlik belgisi sifatida qabul qildi. 25 -oktabr kuni tong otganda, inglizlar ifloslikning bir uchida kengligi 1000 yarddan oshib, og'ir o'rmon bilan o'ralganini topdilar. Kalesga boradigan yo'l o'rtasidan pastga tushdi. Yo'lning ikki chetidagi ochiq maydonlar yaqinda shudgor qilingan va kuchli yomg'irdan cho'kib ketgan.

Genrix V Crecy va Poitiers janglarida inglizlarning yutuqlariga tayanib, 800 dan 1000 gacha qurol-yarog 'va 5000 ta kamonchilarni uchta katta guruhga yoki "8220 jang" ga tortdi. ” bitta chiziq, qurolli va pikmenlardan iborat edi, kamonchilar esa uchta va#8221 janglari o'rtasida va yonboshlarida joylashgan bo'lib, ular taxminan 100 yardga yaqin masofani o'rmonga olib borishdi.

Taxminan bir chaqirim narida Albert ham uchta guruhga joylashtirilgan, lekin frantsuz raqamlari va ifloslanishning torligi tufayli ular bir -birining orqasida edi. Birinchi daraja otdan tushgan erkaklar va bir necha kamonchi odamlardan iborat edi, ehtimol, qanotlarda 500 chavandoz, ikkinchisi - chavandozlarsiz, uchinchisi - deyarli otliqlardan iborat edi. Har bir qo'mondon, ayniqsa, Genri kamonchilarini ishga olish uchun mudofaa jangini o'tkazishga umid qilardi.

Nihoyat, ertalab, frantsuzlar qimirlay olmaganlarida, Genri ehtiyotkorlik bilan yarim mil masofani bosib o'tdi va keyin to'xtadi, uning odamlari oldingisiga o'xshash yo'lni egallashdi, etakchi kamonchilar qanotdan atigi 300 yard narida. birinchi frantsuzlar. Keyin kamonchilar uchlari otning balandligida, dushman tomonga qaragan holda, o'tkir qoziqlarni erga urishdi.

Genrixning harakati kerakli effekt berdi. D ’Albert boshqa zodagonlarining inglizlarga hujum qilish talablariga qarshi tura olmadi va avans berishni buyurdi. Ikkala qanotda o'rnatilgan ritsarlar sekin harakatlanadigan va og'ir zirhli qurollardan ancha oldin oldinga siljishdi. Bu Kreysi va Poytiyerlar edi. To'lqinli erdan sekinlashgan ko'p sonli otliqlarni ingliz o'qlari kesib tashladi, bu ularni enfiladda ushlab oldi. Qolganlari ingliz chizig'ida to'xtatildi.

Otliqlar hujumi Albert boshchiligidagi birinchi frantsuz askarlari kelishidan ancha oldin mag'lubiyatga uchradi. Ularning og'ir zirhlari va loylari frantsuzlarni charchatdi, lekin ko'plari ingliz ingichka chizig'iga etib kelishdi va og'ir vaznda uni orqaga qaytarishdi. Keyin ingliz kamonchilari qilich, bolta va balta yordamida kesilgan frantsuzlarga yonbag'ridan yiqildi. To'g'ridan -to'g'ri inglizlar ustunlikka ega edilar, chunki ular frantsuz raqiblari atrofida loyda osonroq harakatlanishlari mumkin edi. Bir necha daqiqada frantsuz birinchi unvonining deyarli hammasi o'ldirildi yoki qo'lga olindi.

Ikkinchi frantsuz unvoni oldinga siljidi, lekin unga ishonch va birdamlik etishmadi. Yo'qotishlar og'ir bo'lgan bo'lsa-da, ularning ko'plari nafaqaga chiqib, yangi ritsarlarning uchinchi va#8220 janglari bilan yangi hujumga qaytishdi. Bu vaqtda Genrix V frantsuzlar uning yuk poyezdiga hujum qilganini bilib, frantsuz mahbuslarini ulgurji so'yishni buyurdi, chunki u old tomondan ham, orqa tomondan ham hujumlarga dosh berolmaydi. Biroq, orqadan hujum bir necha qurolli askarlar va ehtimol 600 frantsuz dehqonlari tomonidan Agincourt Chateau sho'rolari tomonidan bo'lib o'tdi. Inglizlar uyga bosilmagan frantsuzlarning oxirgi hujumini osonlikcha qaytarishdi. Genrix V keyin bir necha yuz askarni frantsuz armiyasida qolgan narsalarni tarqatib yubordi. Keyin kamonchilar oldinga yugurishdi va maydonda yotgan minglab frantsuzlarni qurol -yarog'idagi bo'shliqlar orasidan pichoq bilan urib o'ldirishdi.

To'rt soatdan kamroq vaqt ichida inglizlar o'z kuchlaridan ancha katta kuchni mag'lub etishdi. Jangda kamida 5000 frantsuz halok bo'ldi, yana 1500 kishi asirga olindi. Halok bo'lganlar orasida ko'plab mashhur frantsuz zodagonlari, shu jumladan Albert ham bor edi. Dyuk d ’Orléans va Marshal Jan Bouciquan qo'lga olinganlardan edi. Genrix V inglizlarning yo'qotishlari haqida 13 qurolli va 100 piyoda o'ldirilgani haqida xabar bergan, ammo bu ko'rsatkich juda past. Inglizlarning yo'qotishlari, ehtimol, 300 kishini tashkil qilgan. Og'ir yaradorlar orasida Genrix V va Gloucester gersogi ham bor edi.

Genrix V keyin fido qilinadigan mahbuslarni olib, Kale tomon yurdi. Armiya 29 oktyabrda Kalega etib keldi. Noyabr o'rtalarida Genrix V Angliyaga qaytdi.

Agincourt jangida ko'plab taniqli frantsuz zodagonlarining yo'qolishi, Burgundiya gersogi Jonning ta'sirini, frantsuz qirollik siyosatini belgilash darajasiga qadar oshirdi. Genrix V 1417 yilda Frantsiyaga qaytdi va Mont -Sent -Mishel bundan mustasno, 1419 yil oxirigacha Normandiyani zabt etdi. 1420 yilda Troyda u Genrixning qizi Ketrin bilan turmush qurishiga rozi bo'lgan Charlz VI bilan sulh tuzdi. Frantsiya qiroli, shuningdek, o'g'li Charlz Daufidan voz kechdi va Genrini merosxo'r deb tan oldi. Keyingi ikki yil davomida Genri Frantsiyaning shimolida o'z hukmronligini mustahkamladi, lekin afsuski, u 1422 yilda vafot etdi va Angliya va Frantsiya taxtlari vorisi sifatida atigi to'qqiz oylik o'g'lini qoldirdi.

Manbalar Xibbert, Kristofer. Agincourt. Nyu -York: Dorset, 1978. Kigan, Jon. Jang yuzi: Agincourt, Waterloo va Somme tadqiqotlari. Nyu -York: Vintage Kitoblar, 1977. Seward, Desmond. Yuz yillik urush: Frantsiyadagi inglizlar, 1337-1453. Nyu -York: Atheneum, 1978. Sumption, Jonatan. Yuz yillik urush va jang: sinov. Filadelfiya: Pensilvaniya universiteti matbuoti, 1988.


Agincourt jangi va yangi versiya!

Evropa davlatlari ko'pincha hokimiyat va er uchun bir -biri bilan kurashib, bir -birining taxtlarini qamal qilishga urinishgan.

1415 yilda, (Yuz yillik urush o'rtasida) Genrix V Angliyani boshqarganida, hamma narsa boshqacha emas edi. Jang allaqachon boshlangan va o'qni ko'ziga olib, qirol Genri o'zini "Frantsiya" deb hisoblagan narsani xohlagan.

Genrix V urushda qatnashishdan qo'rqmagan. U frontda va markazda bo'lib, o'z armiyasini jangda boshqargan. (Frantsiya qiroli bunday qilmadi.) Balki, nega uning odamlari u uchun kurashishga ishtiyoqi baland edi. Va 1415 yil 25 oktyabr kuni ertalab, kasallik vayron bo'lgan, och, qurol -yarog 'va armiya sonidan deyarli 3 dan 1 gacha, Genri jangga yig'ladi.

Keng maydonda, Tramecourt o'rmonlari va Agincourt (Azincourt) qishlog'i o'rtasida frantsuzlar inglizlarning Calaisga yo'lini to'sib qo'yishdi va Genrixning frantsuz hukmronligi kampaniyasidagi eng katta mukofotini berishdi.

Omad inglizlar tomonida edi, yoki Genrix V da'vo qilganidek, Xudo Frantsiya uning huquqlari va merosining bir qismi ekanligini aytdi. Frantsuzlarning ko'plari ularni yo'q qilishdi, chunki ularning rad etishlarini muvofiqlashtirish qiyin edi. Ular to'g'ri joylashtirilmagan va oxir -oqibat ularning tayyor emasligi mag'lubiyatga olib kelgan.

Frantsuz qo'shinlarining ko'pligidan g'azablangan inglizlar sabr -toqat qilishdi va frantsuzlar charchab qolishdi. Inglizlar maydonda ustunlikka ega bo'lishdi va ular chorakni ushlab turishmadi. Bu juda ko'p qo'l jangi bilan umidsiz va vahshiy jang edi. Qirol Genri hatto o'z xavfsizligi haqida qayg'urmasdan ham yarador bo'lgan akasini qo'riqlab turdi va hatto o'z boshiga bolta olib, tojidagi plyuslardan birini kesib tashladi.

Shoh Genrix yarador dushman va qurolsizlarni o'ldirishni buyurdi. Faqat hokimiyat odamlari asirga olinishi kerak edi. Shuningdek, talonchilik sodir bo'ldi …

Oxir-oqibat, taxminan 4000-10000 frantsuz va atigi 1600 ingliz o'lgan. Agincourt jangi frantsuzlar uchun katta yo'qotish bo'ldi. O'lganlar orasida ko'plab zodagonlar bor edi, shu jumladan uchta gertsog va mahbuslar orasida gertsog D ’ Orlean va Jan le Manj va Frantsiya Marshali.

Agincourt jangi faqat boshlanish edi, lekin darhol emas. Inglizlar frantsuzlarni etarlicha vayron qilishdi, ular Angliyaga bir yildan ko'proq uylariga qaytib, yana jangga tayyorgarlik ko'rishdi. 1420 yilga kelib, Genrix V Frantsiya taxtining regenti va vorisi deb tan olindi va u Frantsiya Charlz VI ning qizi Valois Ketriniga uylanganida yana bir bor isbotlangan.

Ajablanarlisi shundaki, Genrix V avlodi Genrix VIII o'zidan oldingi odamga taqlid qilishni xohladi va butun hukmronligi davomida Kaleni ushlab, frantsuz hukmronligi uchun kurashni davom ettirdi. Oxir -oqibat, uning qizi Meri I Angliyaga qattiq zarba berib, Frantsiyani yo'qotdi.

Mening eng yangi o'rta asr romantik nashrida A LADY ’S CHARADE, Agincourt jangi, lekin bu hikoyada ustunlikka ega emas.

Mashhur jang haqidagi LADY ’S CHARADE ikkinchi bobidan parcha va#8230 (badiiy adabiyotda ta'kidlash kerakki, muallif ijodiy litsenziyani oladi.)

Havo tiniq va jang hidi bilan pishgan edi. Metall qon hidi ertalabki tumanda taraldi. O'lik va tirik odamlarning hidi bir -biriga aralashib, faqat shiddatli urushdan keyin keladigan hid yaratdi. G'alaba qozongan odamlarning dala -dabon va xirillashi yangradi. Og'riq nolalari shamolda suzib ketdi.

Ba'zi kunlar o'zgarmay qoladi va ba'zi kunlar hayotingizning butun yo'lini o'zgartiradi. Bugun o'sha kunlardan biri bo'lardi.

Xardviklik Baron lord Aleksandr Dreyk tepada bezatilgan chodirlarga tez yurdi. Yuragi ko'kragida tartibsiz urdi. G'alabadan shiddatli kurash va shodlik shoshqaloqlik bilan uning tomirlari orasidan o'tib ketdi. Soqchilar bosh irg'ab, chetga chiqib ketishdi. King Henry V sat in his high-backed wooden chair, a serene expression on his face.

“Your majesty, I came as soon as I received your message.” Alexander bowed low to his sovereign. He made sure to drop his gaze, as the good king did not like his vassals to look him in the eyes.

Discreetly Alexander sniffed himself. The stench was not as strong as he feared. At least he wouldn’t offend his leader too much.

“Lord Hardwyck. Stand. I am pleased you came so quickly.”

“It is my pleasure to serve you, majesty.” As he stood, Alexander attempted to wipe some of the blood from his hands.

“By the faith I owe to God and Saint George, you Lord Hardwyck, have made your king proud. However, before I can let you return to your holdings in England, I have one last conquest for you, which you will find benefits you greatly.”

“I am humbly at your service, majesty.” From the corner of his eye, Alexander could see his own father, the Earl of Northumberland, enter the tent and nod in approval to the king’s words.

Inwardly he groaned. Although the idea of another conquest excited him, he was disappointed he would not be returning home. His men were tired, he hadn’t seen his lands in months and he was in dire need of a warm, soft and willing wench. How long would this next conquest last?

It had to be nearly four months, since they left England to assist the king in regaining his lands and titles in France. Alexander was only too happy for the king they’d done well. They’d just won the battle of Agincourt. It was a bloody affair, one they weren’t sure at first they’d be able to win, having been outnumbered nearly three to one. Alexander was lucky to have only lost twenty of his men, and only too glad the dysentery epidemic seemed to pass right by his regiment.

“Baron Fergusson crossed the borders from the insufferable Scotland Lowlands and laid claim to South Hearth Castle,” King Henry claimed.

Alexander’s gaze shot to his father. South Hearth was one of his father’s holdings in the north of England, just on the border, and often a seat of great controversy between the Scots and themselves—the former believing the holding was on Scottish lands. He was also aware that Fergusson was the last Scottish chief to rule over South Hearth and its lands.

“Even with our latest treaty, the damnable Scots will act like savages. I have heard on good authority, he is planning a siege against several of our other holdings on the border of Scotland. He is a difficult man, a most treacherous man. I feel he will attempt an attack soon. That cannot happen. We must attack first. You will besiege South Hearth and return it to English rule.” King Henry took a deep breath. The king’s eyes bored into Alexander, causing him to shift with unease. “I wish to further foolproof the deed.”

A LADY’S CHARADE is now available (in ebook) from Amazon, Barnes and Noble, and Smashwords. (If you do not have an e-reader, Amazon and B&N both have programs for reading ebooks on your computer.)

From across a field of battle, English knight, Alexander, Lord Hardwyck, spots the object of his desire—and his conquest, Scottish traitor Lady Chloe.

Her lies could be her undoing…

Abandoned across the border and disguised for her safety, Chloe realizes the man who besieged her home in Scotland has now become her savior in England. Her life in danger, she vows to keep her identity secret, lest she suffer his wrath, for he wants her dead.

Or love could claim them both and unravel two countries in the process…

Alexander suspects Chloe is not who she says she is and has declared war on the angelic vixen who's laid claim to his heart. A fierce battle of the minds it will be, for once the truth is revealed they will both have to choose between love and duty.


Military History: Oct 25, Saint Crispins Day speech by Henry V and the Battle of Agincourt

On October 25, 1415 — England was at war with France during the latter part of the 100 years war, and King Henry V had led his men into France after negotiations broke down following a relative peace between the two countries. It was in this battle that several important observations could be made about warfare. First, it is thought by many that it was at this battle that chivalry died. Second, it proved the effectiveness of the English longbow against the overwhelming numbers and odds they faced.

After the invasion of France by Henry V, the English decided after a few months on the campaign that they would head back to England, and were marching back to the French town of Calais to be taken back to England across the English channel. That was when they were blocked by the French at Agincourt. King Henry V decided it best to stand and fight as it was thought the French had reinforcements on the way to add to the already overwhelming numbers in strength the French had that day.

On October 25, the French army attacked. However, due to the mud from the field being both currently plowed and soaked from a recent rain, the French had mobility trouble due to their numbers and better armor. They were slaughtered by the English and many French were taken prisoner. They had effectively demonstrated the efficiency and lethality of the English longbow. However, both weather and terrain were a significant factor in the English victory. The French were forced into somewhat of a funnel from which they could not escape given the number of men charging towards the English in the mud. Their armor did not make it any easier as they were easy targets for the English and whoever was able to escape the longbow were killed or captured by the English. It was a stunning defeat for the French.

After taking prisoners, Henry ordered the execution of many high ranking prisoners contrary to the chivalric code, in which the norm at that time was to take the prisoners back to England for ransom. Before the battle, it was customary for knights, nobles, and other high ranking members to be taken prisoner for ransom. A good ransom would have been a considerable amount of money for the common soldier in the English army, however, and perhaps given that the English were already outnumbered Henry ordered the execution of the French prisoners. This is thought by many to be the end of chivalry.

Other notable battles on October 25 are the Battle of Balaclava (The Charge of the Light Brigade) in 1854, and the Battle of Leyte Gulf, which took place in 1944.

Morning of the Battle of Agincourt on 25th of October, 1415.

St Crispins Day Speech from “Henry V” by William Shakespeare

Then will he strip his sleeve and show his scars,
And say “These wounds I had on Crispin’s day.”
Old men forget yet all shall be forgot,
But he’ll remember, with advantages,
What feats he did that day. Then shall our names,
Familiar in his mouth as household words—
Harry the King, Bedford and Exeter,
Warwick and Talbot, Salisbury and Gloucester—
Be in their flowing cups freshly rememb’red.
This story shall the good man teach his son
And Crispin Crispian shall ne’er go by,
From this day to the ending of the world,
But we in it shall be rememberèd—
We few, we happy few, we band of brothers
For he to-day that sheds his blood with me
Shall be my brother be he ne’er so vile,
This day shall gentle his condition
And gentlemen in England now a-bed
Shall think themselves accurs’d they were not here,
And hold their manhoods cheap whiles any speaks
That fought with us upon Saint Crispin’s day.


ANCIENT ORIGINS

It may be difficult to pinpoint exactly when the middle finger gesture originated, but some historians trace its roots to ancient Rome. In Nature Embodied: Gesture in Ancient Rome, Anthony Corbeill, Professor of Classics at the University of Kansas wrote:

“The most familiar example of the coexistence of a human and transhuman element is the extended middle finger. Originally representing the erect phallus, the gesture conveys simultaneously a sexual threat to the person to whom it is directed and apotropaic means of warding off unwanted elements of the more-than-human.” ( here )

In the book, Corbeill points to Priapus, a minor deity he dates to 400 BC, which later also appears in Rome as the guardian of gardens, according to the Oxford Encyclopedia of Greece and Rome ( here ). The decorative use of the image of Priapus matched the Roman use of images of male genitalia for warding off evil. The Roman gesture “made by extending the third finger from a closed fist”, thus made the same threat, by forming a similarly phallic shape.

A BBC News Magazine report similarly traces the gesture back to Ancient Greek philosophers ( here ).

In a book on the battle of Agincourt, Anne Curry, Professor Emeritus of Medieval History at the University of Southampton, addressed a similar claim prescribed to the “V-sign”, also considered an offensive gesture:

“No chronicle or sixteenth-century history says that English archers made any gesture to the French after the battle in order to show they still had their fingers. There is no evidence that, when captured in any scenario, archers had their finger cut off by the enemy” ( bit.ly/3dP2PhP ).

In 1999, Snopes debunked more of the historical aspects of the claim, as well as the component explaining how the phrase “pluck yew” gradually changed form to begin with an “f” ( here ).


4. Makeup of the Forces

Henry deployed an army of approximately 7,000 longbowmen and 1,500 men-at-arms. Henry divided his army into groups of three - he led the main battle, Duke of York led the vanguard and Lord Camoys led the rearguard. Thomas Erpingham marshaled the archers. The French army was larger than the English. The number of the men-at-arms were 8,000, as well as 1,500 crossbowmen and 4,000 archers. It also had two wings that comprised of 800 and 600 men-at-arms and the main battle having many knights. Thousands of troops were also in the rearguard. The French force was organized in three lines. Charles d’Albretled was in the first line. Dukes of Bar led the second line and the third line led by Counts of Dammartin.


Why the Battle of Agincourt is still important today

Outnumbered and outmanoeuvred, when Henry V won the Battle of Agincourt it was a famous victory in the Hundred Years War between the English and the French. And it was all because of the humble longbow. Now, on the 600th anniversary of the Battle, Linda Davies explains how it her new book, Longbow Girl, plus shares some fun facts about the longbow that we bet you never knew!

Laurence Olivier in his film version of Henry V. Photograph: ITV/Rex/Shutterstock

Laurence Olivier in his film version of Henry V. Photograph: ITV/Rex/Shutterstock

Last modified on Thu 22 Feb 2018 14.23 GMT

The Battle of Agincourt has caught the imagination of many writers over the centuries and it was one of the inspirations behind my novel, Longbow Girl. Why does it have such power?

Along with the battle of Crécy in 1346 and the Battle of Poitiers in 1356, the Battle of Agincourt in 1415 was one of the three legendary victories for the English against the French during The Hundred Years’ War. This long-running war was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by England against France as the English Kings tried to win French territory and the French throne for themselves

In the lead up to the Battle of Agincourt, it looked as if King Henry V was leading his army to disaster.

Two months earlier, the King had crossed the English Channel with 11,000 men and put siege to Harfleur in Normandy. After five weeks the town surrendered but half of Henry’s men had died in battle or of disease. Henry needed to flee back to England. He headed northeast to Calais where he aimed to meet the English fleet and sail home. But on the way he marched into a trap! At Agincourt, a massive French army of twenty thousand men were waiting, hugely outnumbering the exhausted English archers, knights, and men-at-arms.

And it wasn’t just any old army waiting for him. The cream of the French Aristocracy had gathered to inflict what they thought would be a massacre on the English. The great prize was to be King Henry himself who they aimed to capture and ransom for a fortune.

Only it didn’t work out that way.

Against all the odds, King Henry V triumphed over a fresh army four times bigger than his own because, arguably, King Henry’s forces had the longbow. The massively powerful longbows were the medieval equivalent of modern machine guns. They could wound at four hundred yards, kill at two hundred and penetrate armour at one hundred yards. The five thousand longbowmen, each loosing fifteen arrows a minute, let fly a total of seventy five thousand arrows in one minute: an arrow storm that was said to have blocked out the light of the sun. It caused thousands of casualties directly but also indirectly, by maddening the French horses, which trampled the close-packed ranks of French foot soldiers.

So if one thing could be said to have won the “unwinnable” Battle of Agincourt, it was the Anglo-Welsh Longbowmen. Traditionally, the glory of victory had always been assumed by the aristocracy, the Knights and the Men-at Arms, not by the yeomen or peasant archers. The Battles of Crécy, Poitiers and Agincourt changed the martial balance of power between the nobility and the yeomen, or peasant farmers who wielded the longbow. The idea that strength and skill could triumph over wealth and status was a revolutionary one.

I loved the idea of these humble men changing the course of history with a simple piece of wood. Particularly since from the age of eight, I’d been practicing with my own simple piece of wood.

Linda Davies and her longbow

That was when my father gave me my first longbow. I loved shooting at targets, honing my skill. There’s something very visceral about shooting a bow and hearing the thwack as your arrow hits the bull’s eye (or the Gold as archers call it.) As an adult, shooting my bow, I wondered about a young girl, a longbow girl, and what it would have been like for her to have had to use her weapon for real, maybe to save her life, maybe to save her whole family’s life. And so began Longbow Girl.


Videoni tomosha qiling: Куликовская битва (Iyul 2022).


Izohlar:

  1. Ameretat

    Internetdagi har qanday veb-saytning muvaffaqiyati uning har kuni yangilanishidadir. Sizning holatlaringizda, bu shunchaki zarur, shundan keyingina sizga doimiy tashrif buyuruvchilar bo'ladi. Bu xuddi mashinada bo'lgani kabi, siz doimo benzin idishiga benzin qo'shishingiz kerak, keyin mashina harakatda bo'ladi. Men buni bir sababga ko'ra yozyapman, men o'z veb-saytiga ega bo'lgan odam sifatida yozyapman.

  2. Garron

    Men sizning fikringizga to'liq qo'shilaman. Unda bir narsa ham ajoyib g'oya, siz bilan roziman.

  3. Amory

    Tabriklayman, bu ajoyib g'oya, darvoqe, kerak

  4. Shaughn

    Your opinion is your opinion

  5. Nathraichean

    Men xato qilayotganingizni ko'rib chiqaman. Muhokama qilaylik. Menga kechqurun yozing.

  6. Talib

    Qanday qilib?

  7. Petrov

    What a lovely phrase



Xabar yozing