We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
O'rta asrlarning birinchi Islandiya hukumati yoki Viking Islandiya demokratiya yoki demokratik parlamentarizmning boshlang'ich shakli deb nomlangan, biroq, bu tizim, aslida, o'rta asr yoki zamonaviy bo'lsada, evropalik hamkasblariga o'xshamagan. Tarixshunoslik "erkin davlat" atamasini afzal ko'radi. Nomidan ko'rinib turibdiki, bu davlatchilikning ba'zi elementlari bo'lgan, lekin unchalik davlat bo'lmagan, erkin tashkil etilgan siyosiy sub'ektga tegishli. Aksincha, Islandiyadagi kolonistlar, ularning qahramonlari doston adabiyot, ko'p jihatdan fuqaroligi bo'lmagan jamiyatni yaratdi. Ularda aniq belgilangan sud tizimi va qonunchilar kengashi bor edi (lögrétta), lekin hech bir podshoh va hech kim sud qarorlarini amalda qo'llamaydi. Boshliqlar va oddiy odamlar o'rtasida farq bor edi, lekin boshqa joylardagi kabi katta emas. Boshliqlar kam ijro etuvchi hokimiyatga ega edi va hech bo'lmaganda 10-11 -asrlarda ular ierarxik tarzda tashkil qilinmagan. Ko'chmanchilar Norvegiya va boshqa mintaqalarni tark etib, o'z hayotlarini Evropaning boshqa joylarida bo'lmaganidek boshlashdi.
Kolonistlar (landnámnsmenn Eski Norvegiyada) qit'adan siyosiy an'analar bilan kelgan va ularning ko'pchiligi bir xil ijtimoiy tabaqadan chiqqan. Islandiya kontinental vikinglar jamiyatining aristokratik qatlamidan va umuman lashkarboshilar, quloqlar, erkinlar va qisman erkin erkaklar ierarxiyasidan voz kechdi. Islandiya elitalar va ularning rollariga unchalik qiziqmagan er egalari fermalari jamiyatiga aylandi. Darhaqiqat, ularni birinchi navbatda haydab yuborgan bo'lishi mumkin. Ular hokimiyatni ma'lum guruhlarga to'plashdan qochishga harakat qilishdi va ularning har biri boshqalarni nazorat qilish huquqiga ega bo'lishdi. Boshliqlar (g'or Eski Norvegiyada) katta hokimiyatdan foyda ko'rdi, lekin bu rol vaqtinchalik edi va hududiy emas edi. Bu ularning qancha izdoshlari borligiga, agar ular nizolarda yordam taklif qilsalar, qonunni bajara olsalar va etarlicha obro'ga ega bo'lsalar, bog'liq edi. Skandinaviyada dehqonlar qirollar va boshqa rahbarlarning tobora kuchayib borayotgan huquqlaridan mahrum bo'lganlarida, Islandiyaliklar markazlashgan davlatni rad etishdi. Jessi Byokning so'zlari bilan aytganda, bu "o'z-o'zini cheklaydigan davlat tuzilishining namunasi" ni ifodalaydi (Islandiya Viking davri, 66), demak, ular rivojlanishni emas, balki birgalikda yashashning oddiy shakllariga qaytishni xohlashgan.
Dehqonlar o'z sadoqatini bir boshliqdan boshqasiga o'tkazishi mumkin edi, hokimiyat kontsentratsiyasining oldini olish mumkin edi va hokimiyat juda erkin tushuncha edi.
Mahalliy nufuzli erkaklarni etakchi sifatida ko'rish mumkin, faqat kichik miqyosda. Ba'zi boshliqlar, lekin dehqonlar (bnndr Old Skandinaviya) boshqalarga qaraganda ko'proq boylik va obro'ga ega edi, shuning uchun ular martabali jamiyatlarga o'xshash edi. Boshliqlarning qullari, ijarachilari yoki ishchilari bo'lishi mumkin edi, ammo qullik XI asrda yo'q bo'lib ketdi. Go'gar odatda boylik va maqom uchun emas, balki izdoshlari uchun ham kurashgan.narsa Qadimgi Norvegiyada), ular hukmronlikni tasdiqlash uchun juda muhim edi. Ular bahs -munozaralarda hakamlik qilishdi, bu sizni o'ldirishi mumkin bo'lgan xavfli ish edi, lekin iqtisodiy foyda hisobga olinsa, xavfga arziydi. Ular mulkni topshirishdi, dehqonlarga qarz berishdi va sovg'alar berish orqali obro'sini oshirishdi, bu amaliyot ittifoqlarni birlashtirdi. Ular ehtiyotkorlik bilan rejalashtirilgan ziyofatlar o'tkazdilar, ayniqsa o'rim -yig'im paytida, ular saxiylik va ahamiyatini namoyish etdilar.
Ko'rinib turibdiki, boshliqlar nisbatan oddiy iqtisodiyot va resurslarning etishmasligi tufayli biz kutganimizdan ancha kam daromad olgan. Erni yoki chorva mollarini ijaraga berishdan tashqari, asosiy boylik manbai nizolarni hal qilish va hal qilish edi. Texnik jihatdan dehqonlar ham shunday qilishlari mumkin edi, lekin boshliqlar malakali edilar, chunki ular qonunni yaxshi bilar edilar. Shunga qaramay, fermerlar kabi, ijtimoiy to'siqlarni engib o'tish mumkin edi Go'gar, va daraja qonun va konventsiyaga bog'liq edi. Dehqonlar o'z sadoqatini bir boshliqdan boshqasiga o'tkazishi mumkin edi, hokimiyatning kontsentratsiyasidan qochildi va hokimiyat juda erkin tushuncha edi. Bu vaziyat 13 -asrda, boshqa omillar qatorida o'rta asr cherkovi tomonidan rag'batlantirilib, kichik guruhlar ko'proq kuchga ega bo'lgach, o'zgaradi.
Fuqaroligi bo'lmagan jamiyat
Iqtisodiyot oddiy edi, asosiy birlik o'zini boqish, ovlash va yig'ish bilan bog'liq bo'lgan o'zini o'zi ta'minlaydigan xo'jalik edi. Shaharlar yo'q edi va nizolar ba'zida janjal bilan hal bo'lardi. Islandiyaliklar davlat tuzishga qodir emasmidi? Ehtimol, ularga qiziqish yo'q edi. 10 -asrda otliqlar ancha tashabbuskor edilar; ular Angliyaning bir qismini bosib olib, joylashdilar va Vizantiya imperiyasigacha savdo yo'llarini o'rnatdilar. Islandiyaga ko'chmanchilar kelganida, biz ular bilan Skandinaviya jamoalari ijtimoiy kodeksining muhim qismini olib yurgan deb taxmin qilishimiz kerak. Buni o'rta asr adabiyotida keng qo'llanilgan, norozilik va raqobat urug'lari, mulk va mulkka oid murakkab qonunlarda ko'rish mumkin. dostonlar.
Islandiya jamiyati, boshqa tomondan, urush boshliqlari va erlari bo'lgan qabilalardan farqli o'laroq, ma'lum bir hududda o'rnatilgan hokimiyat bilan ajralib turardi. Islandiyaliklar Viking madaniyatining bir qismini - harbiy jasorat, fathlar va qirollikdan voz kechib, uning o'rniga konsensusni tanladilar. Dehqonlar hech bir boshliq hech qachon hukmronlik qilmasligi va xo'jayinga aylanmasligiga rozi bo'lishdi. Ularning tashkil etilishi davlatchilik o'rnini bosadigan ijtimoiy munosabatlarga asoslangan edi. Qanchalik orzu qilsa ham, u jiddiy tushishlardan xoli emas edi. Qarindoshlik, ittifoqchilik yoki do'stlik natijasida shakllangan murakkab ijtimoiy kelishmovchiliklar nizolarga chek qo'yishi mumkin, lekin zo'ravonlikdan qochmasligi mumkin. Sagas nizolar qaytmay qolguncha kuchayib, o'limga olib kelgan holatlarni aytib bering.
Haftalik bepul elektron pochta xabarnomasiga yoziling!
Qonun va tartib
Islandiya kambag'al resurslar uchun kurashayotgan erkin muhojirlar jamiyati edi. Ular o'z hokimiyatini kengaytirishga intilgan qirollar oddiy dehqonlarning huquqlariga tahdid solayotgan bir paytda hijrat qilishgan. Bu shuni anglatadiki, ular ota -onalik jamiyatidan ajralib, bir xil tizimni qurishga qiziqish bildirmagan. 9-asrda orol jozibali bo'lib tuyuldi, chunki Evropaning boshqa joylarida Buyuk Alfred (871-899 yillar) kabi hukmdorlar Angliyada viking bosqinchilariga qarshi kampaniyalarni olib borishgan. Ko'pchilik ko'chmanchilar kelgan Norvegiyada qirol Xarald Feyxayr (harfagri, r. v. 872-933) janubi -sharqdan butun mintaqani nazorat qilmoqchi bo'ldilar va shimoldagi Trondelagdan tushgan pichoqlar bilan birga bo'ysundirilgan dehqonlar va mahalliy harbiy rahbarlar. podshoh.
Islandiyalik yozuvchi Snorri Sturluson 13 -asrda qirol Xaraldning zulmi odamlarni quvib chiqarganini yozadi. Snorri bo'rttirgan bo'lishi mumkin bo'lsa -da, bu milliy afsonaning bir qismi: ierarxik tuzilmalarni rad etish va "Althing" deb nomlangan ibtidoiy parlamentni o'rnatish.
Qirol Xaraldr, qaerda hokimiyatga ega bo'lsa, hamma erlarga egalik qilishini da'vo qildi va har bir dehqonga qudratli bo'ladimi -yo'qmi, er uchun soliq to'ladi. U har bir viloyatga jar tayinladi, u qonun bo'yicha hukm chiqarar, jarima va er solig'ini yig'ar edi; jarl ovqat va yashash xarajatlari uchun soliqning uchdan bir qismini ushlab turardi. Har bir jarlning ostida to'rt yoki undan ortiq garson bo'lishi kerak edi va har birining daromadi yigirma marka edi. Har bir jarl podsho armiyasini oltmish askar bilan, har bir podshoh yigirma kishidan beradi. (Xaymskringla ch. 6, tr. Jessi Byok, 54).
Odamlar birinchi marta Islandiyaga kelganlarida, ular faqat irland rohiblarini topdilar, keyin esa ular chiqib ketishdi. Erta er katta erlarni egalladi, bu esa keyinchalik yangi kelganlar bilan tortishuvga sabab bo'ldi. The Landnamabok, yoki Hisob -kitoblar kitobi, bizga aytadiki, shoh Xaraldga aralashish so'ralgan va u hech kim bir kun ichida o't olib keta oladigan kattaroq maydonga ega bo'lmaslikka qaror qilgan. Keyingi avlodlarda erlar ko'plab fermer xo'jaliklari o'rtasida bo'linib ketdi, shuning uchun hech kim haqiqiy hokimiyatni talab qila olmadi. Geografiya vassal tuzumini ham rag'batlantirmadi, shuning uchun tez orada xususiy mulk foydasiga qaramlik rishtalari yo'qoldi. Tashqi tahdidlarning yo'qligi, shuningdek, lordlar hukmronlik qiladigan mudofaa tarmoqlarining shakllanishiga to'sqinlik qildi. Biroq, aholi sonining ko'payishi bilan umumiy qonunga ehtiyoj aniq bo'ldi.
Assambleyalar va sudlar
Umumiy yig'ilish - "Hammasi" tashkil etildi. Tarixchi Ari ma'lumotiga ko'ra Islendigabok, yoki Islandiyaliklar kitobi, Olflyot ismli odam 920 -yillarda Gula assambleyasining g'arbiy norvegiyaliklari qonunlarini Islandiya talablariga moslashtirish, huquqiy masalalarni aniqlashtirish va qonun kodeksini qaytarish uchun Norvegiyaga borgan. Bunga o'xshashlik yo'qligi sababli Gragas, XIII asrda ishlatilgan, lekin, ehtimol, eski qonunlarni saqlagan, kulrang g'oz qonuni, Arining hikoyasi unchalik ishonarli emas. Qanday bo'lmasin, yig'ilish tuzildi va 39 kishi bo'ldi g'or, ularning qarindoshlik va mahalliy obro'siga asoslangan. Bu atama bosh ruhoniy degan ma'noni anglatishi mumkin edi, va ruhoniylik tan olinmaganligi uchun ular rasmiy qurbonliklar qilishgan. Boshliqlar mahalliy aholini ushlab turishlari kerak edi narsalar (majlislar), va 10 -asrga kelib, ehtimol, ulardan 13 tasi bor edi.
Barcha boshliqlar va ularning narsalar odamlari janubi -g'arbda Thingvöllr (tekislik) dagi Althing yozgi yig'ilishida yig'ilishdi. Bu o'sha paytda qonun kengashi edi (lögrétta Eski Norvegiyada) uchrashdi, qonunlarni qabul qildi yoki ko'rib chiqdi. Sud Islandiyaning tashqi ishlarda ham vakili edi. Hamma narsa ochiq edi, odamlar uchta aylanada skameykada o'tirishardi. Xristianlikni qabul qilgandan so'ng, bu erda kichik bir cherkov qurilgan, bundan tashqari odamlar chodirlarda yoki maysazorda yashagan. Qonun ma'ruzachisidan boshqa rasmiylar yo'q edi (lösögumaðr), uch yillik muddatga. Nomidan ko'rinib turibdiki, uning asosiy vazifasi qonunlarning uchdan bir qismini yoddan o'qish edi va uning obro'siga qaramay, funktsiyaga hech qanday haqiqiy kuch qo'shilmagan. Yana bir ajoyib pozitsiya bor edi, lekin yana vakolatsiz. Oliy boshliq (allherjargoði) hamma narsani ulug'lashi va yig'ilish bo'limlarini cheklashi kerak edi. Bu ofis Islandiyaning birinchi ko'chmanchisi Ingolfr Arnarsonning o'g'li Torshteynning vorislariga tegishli edi.
960 -yillarda, halokatli to'qnashuvdan so'ng, ba'zi islohotlar amalga oshirildi. Odam o'ldirish holatlari, yashirin va sharmandali jinoyat bo'lgan qotillikdan farqli o'laroq, Altinga mahalliy yig'ilishlar o'rniga olib kelinadi. Chorak sudlar o'tkazildi va orol ham to'rt chorakka bo'lingan. G'arbiy, janubiy va sharqiy kvartallarda har birining uchta boshlig'i boshchiligidagi uchta yig'ilish bor edi, lekin shimoliy geografiyasi tufayli qo'shimcha yig'ildi. Altingdagi potentsial nomutanosiblik yana uchta qo'shib tuzatildi gogi har chorakdan boshliqlarning umumiy sonini 48 taga etkazdi. Yangi boshliqlar sudyalarni tayinlash huquqiga ega emas edilar. Bu yanada markazlashgan huquqiy tizimni keltirib chiqardi, lekin shu bilan birga, boshliq va dehqon o'rtasidagi munosabatlarga asoslanib, mamlakat ancha markazlashtirilmagan bo'lib qoldi.
Yana bir islohot chorak yig'ilishi edi (fjórðungathing) har chorakning ishlari bilan shug'ullanadi, garchi bu haqda kam narsa ma'lum bo'lsa va uni Althing sudlari yashirgan bo'lsa. Qur'a tashlash orqali tanlangan hakamlar hay'ati faktlarni tortib, hukm chiqarishi kerak edi. Jarayon protsedura qoidalariga ega edi va hamma uchun ochiq edi. Har kimning sudga murojaat qilish huquqi bor edi, ammo muvaffaqiyat qozonish sizning qo'llab -quvvatlashingizni qanchalik jalb qilishingizga bog'liq edi. Mojaroni hal qilish boshliqlar o'rtasida muzokaralarni talab qildi. 1005 yilda beshinchi sud qo'shildi.fimtardom), chunki jarayonlar tiqilib qolganda. Bu tizimning oxirgi islohoti ikkita episkopning qo'shilishi edi lögrétta.
Yakkalik janglari unchalik tez -tez bo'lmagan va XI asrda qonunga xilof bo'lgan.
Bu sudlar nafaqat qabul qilingan ijtimoiy buyurtmaning ifodasi, balki boshliqlarning o'z ambitsiyalarini ilgari surishlari uchun qulay muhit edi. Ular fermerlar bilan nizolarni hal qilish, hokimiyatni muhokama qilish, pozitsiyalarni himoya qilish, izdoshlarini yig'ish uchun uchrashishdi. Bunday harakatlar juda muhim edi, chunki Islandiyada hukmni amalga oshirish uchun ijro etuvchi hokimiyat yo'q edi. Sudlarning barcha protseduralari bilan murakkab tuzilishi, shuningdek, hal qilishning boshqa usullarini ham nazarda tutgan. Tomonlar murosaga kelishlari mumkin edi va hatto bir partiya taklif qilishi mumkin edi sjálfdæmi, boshqa tomonga murosa shartlarini belgilashga ruxsat berish. Yagona jang, yoki yurishBu unchalik tez -tez bo'lmagan va 11 -asrda qonunga xilof bo'lgan. Muzokara yanada jozibali edi.
Xafa bo'lganlar, shuningdek, qon janjalini, mavzuni tanlashlari mumkin edi dostonlar kashf qilishni yoqtiradi. Biroq, qasos olish qarindoshlar va izdoshlarning qo'llab -quvvatlashiga bog'liq edi va ko'pincha tartibsiz va cheksiz bo'lib qoladi, shuning uchun tomonlar nihoyat sudga murojaat qilishlari kerak edi. Arbitrajning kamroq rasmiy variantiga boshqa neytral odamlar jalb qilingan. Arbitraj har kimga xavfli vaziyatlardan voz kechishga va maqbul qarorni qabul qilishga imkon berdi.
Islandiyadan farqli o'laroq, Norvegiyada shohlar, harbiy rahbarlar yoki ruhoniylarning vazifalari va rollari hisobga olingan tizim mavjud edi. 10 -asrda Islandiyaliklar nemis dunyosida skandinaviya jamiyatining barcha qatlamlari bo'lmagan erkin odamlarning eski huquqlarini ishlab chiqdilar. Ular oddiy odamlarning mahalliy yig'ilishlari haqidagi eski g'oyani kengaytirdilar va ularni qit'ada o'sib borayotgan markazlashgan va piramidal shohliklar o'rniga ishlatdilar. Bu shuni anglatadiki, erta Islandiya reytingga kiritilmagan, ammo Islandiya boshliqlari Skandinaviyadagi hamkasblariga qaraganda ancha kam vakolatga ega edi. 13 -asrda hukmdorlar hukmronligiga qadar, ijtimoiy harakatchanlik uchun rasmiy to'siq yo'q edi. Biroq, boshlig'i o'z qobiliyatlarini isbotlashi kerak edi narsalar odamlari atrofida. Do'stlik uchun pul to'lash kerak edi; orolning cheklangan boyligini hisobga olgan holda, hamma narsani qilish har doim ham oson emas.
Islandiyadagi janjal ham o'ziga xos xususiyatlarga ega edi. Qit'adan farqli o'laroq, bu erda ommaviy ish bo'lgan. Islandiyaliklar qit'adan olib kelgan harbiy qadriyatlarining bir qismini saqlab qolishdi; ular shafqatsiz jangchilar sifatida namoyon bo'lishlari mumkin edi, lekin jangda tasvirlangan dostonlar ular kichik oilalarga tegishli. Tinchroq joy va shu bilan birga qo'pol tabiatga duch kelgan ko'chmanchilar tez orada o'zini tutishning muhimligini tushundilar. Ba'zida kichik guruhlar ba'zi raqiblarni o'ldirishga undagan bo'lishi mumkin edi, lekin janjallar hech qachon keng ko'lamli ochiq jang darajasiga etib bormagan. Buyuk Islandiya qishlog'ida, vositachi sifatida harakat qilish yoki muammoli xulq -atvorni qo'lga kiritish sharaf va obro'ga ega edi.
Qonun va janjal hikoyasi
Ichida Eyri xalqining dostoni (Eyrbyggja dostoni), Arnkel gogi u Arnkel dushmani bilan ittifoqchi bo'lgan boshqa dehqonlarni xafa qilib, huquqi bo'lmagan mulkni olishga qaror qiladi. Hikoya Islandiyaning g'arbiy qismidagi kichik Snofellsnes viloyatida sodir bo'ladi. Bolstadr, Arnkel fermasi, uning ambitsiyalarini qo'llab -quvvatlash uchun juda kichik. U ko'zlarini fyordning eng chekkasida joylashgan Karsstadjir fermasida, o'tloqlar va lososlar bilan tikdi. Bu erda yashovchi Torbrandning o'g'illari Arnkelning hududiy ambitsiyasini his qilishadi, bu g'arbda mulkka da'vogarlik qilganda va uning boshlig'i Snorri yashaydigan va yig'ilish o'tkaziladigan shimolda Xelgafellga boradigan yo'lini kesib tashlaganida tasdiqlanadi.
Arnkelning otasi Torolf Viking edi, u duel orqali ko'p erlarni sotib olgan. Keyinchalik u erlarning bir qismini Torbrand ozod qilgan Ulfar va Orligga sotdi. Bir kuni Ulfar Torolfga pichanning bir qismini o'g'irlab ketishga duch keladi, lekin eski vikinglar qulini uyiga o't qo'yib, uni o'ldirmoqchi bo'lishadi. O'limdan qo'rqib, Ulfar o'zini Arnkel himoyasiga qo'yadi va o'z mol -mulkini evaziga unga topshiradi. Torbrandning o'g'illari bundan unchalik xursand emaslar, chunki ular o'zlarini fermasining xo'jayinlari deb bilishadi. Bu erda qonun noaniq edi, agar sobiq qul boshqarolmasa yoki o'g'illari bo'lmasa, sobiq egasi merosxo'rga aylanishi mumkin edi. Ulfarning farzandi yo'q, lekin uning ahvoli yaxshi.
Torbrandning o'g'illari boshliq emaslar, shuning uchun ular eski vikinglarga qarshi kuchlari kam. Birodarlar Arnkelni to'g'ridan -to'g'ri yig'ilishga chaqirishning o'rniga, ular sodiq boshliq Snorridan yordam so'rashadi. Arnkelning otasi Ulfarni o'ldirmoqchi bo'lgan qullarining o'limidan g'azablanib, Snorri oldiga ham boradi. U ular uchun hech qanday kompensatsiya olmadi va o'g'lidan qasos olish uchun Torolf Arnkelning raqibi bilan savdolashishga tayyor. Snorri o'g'liga qimmatbaho o'rmonli mulkni topshirgandan so'ng, Torolf o'g'lini sudga berishga rozi bo'ladi. Sudda, Snorri, Arnkel Ulfarning uyini yondirib, keyin emas, balki qullarni o'ldirishi kerakligini aytdi. Hakamlik sudidan so'ng Arnkel Snorriga ozgina pul to'lab, Torolfni bundan ham g'azablantirdi, chunki u buning uchun o'z eridan voz kechdi. Arnkel ham g'azablangan, chunki otasi qonuniy mulkini noqonuniy ravishda topshirgan.
O'rmon ustidan nazoratni mustahkamlash uchun, u bir kuni Snorrining o'tin olib ketayotgan odamlaridan birini o'ldiradi. Bu orada u Ulfarning akasi Orligning mulkini ham bu safar noqonuniy ravishda egallab oladi. U Karsstagir fermasiga yaqinlashmoqda. Torbrandning xo'rlangan o'g'illari bu safar ham Snorridan yordam olishmaydi, lekin agar u jim tursa, o'z hokimiyatini saqlay olmaslikda ayblansa, xavotirga tushadi. Ulfar Torolfning odamlaridan biri tomonidan o'ldiriladi, Arnkel o'z mulkini mamnuniyat bilan talab qiladi. U Torbrandning o'g'illarini unga qarshi chiqmasliklarini ogohlantiradi. Snorri o'z izdoshlariga, oxir -oqibat, mulk ularning xo'jaliklari va Arnkel xo'jaliklari orasida ekanligini va kuchliroq bo'lishini eslatadi. Arnkel juda kuchli bo'lib qoldi va deyarli barcha fyordni nazorat qila boshladi, lekin Torbrandning o'g'illari boshqa boshliqning qo'llab -quvvatlashiga ega va Arnkel faqat bir necha qullari bilan pichaniga g'amxo'rlik qilganda, zarba berishini kutishadi.
Hikoyada, rahbar o'z ambitsiyalarini eng yuqori cho'qqisiga chiqarganda, qanday xavf -xatarlarga duch kelishi ko'rsatilgan. Dehqonlarni aldash mumkin edi, lekin ularni e'tiborsiz qoldirib bo'lmaydi. Fermerlar o'z huquqlarini himoya qilishni bilishlari kerak edi. Ham murosa, ham zo'ravonlik variantlari edi, lekin to'g'ri qo'llab -quvvatlash va o'z vaqtida. Bunday hikoyalar, boshliqlar juda ko'p vaqt davomida juda katta kuchga ega bo'lish ehtimoli pastligini ko'rsatadi.
QISQA ISLAND TARIXI
Islandiyaga birinchi bo'lib joylashgan odamlar, ehtimol, 8 -asrda kelgan Irland rohiblari bo'lgan. Biroq, 9 -asrda ular vikinglar tomonidan quvilgan.
An'anaga ko'ra, Islandiyani kashf etgan birinchi vikinglar Nadoddur ismli odam bo'lib, u Farer orollariga ketayotib adashgan. Uning ortidan Gardar Svavarsson ismli shved Islandiyani 860 yil atrofida aylanib chiqdi. Ammo vikinglarning birinchi urinishi Floki Vilgeroarson ismli norvegiyalik bo'lgan. U shimoli -g'arbga qo'ndi, lekin qattiq qish uy hayvonlarini o'ldirdi va u Norvegiyaga qaytib ketdi. Biroq, u erga o'z nomini berdi. U buni Islandiya deb atadi.
Keyin 874 yildan boshlab Islandiyaga Norvegiyadan va Britaniya orollaridagi Viking koloniyalaridan ko'plab ko'chmanchilar kelgan. Ingolfur Arnarson ismli norvegiyalik ularni boshqargan. U oilasi, qullari va hayvonlari bilan suzib ketdi.
U Islandiyani ko'rganida, Ingolfur yog'och ustunlarini xudolariga bag'ishlagan va keyin ularni dengizga tashlagan. U dengiz ularni yuvgan joyga joylashishga qasam ichdi. Keyin u Islandiyani o'rganib chiqdi. Postlar Islandiyaning janubi -g'arbiy qismida topilganda, Ingolfur va uning oilasi o'sha erga joylashdilar. U bu joyni Reykyavik, ya'ni Smokey ko'rfazi deb atagan. Boshqa ko'plab vikinglar uning ortidan Islandiyaga kelishdi.
Islandiyadagi er kim xohlasa, tekin edi. Erkak bir kun ichida olov yoqishi mumkin bo'lgan erni, ayol esa bir kunlik g'unajinni aylanib yurishi mumkin bo'lgan erni talab qilishi mumkin edi.
Islandiya atrofida juda yaxshi baliq ovlash joylari bor edi va bu er qo'ylarga juda mos edi. Ko'p vikinglar o'zlari bilan podalarni olib kelishdi va tez orada qo'ylar Islandiyaning asosiy sanoatiga aylandi. Islandiya aholisi ko'payib ketdi. Taxminan 930 yilga kelib Islandiyada 60 mingga yaqin odam yashagan. Avvaliga islandiyaliklarni Godar deb nomlangan boshliqlar boshqargan, biroq mahalliy yig'ilishlar bo'lgan. Taxminan 930 yilda Islandiyaliklar butun orol uchun "Althing" deb nomlangan yig'in yaratdilar.
O'rta asrlarda Islandiya
XI asrda norvegiyaliklar nasroniylikni qabul qilishdi. Norvegiya qirollari missionerlarni Islandiyaga yuborishdi. Ba'zi Islandiyaliklar yangi dinni qabul qilishdi, lekin ko'pchilik bunga qattiq qarshilik qilishdi. Oxir -oqibat, "hamma narsa" qonunining spikeri bo'lgan Torgeir ismli odam, ehtimol, ular o'rtasida fuqarolar urushi bo'lishi mumkinligini tushundi. U Norvegiya aralashuvidan ham qo'rqqan bo'lishi mumkin. (Norvegiyaliklar odamlarni zo'rlik bilan nasroniylikka aylantirishga tayyor edilar!). U odamlarni murosa qilishga ko'ndirdi. Xristianlik Islandiyaning "rasmiy" diniga aylandi, lekin butparastlarga o'z xudolariga yakka o'zi sig'inishga ruxsat berildi.
Islandiyada 1097 kishi cherkovga ushr to'lashi kerak edi (boshqacha aytganda, mahsulotining o'ndan bir qismini to'lashi kerak edi). Natijada cherkov boy va qudratli bo'lib o'sdi. Butparastlik yo'q qilindi va monastirlar qurildi. Islandiyaga 1056 yilda episkop berildi. 1106 yilda shimolda Xolarda yana bir episkop tuzildi.
Ammo 1152 yilda Islandiya cherkovi Norvegiya arxiyepiskopi tasarrufiga o'tdi. O'sha kunlarda cherkov davlat bilan chambarchas bog'liq edi. Islandiya cherkovi Norvegiya cherkoviga bo'ysunganida, bu Norvegiya qirolining Islandiyada ta'siri asta -sekin o'sib borayotganini anglatardi.
XII asrda Islandiyada sharoit yomonlashdi. Bu qisman chorva mollarining haddan tashqari ko'payib ketganligi bilan bog'liq bo'lishi mumkin. O'rmonlar ham kesildi va natijada tuproq eroziyasi yuz berdi. Kemalar qurish uchun yog'och yo'qligi sababli, islandlar norvegiyalik savdogarlarga qaram edilar. O'sha paytda Islandiyadan jun, hayvon terisi, ot va lochin eksport qilinar edi. Pivo tayyorlash uchun yog'och, asal va solod import qilindi. Ba'zi Islandiyaliklar savdoni himoya qilish uchun Norvegiya qiroliga murojaat qila boshladilar.
Islandiya Hamdo'stligi klanlar o'rtasidagi janjal tufayli ham buzildi. Keyin 1218 yilda Snorri Sturlung ismli kishi Norvegiyaga tashrif buyurdi va Norvegiya qirolining Islandiyadagi manfaatlarini qo'llab -quvvatlashga rozi bo'ldi. U 1220 yilda uyga qaytdi. Shu bilan birga, Norvegiyada tug'ilgan episkoplar ham Norvegiya qirolining Islandiyani boshqarish haqidagi ambitsiyalarini qo'llab -quvvatladilar.
Ammo klanlar o'rtasidagi janjal tufayli hamdo'stlik tugadi. Islandiyaliklar tinchlikni juda xohlashdi va oxir -oqibat Norvegiya podshosiga bo'ysunish unga erishishning yagona yo'lini tushunishdi.
1262 yilda "Hamma narsa" tomonidan "Qadimgi ahd" deb nomlangan shartnoma qabul qilindi. Islandiyaliklar har yili jun mato uchun soliq to'lashga rozi bo'lishdi. Buning evaziga qirol Islandiyada qonun va tartibni saqlashga va'da berdi. U Godarning o‘rnini qirol amaldorlari bilan almashtirdi. 1280 yilda yangi konstitutsiya tuzildi. Hamma yig'ilishda davom etdi, lekin uning qarorlari qirol tomonidan tasdiqlanishi kerak edi. Bundan tashqari, qirol hukmronlik qilish uchun gubernator va 12 ta mahalliy sherifni tayinladi. Bu orada Islandiyada qullik asta -sekin yo'q bo'lib ketdi.
XIV -XV asr boshlari Islandiya uchun mashaqqatli yillar. 14 -asr boshlarida iqlim sovuqlashdi. Keyin 1402-03 yillarda Islandiyaga qora o'lim keldi va aholi vayron bo'ldi.
Biroq, XV asrda farovonlik qaytdi. O'sha paytda Evropada cod Islandiga katta talab bor edi va Islandiya baliqchilik sohasida boyib ketdi. Islandiyaliklar inglizlar va nemislar bilan savdo qilishgan. (O'sha paytda yagona nemis millati yo'q edi, lekin Germaniya portlari Gansa Ligasi federatsiyasida birlashtirildi).
1397 yilda Norvegiya Daniya bilan birlashdi. Keyin Islandiya Daniya toji tomonidan boshqarildi.
16 -asrda Islandiya, boshqa Evropada bo'lgani kabi, islohotlarga ta'sir qildi. 1530 -yillarda Daniya protestantga aylandi va 1539 yilda Daniya qiroli o'z odamlariga Islandiyadagi cherkov erini tortib olishni buyurdi. Islandiya episkoplari qarshilik ko'rsatdilar va 1541 yilda Daniya qiroli muvofiqlikni ta'minlash uchun ekspeditsiya yubordi. Skalxoltga yangi episkop berildi, ammo Jon Aranson ismli Xolar episkopi qarshilik ko'rsatishda davom etdi. U kuchli boshliq va episkop edi va uning uchun jang qilish uchun askarlari bor edi. Bundan tashqari, uni qo'llab -quvvatlagan kanizakning ikkita o'g'li bor edi. 1548 yilda Aranson noqonuniy deb e'lon qilindi. Keyin uning askarlari Skalxoltning protestant episkopini qo'lga olishdi. Biroq, 1550 yilda u mag'lubiyatga uchradi. Aranson va uning ikki o'g'li qatl qilindi.
Keyin Islandiya xalqi asta -sekin protestantizmni qabul qildi va 1584 yilda Injil Islandiyaga tarjima qilindi.
17 -asrda Islandiyaliklar qiyinchiliklarga duch kelishdi. 1602 yilda qirol Islandiya bilan barcha savdolarni Kopengagen, Malmyo va Elsinordagi ba'zi savdogarlar monopoliyasiga o'tkazdi. 1619 yilda monopoliya aktsiyadorlik jamiyatiga aylandi. Monopoliya shuni anglatadiki, islandlar kompaniyaga tovarlarni arzon narxlarda sotishga va ulardan qimmatbaho materiallarni sotib olishga majbur bo'lishdi. Natijada Islandiya iqtisodiyoti jiddiy zarar ko'rdi.
Bundan tashqari, 1661 yilda Daniya qiroli o'zini mutlaq monarxga aylantirdi. 1662 yilda Islandiyaliklar unga bo'ysunishga majbur bo'lishdi. Hamma uchrashuvni davom ettirdi, lekin haqiqiy kuchga ega emas edi. Bu sudga aylandi. Eng yomoni, 1707-09 yillarda Islandiyada chechak kasalligi avj oldi va bu aholining katta qismini o'ldirdi.
18 -asrning o'rtalarida Skuli Magnusson ismli odamga "fogd" deb nomlangan amaldor tayinlangan. U Daniya va Norvegiyadan fermerlarni jalb qilib, iqtisodiyotni yaxshilashga harakat qildi. U, shuningdek, yaxshiroq baliq ovlash kemalarini taqdim etdi. Shuningdek, u nemis to'quvchilari bilan Reykyavikda jun sanoatini yaratdi. Nihoyat, 1787 yilda monopoliyaga chek qo'yildi.
Ammo 1783 yilda vulqon otilishi natijasida Islandiyada vayronagarchiliklar yuzaga keldi. 1786 yilga kelib Islandiya aholisi atigi 38000 kishini tashkil etdi. Nihoyat, 1800 yilda hamma narsa yopildi. Yangi sud uni almashtirdi. U o'sha paytda 300 kishidan iborat kichik jamoa bo'lgan Reykyavikda joylashgan edi.
19 -asrda Islandiya
19-asrda Islandiya va Daniya o'rtasidagi aloqalar zaiflashdi. Millatchilik Evropada, shu jumladan Islandiyada o'sib borayotgan kuch edi. Bu o'sib borayotgan millatchilikning bir belgisi 1874 yilda O Guo vors land qo'shig'ining yozilishi edi.
1843 yilda Daniya qiroli VIII -xristianga hamma narsani eslashga qaror qildi. U 1845 yilda yana uchrashdi. Biroq, uning kuchi kam edi. Islandiyada millatchilik fikri o'sishda davom etdi va 1874 yilda Xristian IX yangi konstitutsiyani qabul qildi. Biroq, uning ostida "Hamma narsa" faqat cheklangan vakolatlarga ega edi. Keyin 1904 yilda gubernatorlik lavozimi bekor qilindi va Islandiyaga uy boshqaruvi berildi.
Shu bilan birga, 1854 yilda savdoda qolgan cheklovlar olib tashlandi. Islandiya bilan savdo barcha xalqlar uchun ochiq edi. Bundan tashqari, Islandiyada baliq ovlash 19 -asr oxirida ancha gullab -yashnagan. O'sha paytgacha baliqchilar odatda qayiqdan foydalanishgan, lekin asrning oxiriga kelib ular ancha samarali kemali kemalarga o'tishgan.
20 -asrda Islandiya
Islandiya yana gullab -yashnay boshladi. Aholi soni oshdi (Kanadaga emigratsiyaga qaramay) va 1911 yilda Reykyavik universiteti tashkil etildi.
20-asrda Daniya bilan aloqalar uzildi. 1904 yilda Islandiyaga uy boshqaruvi berildi. Gubernatorlik lavozimi bekor qilindi. Buning o'rniga, Islandiya hamma narsaga mas'ul bo'lgan Islandiya vazirini oldi. 1918 yilda Islandiya Daniya bilan monarxiya tuzgan suveren davlatga aylandi.
1915 yilda Islandiya ayollariga ovoz berishga ruxsat berildi. Birinchi ayol 1922 yilda Althingga saylandi.
1940 yil may oyida Islandiya ingliz qo'shinlari tomonidan bosib olindi. 1941 yil may oyida amerikaliklar ularni ozod qilishdi. Nihoyat, 1944 yilda Islandiya Daniya bilan barcha aloqalarni uzdi va qo'shma monarxiya tarqatib yuborildi. 1947 yilda Gekla tog'i otilib chiqib, ko'p vayronagarchiliklarga olib keldi, lekin Islandiya tezda tuzaldi va 1949 yilda Islandiya NATOga qo'shildi.
20 -asrning oxirida Islandiyada Buyuk Britaniya bilan bir qator "qaqshatqich urushlar" bo'lib o'tdi. Islandiya o'zining baliqchilik sanoatiga tayanib, inglizlar suvini haddan tashqari ko'p baliq tutayotganidan qo'rqib ketdi. "Kod urushlari" 1959-1961, 1972 va 1975-1976 yillarda "jang qilingan".
1980 yilda Vigdis Finnbogadottir Islandiya prezidenti etib saylandi. U dunyodagi birinchi ayol ayol prezident bo'ldi.
21 -ASRDA ISLANDIYA
Islandiya aholisi uylarini isitish uchun ishlatiladigan tabiiy issiq suvdan foyda ko'radi. Issiqxonalarni isitish uchun ham ishlatiladi.
2006 yil mart oyida AQSh qurolli kuchlarini Islandiyadan olib chiqishini e'lon qildi.
Keyin 2008 yilda Islandiya iqtisodiy inqirozga uchradi, chunki uning uchta asosiy banki muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchradi. 2009 yilgi namoyishlar hukumatning qulashiga olib keldi.
Bugungi kunda Islandiya hali ham baliq ovlashga ishonadi, lekin ko'p qo'ylar, qoramollar va Islandiyalik ponylar bor. Islandiya 2008 yilda boshlangan jahon moliyaviy inqirozidan qattiq aziyat chekdi va ishsizlik 9%dan oshdi. Biroq, tez orada Islandiya sog'ayib ketdi va ishsizlik kamaydi.
Bugungi kunda Islandiya - farovon mamlakat, turmush darajasi yuqori. 2020 yilda Islandiya aholisi 364 ming edi.
O'rta asrlar Islandiya tadqiqotlari
O'rta asrlar Islandiya tadqiqotlari dasturi quyidagi yo'nalishlardan kamida bittasida o'rta asr komponenti bo'yicha bakalavr darajasini olgan xalqaro talabalar uchun mo'ljallangan: adabiyot, tarix, din, tilshunoslik, antropologiya, arxeologiya, san'at tarixi yoki folklor.
Arizalarni qabul qilishning oxirgi muddati: 2022 yil 1 -fevral.
O'rta asrlar Islandiya tadqiqotlari dasturi quyidagi yo'nalishlardan kamida bittasida o'rta asr komponenti bo'yicha bakalavr darajasini olgan xalqaro talabalar uchun mo'ljallangan: adabiyot, tarix, din, tilshunoslik, antropologiya, arxeologiya, san'at tarixi yoki folklor.
- O'rta asr Islandiya
- Eski Skandinaviya afsonasi
5. Islandiya - dunyodagi eng keksa parlament.
Islandiyaning boy demokratik an'anasi ming yildan ko'proq vaqtdan buyon 930 yilda orolni boshqaradigan Althingi milliy assambleyasi tashkil etilgan. Har yozda ikki hafta davomida Islandiya boshliqlari Thingvellir tekisliklarida ochiq yig'ilishda yig'ilishgan. , Reykjavikdan sharqda rift vodiysi, bu erda Shimoliy Amerika va Evrosiyo tektonik plitalari birlashadi. Hamma erkin va qonunga bo'ysunuvchi fuqarolar yig'ilish qonunlar qabul qilib, odil sudlovni amalga oshirishi mumkin edi. 63 kishilik Althingi hozir Reykyavikda uchrashadi, lekin 1944 yil 17-iyunda Islandiya mustaqilligini nishonlash marosimi kabi tantanali yig'ilishlar hali ham Thingvellirda bo'lib o'tadi.
Grenlandiya tarixi-Shimoliy Amerika materikining shimolidagi orollardan Paleo-Eskimo immigratsiyasining takrorlangan to'lqinlari haqidagi hikoya. (Bu orollar xalqlari, o'z navbatida, ming yillar oldin Kanadaga ko'chib kelgan Sibir aholisidan kelib chiqqan deb taxmin qilinadi.) Grenlandiyaning uzoqligi va iqlimi tufayli u erda yashash qiyin edi. Asrlar mobaynida bir madaniyat boshqasiga o'tdi, chunki guruhlar yo'q bo'lib ketdi va ularning o'rnini yangi muhojirlar egalladi. Arxeologiya X asrda Norvegiya Grenlandiyani kashf qilishdan oldin gullab -yashnagan madaniyatlar uchun faqat taxminiy sanalarni berishi mumkin.
Grenlandiyadagi eng qadimgi madaniyatlar - Sakkoq madaniyati (miloddan avvalgi 2500–800)  va Grenlandiyaning shimolidagi Mustaqillik I madaniyati (miloddan avvalgi 2400–1300). Bu ikki madaniyatning amaliyotchilari Grenlandiyaga Kanada shimolidan kelgan alohida guruhlardan kelib chiqqan deb taxmin qilinadi.  Miloddan avvalgi 800-yillarda, Mustaqillik II deb nomlangan madaniyat ilgari Mustaqillik I madaniyati mavjud bo'lgan hududda paydo bo'lgan.  dastlab Mustaqillik II ning o'rnini Dorsetning ilk madaniyati egallagan (miloddan avvalgi 700 yil - eramizdan avvalgi 1), deb taxmin qilingan, ammo Mustaqillik II ning ba'zi artefaktlari miloddan avvalgi I asrga to'g'ri keladi. Recent studies suggest that, in Greenland at least, the Dorset culture may be better understood as a continuation of Independence II culture the two cultures have therefore been designated "Greenlandic Dorset".  Artefacts associated with early Dorset culture in Greenland have been found as far north as Inglefield Land on the west coast and the Dove Bugt area on the east coast. 
After the Early Dorset culture disappeared by around AD 1, Greenland was apparently uninhabited until Late Dorset people settled on the Greenlandic side of the Nares strait around 700.  The late Dorset culture in the north of Greenland lasted until about 1300.  Meanwhile, the Norse arrived and settled in the southern part of the island in 980.
Europeans probably became aware of Greenland's existence in the early 10th century, after Gunnbjörn Ulfsson, while sailing from Norway to Iceland, was blown off course by a storm and sighted some islands off Greenland. During the 980s explorers led by Erik the Red set out from Iceland and reached the southwest coast of Greenland. They found the region uninhabited, and subsequently settled there. Erik named the island "Greenland" (Grœnland in Old Norse, Grænland in modern Icelandic, Grønland in modern Danish and Norwegian). Ham Book of Icelanders (Lslendingabók, a medieval account of Icelandic history from the 12th century onward) and the Saga of Eric the Red (Eiríks saga rauða, a medieval account of his life and of the Norse settlement of Greenland) state that Erik said that it would encourage people to go there that the land had a good name."  [ failed verification – see discussion] 
According to the sagas, the Icelanders had exiled Erik the Red for three years for committing murder,  c. 982. He sailed to Greenland, where he explored the coastline and claimed certain regions as his own. He then returned to Iceland to persuade people to join him in establishing a settlement on Greenland. The Icelandic sagas say that 25 ships left Iceland with Erik the Red in 985, and that only 14 of them arrived safely in Greenland.  Radiocarbon dating of remains at the first settlement at Brattahlid (now Qassiarsuk) have approximately confirmed this timeline, yielding a date of about 1000. According to the sagas, in the year 1000 Erik's son, Leif Eirikson, left the settlement to explore the regions around Vinland, which historians generally assume to have been located in present-day Newfoundland.
The Norse established settlements along Greenland's south-western fjords. It is possible that the bottom lands of the southern fjords at that time were covered by highgrown shrub and surrounded by hills covered with grass and brush (as the Qinngua Valley currently is), but this hasn't been determined yet.  If the presumption is true then the Norse probably cleared the landscape by felling trees to use as building material and as fuel, and by allowing their sheep and goats to graze there in both summer and winter. Any resultant soil erosion could have become an important factor in the demise of the colonies, as the land was stripped of its natural cover.
The Norse settled in three separate locations in south-western Greenland: the larger Eastern Settlement, the smaller Western Settlement, and the still smaller Middle Settlement (often considered part of the Eastern one). Estimates put the combined population of the settlements at their height between 2,000 and 10,000, with recent estimates  trending toward the lower figure. Archeologists have identified the ruins of approximately 620 farms: 500 in the Eastern Settlement, 95 in the Western Settlement, and 20 in the Middle Settlement.
The economy of the Norse Greenlanders depended on a combination of pastoral farming with hunting and some fishing. Farmers kept cattle, sheep and goats - shipped into the island - for their milk, cheese and butter, while most of the consumed meat came from hunted caribou and seals. Both individual farmers and groups of farmers organised summer trips to the more northerly Disko Bay area, where they hunted walruses, narwhals and polar bears for their skins, hides and ivory. Besides their use in making garments and shoes, these resources also functioned as a form of currency, as well as providing the most important export commodities. 
The Greenland settlements carried on a trade with Europe in ivory from walrus tusks, as well as exporting rope, sheep, seals, wool and cattle hides (according to one 13th-century account). [ iqtibos kerak ] They depended on Iceland and Norway for iron tools, wood (especially for boat building, although they may also have obtained wood from coastal Labrador - Markland), supplemental foodstuffs, and religious and social contacts. For a time, trade ships from Iceland and Norway traveled to Greenland every year and would sometimes overwinter in Greenland. Beginning in the late-13th century, laws required all ships from Greenland to sail directly to Norway. The climate became increasingly colder in the 14th and 15th centuries, during the period of colder weather known as the Little Ice Age.
In 1126 the Roman Catholic Church founded a diocese at Garðar (now Igaliku). It was subject to the Norwegian archdiocese of Nidaros (now Trondheim) at least five churches in Norse Greenland are known from archeological remains. In 1261 the population accepted the overlordship of the King of Norway, although it continued to have its own law. In 1380 the Norwegian kingdom entered into a personal union with the Kingdom of Denmark.
After initially thriving, the Norse settlements in Greenland declined in the 14th century. The Norse abandoned the Western Settlement around 1350. In 1378 there was no longer a bishop at Garðar. In 1379 Inuit attacked the Eastern Settlement, killed 18 men and captured two boys and a woman.  In 1402–1404 the Black Death hit Iceland for the first time and killed approximately half the population there - but there is no evidence that it reached Greenland.  The last written record of the Norse Greenlanders documents a marriage in 1408 at Hvalsey Church, whose ruins are the best-preserved of the Norse buildings of that period.
After 1408 few written records mention the settlers. Correspondence between the Pope and the Biskop Bertold af Garde dates from the same year.  The Danish cartographer Claudius Clavus seems to have visited Greenland in 1420, according to documents written by Nicolas Germanus and Henricus Martellus, who had access to original cartographic notes and a map by Clavus. In the late 20th century the Danish scholars Bjönbo and Petersen found two mathematical manuscripts containing the second chart of the Claudius Clavus map from his journey to Greenland (where he himself mapped the area). 
In a letter dated 1448 from Rome, Pope Nicholas V instructed the bishops of Skálholt and Hólar (the two Icelandic episcopal sees) to provide the inhabitants of Greenland with priests and a bishop, the latter of which they had not had in the 30 years since a purported attack by "heathens" who destroyed most of the churches and took the population prisoner.  It is probable that the Eastern Settlement was defunct by the middle of the 15th century, although no exact date has been established. A European ship that landed in the former Eastern Settlement in the 1540s found the corpse of a Norse man there,  which may be the last mention of a Norse individual from the settlement. 
There are many theories as to why the Norse settlements in Greenland collapsed after surviving for some 450–500 years (985 to 1450–1500). Among the factors that have been suggested as contributing to the demise of the Greenland colony are:  
- Cumulative environmental damage
- Gradual climate change
- Conflicts with Inuit peoples
- Loss of contact and support from Europe
- Cultural conservatism and failure to adapt to an increasingly harsh natural environment
- Opening of opportunities elsewhere after plague had left many farmsteads abandoned in Iceland and Norway
- Declining value of ivory in Europe (due to the influx of ivory from Russian walrus and African elephants), forcing hunters to overkill the walrus populations and endanger their own survival 
Numerous studies have tested these hypotheses and some have led to significant discoveries. Yilda The Frozen Echo, Kirsten Seaver contests some of the more generally accepted theories about the demise of the Greenland colony, and asserts that the colony, towards the end, was healthier than Diamond and others have thought. Seaver believes that the Greenlanders cannot have starved to death, but rather may have been wiped out by Inuit or unrecorded European attacks, or they may have abandoned the colony for Iceland or Vinland. However, the physical evidence from archeological studies of the ancient farm sites does not show evidence of attack. [ iqtibos kerak ] The paucity of personal belongings at these sites is typical of North Atlantic Norse sites that were abandoned in an orderly fashion, with any useful items being deliberately removed but to others it suggests a gradual but devastating impoverishment. Middens at these sites do show an increasingly impoverished diet for humans and livestock. Else Roesdahl argues that declining ivory prices in Europe due to the influx of Russian and African ivory adversely affected the Norse settlements in Greenland, which depended largely on the export of walrus ivory to Europe. 
Greenland was always colder in winter than Iceland and Norway, and its terrain less hospitable to agriculture. Erosion of the soil was a danger from the beginning, one that the Greenland settlements may not have recognized until it was too late. For an extended time, nonetheless, the relatively warm West Greenland current flowing northwards along the southwestern coast of Greenland made it feasible for the Norse to farm much as their relatives did in Iceland or northern Norway. Palynologists' tests on pollen counts and fossilized plants prove that the Greenlanders must have struggled with soil erosion and deforestation.  A Norse farm in the Vatnahverfi district, excavated in the 1950s, had been buried in layers of drifting sand up to 10 feet deep. As the unsuitability of the land for agriculture became more and more patent, the Greenlanders resorted first to pastoralism and then to hunting for their food.  But they never learned to use the hunting techniques of the Inuit, one being a farming culture, the other living on hunting in more northern areas with pack ice. 
To investigate the possibility of climatic cooling, scientists drilled into the Greenland ice cap to obtain core samples, which suggested that the Medieval Warm Period had caused a relatively milder climate in Greenland, lasting from roughly 800 to 1200. However, from 1300 or so the climate began to cool. By 1420, the "Little Ice Age" had reached intense levels in Greenland.  Excavations of middens from the Norse farms in both Greenland and Iceland show the shift from the bones of cows and pigs to those of sheep and goats. As the winters lengthened, and the springs and summers shortened, there must have been less and less time for Greenlanders to grow hay. A study of North Atlantic seasonal temperature variability showed a significant decrease in maximum summer temperatures beginning in the late 13th century to early 14th century—as much as 6-8 °C lower than modern summer temperatures.  The study also found that the lowest winter temperatures of the last 2,000 years occurred in the late 14th century and early 15th century. By the mid-14th century deposits from a chieftain's farm showed a large number of cattle and caribou remains, whereas, a poorer farm only several kilometers away had no trace of domestic animal remains, only seal. Bone samples from Greenland Norse cemeteries confirm that the typical Greenlander diet had increased by this time from 20% sea animals to 80%. 
Although Greenland seems to have been uninhabited at the time of initial Norse settlement, the Thule people migrated south and finally came into contact with the Norse in the 12th century. There are limited sources showing the two cultures interacting however, scholars know that the Norse referred to the Inuit (and Vinland natives) as skræling. The Icelandic Annals are among the few existing sources that confirm contact between the Norse and the Inuit. They report an instance of hostility initiated by the Inuit against the Norse, leaving eighteen Greenlanders dead and two boys carried into slavery.  Archaeological evidence seems to show that the Inuit traded with the Norse. On the other hand, the evidence shows many Norse artefacts at Inuit sites throughout Greenland and on the Canadian Arctic islands but very few Inuit artefacts in the Norse settlements. This may indicate either European indifference—an instance of cultural resistance to Inuit crafts among them—or perhaps hostile raiding by the Inuit. It is also quite possible that the Norse were trading for perishable items such as meat and furs and had little interest in other Inuit items, much as later Europeans who traded with Native Americans.
The Norse never learned the Inuit techniques of kayak navigation or ring seal hunting. Archaeological evidence plainly establishes that by 1300 or so the Inuit had successfully expanded their winter settlements as close to the Europeans as the outer fjords of the Western Settlement. By 1350, the Norse had completely deserted their Western Settlement.  The Inuit, being a hunting society, may have hunted the Norse livestock, forcing the Norse into conflict or abandonment of their settlements. [ iqtibos kerak ]
In mild weather conditions, a ship could make the 900-mile (1400 kilometers) trip from Iceland to Eastern Settlement within a couple of weeks. Greenlanders had to keep in contact with Iceland and Norway in order to trade. Little is known about any distinctive shipbuilding techniques among the Greenlanders. Greenland lacks a supply of lumber, so was completely dependent on Icelandic merchants or, possibly, logging expeditions to the Canadian coast. [ iqtibos kerak ]
The sagas mention Icelanders traveling to Greenland to trade.  Settlement chieftains and large farm owners controlled this trade. Chieftains would trade with the foreign ships and then disperse the goods by trading with the surrounding farmers.  The Greenlanders' main commodity was the walrus tusk,  which was used primarily in Europe as a substitute for elephant ivory for art décor, whose trade had been blocked by conflict with the Islamic world. Professor Gudmundsson suggests a very valuable narwhal tusk trade, through a smuggling route between western Iceland and the Orkney islands. [ iqtibos kerak ]
It has been argued that the royal Norwegian monopoly on shipping contributed to the end of trade and contact. However, Christianity and European customs continued to hold sway among the Greenlanders for the greater part of the 14th and 15th centuries. In 1921, a Danish historian, Paul Norland, found human remains from the Eastern Settlement in the Herjolfsnes church courtyard. The bodies were dressed in 15th century medieval clothing with no indications of malnutrition or inbreeding. Most had crucifixes around their necks with their arms crossed as in a stance of prayer. Roman papal records report that the Greenlanders were excused from paying their tithes in 1345 because the colony was suffering from poverty.  The last reported ship to reach Greenland was a private ship that was "blown off course", reaching Greenland in 1406, and departing in 1410 with the last news of Greenland: the burning at the stake of a condemned male witch, the insanity and death of the woman this witch was accused of attempting to seduce through witchcraft, and the marriage of the ship's captain, Thorsteinn Ólafsson, to another Icelander, Sigríður Björnsdóttir.  However, there are some suggestions of much later unreported voyages from Europe to Greenland, possibly as late as the 1480s.  In the 1540s,  a ship drifted off-course to Greenland and discovered the body of a dead man lying face down who demonstrated cultural traits of both Norse and Inuit. An Icelandic crew member of the ship wrote: "He had a hood on his head, well sewn, and clothes from both homespun and sealskin. At his side lay a carving knife bent and worn down by whetting. This knife they took with them for display." 
According to a 2009 study, "there is no evidence for perceptible contact between Iceland and Greenland after the mid fifteenth century. It is clear that neither Danish and Norwegian nor Icelandic public functionaries were aware that the Norse Greenland colony had ceased to exist. Around 1514, the Norwegian archbishop Erik Valkendorf (Danish by birth, and still loyal to Christian II) planned an expedition to Greenland, which he believed to be part of a continuous northern landmass leading to the New World with all its wealth, and which he fully expected still to have a Norse population, whose members could be pressed anew to the bosom of church and crown after an interval of well over a hundred years. Presumably, the archbishop had better archives at his disposal than most people, and yet he had not heard that the Greenlanders were gone." 
One intriguing fact is that very few fish remains are found among their middens. This has led to much speculation and argument. Most archaeologists reject any decisive judgment based on this one fact, however, as fish bones decompose more quickly than other remains, and may have been disposed of in a different manner. Isotope analysis of the bones of inhabitants shows that marine food sources supplied more and more of the diet of the Norse Greenlanders, making up between 50% and 80% of their diet by the 14th century. 
One Inuit story recorded in the 18th century tells that raiding expeditions by European ships over the course of three years destroyed the settlement, after which many of the Norse sailed away south and the Inuit took in some of the remaining women and children before the final attack. 
The Late Dorset culture inhabited Greenland until the early fourteenth century.  This culture was primarily located in the northwest of Greenland, far from the Norse who lived around the southern coasts. Archaeological evidence points to this culture predating the Norse or Thule settlements.  In the region of this culture, there is archaeological evidence of gathering sites for around four to thirty families, living together for a short time during their movement cycle.
Around AD 1300–1400, the Thule arrived from the west settling in the Northeast areas of Greenland.  These people, the ancestors of the modern Greenland Inuit,   were flexible and engaged in the hunting of almost all animals on land and in the ocean, including walrus, narwhal, and seal.   The Thule adapted well to the environment of Greenland, as archaeological evidence indicates that the Thule were not using all parts of hunting kills, unlike other arctic groups, meaning they were able to waste more resources due to either surplus or well adapted behaviors. 
The nature of the contacts between the Dorset and Norse cultures is not clear, but may have included trade elements. The level of contact is currently the subject of widespread debate, possibly including Norse trade with Thule or Dorsets in Canada.
Most of the old Norse records concerning Greenland were removed from Trondheim to Copenhagen in 1664 and subsequently lost, probably in the Copenhagen Fire of 1728.  The precise date of rediscovery is uncertain because south-drifting icebergs during the Little Ice Age long made the eastern coast unreachable. This led to general confusion between Baffin Island, Greenland, and Spitsbergen, as seen, for example, in the difficulty locating the Frobisher "Strait", which was not confirmed to be a bay until 1861. Nonetheless, interest in discovering a Northwest Passage to Asia led to repeated expeditions in the area, though none were successful until Roald Amundsen in 1906 and even that success involved his being iced in for two years. Christian I of Denmark purportedly sent an expedition to the region under Pothorst and Pining to Greenland in 1472 or 1473 Henry VII of England sent another under Cabot in 1497 and 1498 Manuel I of Portugal sent a third under Corte-Real in 1500 and 1501. It had certainly been generally charted by the 1502 Cantino map, which includes the southern coastline.  The island was "rediscovered" yet again by Martin Frobisher in 1578, prompting King Frederick II of Denmark to outfit a new expedition of his own the next year under the Englishman James Alday this proved a costly failure.  The influence of English and Dutch whalers became so pronounced that for a time the western shore of the island itself became known as "Davis Strait" (Dutch: Straat Davis) after John Davis's 1585 and 1586 expeditions, which charted the western coast as far north as Disko Bay. 
Meanwhile, following Sweden's exit from the Kalmar Union, the remaining states in the personal union were reorganized into Denmark-Norway in 1536. In protest against foreign involvement in the region, the Greenlandic polar bear was included in the state's coat of arms in the 1660s (it was removed in 1958 but remains part of the royal coat of arms). In the second half of the 17th century Dutch, German, French, Basque, and Dano-Norwegian ships hunted bowhead whales in the pack ice off the east coast of Greenland, regularly coming to shore to trade and replenish drinking water. Foreign trade was later forbidden by Danish monopoly merchants.
From 1711 to 1721,  the Norwegian cleric Hans Egede petitioned King Frederick IV of Denmark for funding to travel to Greenland and re-establish contact with the Norse settlers there. Presumably, such settlers would still be Catholic or even pagan and he desired to establish a mission among them to spread the Reformation.  Frederick permitted Egede and some Norwegian merchants to establish the Bergen Greenland Company to revive trade with the island but refused to grant them a monopoly over it for fear of antagonizing Dutch whalers in the area.  The Royal Mission College assumed authority over the mission and provided the company with a small stipend. Egede found but misidentified the ruins of the Norse colony, went bankrupt amid repeated attacks by the Dutch, and found lasting conversion of the migrant Inuit exceedingly difficult. An attempt to found a royal colony under Major Claus Paarss established the settlement of Godthåb ("Good Hope") in 1728, but became a costly debacle which saw most of the soldiers mutiny  and the settlers killed by scurvy.  Two child converts sent to Copenhagen for the coronation of Christian VI returned in 1733 with smallpox, devastating the island. The same ship that returned them, however, also brought the first Moravian missionaries, who in time would convert a former angekok (Inuit shaman), experience a revival at their mission of New Herrnhut, and establish a string of mission houses along the southwest coast. Around the same time, the merchant Jacob Severin took over administration of the colony and its trade, and having secured a large royal stipend and full monopoly from the king, successfully repulsed the Dutch in a series of skirmishes in 1738 and 1739. Egede himself quit the colony on the death of his wife, leaving the Lutheran mission to his son Poul. Both of them had studied the Kalaallisut language extensively and published works on it as well, Poul and some of the other clergy sent by the Mission College, such as Otto Fabricius, began wide-ranging study of Greenland's flora, fauna, and meteorology. However, though kale, lettuce, and other herbs were successfully introduced, repeated attempts to cultivate wheat or clover failed throughout Greenland, limiting the ability to raise European livestock. 
As a result of the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden at the 1814 Treaty of Kiel. The colonies, including Greenland, remained in Danish possession. The 19th century saw increased interest in the region on the part of polar explorers and scientists like William Scoresby and Greenland-born Knud Rasmussen. At the same time, the colonial elements of the earlier trade-oriented Danish presence in Greenland expanded. In 1861, the first Greenlandic-language journal was founded. Danish law still applied only to the Danish settlers, though. At the turn of the 19th century, the northern part of Greenland was still sparsely populated only scattered hunting inhabitants were found there.  During that century, however, Inuit families immigrated from British North America to settle in these areas. The last group from what later became Canada arrived in 1864. During the same time, the northeastern part of the coast became depopulated following the violent 1783 Lakagígar eruption in Iceland.
Democratic elections for the district assemblies of Greenland were held for the first time in 1862–1863, although no assembly for the land as a whole was allowed. In 1888, a party of six led by Fridtjof Nansen accomplished the first land crossing of Greenland. The men took 41 days to make the crossing on skis, at approximately 64°N latitude.  In 1911, two Landstings were introduced, one for northern Greenland and one for southern Greenland, not to be finally merged until 1951. All this time, most decisions were made in Copenhagen, where the Greenlanders had no representation. Towards the end of the 19th century, traders criticized the Danish trade monopoly. It was argued that it kept the natives in non-profitable ways of life, holding back the potentially large fishing industry. Many Greenlanders however were satisfied with the status quo, as they felt the monopoly would secure the future of commercial whaling. It probably did not help that the only contact the local population had with the outside world was with Danish settlers. Nonetheless, the Danes gradually moved over their investments to the fishing industry.
By 1911, the population was about 14,000, scattered along the southern shores. They were nearly all Christian, thanks to the missionary efforts of Moravians and especially Hans Egede (1686–1758), a Lutheran missionary called "the Apostle of Greenland." He founded Greenland's capital Godthåb, now known as Nuuk. His grandson Hans Egede Saabye (1746–1817) continued the missionary activities. 
At the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century, American explorers, including Robert Peary, explored the northern sections of Greenland, which up to that time had been a mystery and were often shown on maps as extending over the North Pole. Peary discovered that Greenland's northern coast in fact stopped well short of the pole. These discoveries were considered to be the basis of an American territorial claim in the area. But after the United States purchased the Virgin Islands from Denmark in 1917, it agreed to relinquish all claims on Greenland.
After Norway regained full independence in 1905, it argued that Danish claims to Greenland were invalid since the island had been a Norwegian possession prior to 1815. In 1931, Norwegian meteorologist Hallvard Devold occupied uninhabited eastern Greenland, on his own initiative. After the fact, the occupation was supported by the Norwegian government, who claimed the area as Erik the Red's Land. Two years later, the Permanent Court of International Justice ruled in favor of Denmark.
Ikkinchi jahon urushi tahriri
During World War II, when Nazi Germany extended its war operations to Greenland, Henrik Kauffmann, the Danish Minister to the United States — who had already refused to recognize the German occupation of Denmark — signed a treaty with the United States on April 9, 1941, granting permission to establish stations in Greenland.  Kauffmann did this without the knowledge of the Danish government, and consequently "the Danish government accused him of high treason, fired him and told him to come home immediately – none of which had any result".  Because it was difficult for the Danish government to govern the island during the war, and because of successful exports, especially of cryolite, Greenland came to enjoy a rather independent status. Its supplies were guaranteed by the United States.
One Dane was killed in combat with Germans in Greenland. 
Sovuq urush tahrir
During the Cold War, Greenland had a strategic importance, controlling parts of the passage between the Soviet Union's Arctic Ocean harbours and the Atlantic Ocean, as well as being a good base for observing any use of intercontinental ballistic missiles, typically planned to pass over the Arctic. In the first proposed United States purchase of Greenland, the country offered to buy it for $100,000,000 but Denmark did not agree to sell.   In 1951, the Kauffman treaty was replaced by another one. [ iqtibos kerak ] The Thule Air Base in the northwest was made permanent. In 1953, some Inuit families were forced by Denmark to move from their homes to provide space for extension of the base. For this reason, the base has been a source of friction between the Danish government and the Greenlandic people. In the 1968 Thule Air Base B-52 crash of January 21, 1968, four hydrogen bombs contaminated the area with radioactive debris. Although most of the contaminated ice was cleaned up, one of the bombs was not accounted for. A 1995 Danish parliamentary scandal, dubbed Thulegate, highlighted that nuclear weapons were routinely present in Greenland's airspace in the years leading up to the accident, and that Denmark had tacitly given the go-ahead for this activity despite its official nuclear free policy.
The United States upgraded the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System to a phased array radar.  Opponents argue that the system presents a threat to the local population, as it would be targeted in the event of nuclear war.
The American presence in Greenland brought Sears catalogs, from which Greenlanders and Danes purchased modern appliances and other products by mail.  From 1948 to 1950, the Greenland Commission studied the conditions on the island, seeking to address its isolation, unequal laws, and economic stagnation. In the end, the Royal Greenland Trading Department's monopolies were finally removed. In 1953, Greenland was raised from the status of colony to that of an autonomous province or constituent country of the Danish Realm. Greenland was also assigned its own Danish county. Despite its small population, it was provided nominal representation in the Danish Folketing.
A plantation of exotic arctic trees was created in 1954 near Narsarsuaq. 
Denmark also began a number of reforms aimed at urbanizing the Greenlanders, principally to replace their dependence on (then) dwindling seal populations and provide workers for the (then) swelling cod fisheries, but also to provide improved social services such as health care, education, and transportation. These well-meaning reforms have led to a number of problems, particularly modern unemployment and the infamous Blok P housing project. The attempt to introduce European-style urban housing suffered from such inattention to local detail that Inuit could not fit through the doors in their winter clothing and fire escapes were constantly blocked by fishing gear too bulky to fit into the cramped apartments.  Television broadcasts began in 1982. The collapse of the cod fisheries and mines in the late 1980s and early 1990s greatly damaged the economy, which now principally depends on Danish aid and cold-water shrimp exports. Large sectors of the economy remain controlled by state-owned corporations, with Air Greenland and the Arctic Umiaq ferry heavily subsidized to provide access to remote settlements. The major airport remains the former US air base at Kangerlussuaq well north of Nuuk, with the capital unable to accept international flights on its own, owing to concerns about expense and noise pollution.
Greenland's minimal representation in the Folketing meant that despite 70.3% of Greenlanders rejecting entry into the European Common Market (EEC), it was pulled in along with Denmark in 1973. Fears that the customs union would allow foreign firms to compete and overfish its waters were quickly realized and the local parties began to push strongly for increased autonomy. The Folketing approved devolution in 1978 and the next year enacted home rule under a local Landsting. On 23 February 1982, a bare majority (53%) of Greenland's population voted to leave the EEC, a process which lasted until 1985. This resulted in The Greenland Treaty of 1985. 
Greenland Home Rule has become increasingly Greenlandized, rejecting Danish and avoiding regional dialects to standardize the country under the language and culture of the Kalaallit (West Greenland Inuit). The capital Godthåb was renamed Nuuk in 1979 a local flag was adopted in 1985 the Danish KGH became the locally administered Kalaallit Niuerfiat (now KNI A/S) in 1986. Following a successful referendum on self-government in 2008, the local parliament's powers were expanded and Danish was removed as an official language in 2009.
International relations are now largely, but not entirely, also left to the discretion of the home rule government. As part of the treaty controlling Greenland's exit of the EEC, Greenland was declared a "special case" with access to the EEC market as a constituent country of Denmark, which remains a member.  Greenland is also a member of several small organizations [ qaysi? ] along with Iceland, the Faroes, and the Inuit populations of Canada and Russia. [ iqtibos kerak ] It was one of the founders of the environmental Arctic Council in 1996. The US military bases on the island remain a major issue, with some politicians pushing for renegotiation of the 1951 US–Denmark treaty by the Home Rule government. The 1999–2003 Commission on Self-Governance even proposed that Greenland should aim at Thule base's removal from American authority and operation under the aegis of the United Nations. 
Icelandic women in Politics
Photo from Wikimedia, Creative Commons, by Rob C. Croes. No edits made.
Vigdís Finnbogadóttir held the position of President of Iceland for sixteen years, making her the longest serving female president from any country to date. A divorced single mother, her presidency took the world by surprise in the less liberally minded 1980s, with international headlines reading quite simply "WOMAN ELECTED PRESIDENT."
Though she was initially reluctant to run, Vigdis was soon convinced by her fellow countrymen to prove women could successfully run a campaign and win. Despite the fact she achieved only a narrow margin of a victory, her popularity quickly soared, securing her three later re-elections.
Adored by Icelanders the country over, Vigdís Finnbogadóttir is to this day very well aware that her victory came off the back of the 1975 Women's Day Off. Throughout her tenure as a President, she vigorously pursued the development of girl's education, coined the expression "never let the woman down" and acted a role model for young Icelandic women.
Outside of the Women's movement, she was a keen spokesperson for environmental issues and was instrumental in setting up the Reykjavik Summit, a crucial meeting held between Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev in the 1980s that helped to bring a close to the Cold War.
Photo from Wikimedia, Creative Commons, by Nationaal Archief . No edits made.
Vigdís Finnbogadóttir has not been the only woman to push the boundaries of leadership in Icelandic politics.
In 2009, Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir was elected as Iceland&rsquos first female prime minister and, coincidentally, the world&rsquos first openly gay head of state. She was instrumental in leading the charge against sexual violence and rape. Guðrún Jónsdóttir of Stígamót, a Reykjavik organisation campaigning against sexual violence, said of the prime minister, "Johanna is a great feminist in that she challenges the men in her party and refuses to let them oppress her."
Kolbrún Halldórsdóttir, a former MP with the Left-Green Movement, pushed to end stripping and lap dancing based on feminist ideals, rather than religious ones. At the time, she firmly told the national press, "It is not acceptable that women or people in general are a product to be sold."
As of 2010, strip clubs, prostitution and profiting off the nudity of employees have all been made illegal. This new law effectively meant that authorities were able to close in and shut down the major institutions facilitating human trafficking and the sex trade.
Iceland Declares Independence
The Icelandic constitutional referendum was held in 1944 as the closing chapters of the war began to materialise. Given the fact that Denmark was still occupied by Nazi Germany in 1944, many Danes felt it an inappropriate time to hold such an election, though the move was congratulated by King Christian X of Denmark after the Icelandic population voted 98% in favour for independence.
According to stipulations in the 1918 Danish&ndashIcelandic Act of Union, the two countries would maintain strong ties, with Iceland still falling under the territorial dominion of the Danish Monarchy. This subjection to the monarchy was later abolished in the same year, and full autonomy was granted, with Sveinn Björnsson serving as the first President of the Republic of Iceland.
Gaining independence meant that Iceland had to reinvent its position on the world stage as culturally separate from the Danish, as well as their relationship with the rest of mainland Europe.
For example, the Icelandic Flag was ratified by law in 1944 and the inherent values of the Icelandic national psyche&mdashi.e. religious expression, the preservation of their language&mdashwere collectively agreed upon as the founding principles of Iceland as an independent nation.
This was for a number of reasons, least of which being that the Sagas are resoundingly unique in the pantheon of worldwide medieval literature. They are neither myth, nor epic, nor romances or folktales, but stories of vengeance, wealth, power and love.
Jón Sigurðsson ("Jón forseti") bravely led a group of Icelandic intellectuals towards an independence movement, recreating an autonomous Icelandic government. He is credited as the founder of modern-day Iceland and is often referred to as President Jón by Icelanders, even though he was never officially president of Iceland.
Jesse L. Byock
Byock begins with a brief survey of the historical and legal sources. Turning to the Icelandic sagas, he takes a position in the historiographical debate over their value as sources, arguing for their importance in understanding the economic and social background. He then presents an outline of the history of the Free State, from settlement and the creation of the legal system, through gradual evolution, until Iceland came under the control of the Norwegian crown in 1262-1264. Iceland adopted Christianity in 1000, but it did so through negotiation rather than war or conflict and, with Iceland distant from central Church authority, the new religion was adapted to fit existing structures.
Byock's primary focus is on governance and in particular the relationships between farmers and gothar ("chieftains"). Gothar had few special sources of wealth — some very limited taxes and a chance at price-setting for imports tithes and trade were open to all farmers. The power of the gothar rested on their status as legal advocates and a gothorth was not a territorial or hereditary chieftaincy but rather "a professional vocation with entrepreneurial overtones". Relationships between gothar and ordinary farmers were flexible, with farmers free to change allegiances and subject to only limited obligations, and the binding forces of society were client-advocate relationships, real and fictive kinship relationships, and formalised ties of reciprocal friendship.
Three chapters present cases from the family and Sturlunga sagas, illustrating how this system of governance actually worked in practice. Conflicts over property and inheritances illustrate relationships between farmers and the way in which gothar could use their status as advocates to obtain concessions. Arnkell's fate in Eyrbyggja saga highlights the limitations on the ambition of gothar and some of the "checks and balances" of the system. And the struggle between Brod-Helgi and Geitir in Vapnfirthinga saga shows how broad networks of support were needed to safely carry out direct action.
How is Iceland governed?
Iceland is a constitutional republic with a multi-party system. The head of state is the President. Executive power is exercised by the Government. Iceland is arguably the world's oldest parliamentary democracy, with the Parliament, the Althingi, established in 930. Legislative power is vested in both the Parliament and the President. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.
Every fourth year the electorate chooses, by secret ballot, 63 representatives to sit in Althingi. Anyone who is eligible to vote, with the exception of the President and judges of the Supreme Court, can stand for parliament. Following each election, the President gives a leader of a political party the authority to form a cabinet, usually beginning with the leader of the largest party. If unsuccessful the President will ask another political party leader to form a government.
A cabinet of ministers stays in power until the next general election or a new government is formed. The ministers sit in Althingi, but only those elected have the right to vote in parliament.
The president is elected by direct popular vote for a term of four years, with no term limit.
Judicial power lies with the Supreme Court, Court of Appeal and the district courts.
Traditional forest use and forest decline
The birchwoods were important as a source of fuel wood, building material and livestock fodder, but the most important forest product was charcoal, needed to smelt iron and make iron tools. The need for charcoal was finally alleviated in the latter half of the 19th century, when steel tools and farming implements began to be imported. However, wood was used for fuel until as late as the 1940s, both for cooking and heating the new wood frame and concrete houses, which were colder than the sod homes that Icelanders lived in before.
However, the main use of the woodland remnants still found in Iceland in the 19th and 20th centuries was for livestock (mostly sheep) grazing and fodder production. Increased cultivation of hay fields during the mid 20th century led to a reduction in winter browsing of woodlands but summer browsing pressure continue to increase. It wasn't until the late 1970s that overproduction finally led to a quota system for sheep and dairy production and a reduction in sheep numbers.
The extent of Icelandic birchwoods probably reached a post-glacial minimum of less than 1% of total land area around the mid 20th century, perhaps even less than 0.5%. By that time, several woodland remnants had been protected from grazing and birch had started to spread within the enclosures. Afforestation by planting had also started. It is difficult to state exactly when net deforestation changed to net afforestation but it was probably some time between 1950 and 1980.
Today, birchwoods are not economically important as a source of wood or fodder, although over 200 tonnes of fireplace logs are produced annually. Again, after a 70 year hiatus, birch is being used as cooking fuel as well, this time in restaurants for baking pizzas. Some birch forests are popular recreation areas and they are recognised as being important form an ecological perspective as remnants of an ecosystem that once covered much of Iceland. They also act as sources of forest-related plants, animals and fungi to colonise afforestation areas.