Hikoya

Jangdan keyin jasorat - Piter Jekson -Li

Jangdan keyin jasorat - Piter Jekson -Li


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Jangdan keyin jasorat-Piter Jekson-Li

Jangdan keyin jasorat-Piter Jekson-Li

Bu janglarning harbiy faxriylarga ta'sirining keng doirasini qamrab oladigan uzoq muddatli ta'sirini o'ylashga undovchi qarash. Biz jarohatlangan faxriylar haqidagi bir qator boblardan boshlaymiz - ularning jang maydonidan qanday evakuatsiya qilinishini, front chizig'idagi tibbiy tizimlarni, eng ko'p ko'rilgan jarohatlar turlarini va hozirda ko'rsatilayotgan ta'sirli muolajalarni ko'rib chiqamiz. Ushbu bo'limlarning har biri, shuningdek, Birinchi Jahon Urushidan boshlab o'tgan asrga yaqin tarixiy tadqiqotlarni o'z ichiga oladi. Keyin biz kamroq ko'rinadigan yaralarni - giyohvandlik va ichimliklar, ruhiy salomatlik muammolari va oilaning ta'sirini o'rganishga o'tamiz. Nihoyat, nisbatan yangi Qurolli Kuchlar to'g'risidagi pakt va harbiy xayriya sektori tekshiriladi.

Muhim muammolardan biri shundaki, bizga ko'pincha bir -biriga qarama -qarshi so'zlar aytiladi, ba'zida bitta sahifada. Bu, ayniqsa, ruhiy salomatlik va jinoyatchilik bo'limlarida ro'y beradi, bu erda bizga sobiq harbiy xizmatchilarning ishtirok etish ehtimoli kamroq va ehtimoli ko'proq ekanligini aytishadi. Qaysidir ma'noda bu manbalar muammosi - har xil tadqiqot loyihalari har xil vaqtlarda har xil natijalarga olib kelgan va ko'pincha umumiy ko'rsatkichlar va ko'proq yo'naltirilgan tadqiqotlar o'rtasida farq bor. xodimlar). Bu erda muammo shundaki, har xil raqamlar

Men muallif aytganlarning hammasiga qo'shilmayman, xususan, Shimoliy Irlandiya, Iroq va Afg'onistonda ingliz xizmatchilari tomonidan sodir etilishi mumkin bo'lgan jinoyatlar haqidagi turli surishtiruvlar haqidagi fikrlari. Bu so'rovlarning ayrimlari qanday ko'rib chiqilganini tanqid qilish mumkin, lekin Britaniya qurolli xizmatlari a'zolari yuqori standartlarga rioya qilishlari shart emas (garchi ularning raqiblari bir xil qoidalarga bo'ysunmasa ham). Bu, ayniqsa, uy sharoitida, shuningdek, yaqinda o'tkazilgan chet el urushlarida ham to'g'ri. Men, shuningdek, bu tergovni to'liq harbiylar olib borishi kerak degan fikrga qo'shilmayman - Qurolli Kuchlar to'g'risidagi Paktning qarama -qarshi tomoni shundaki, harbiylar o'sha yuqori standartlarga javob berishi kerak va o'z -o'zini boshqarish obro'si yo'q. bu ishonchni berish uchun.

Biroq, bu kichik kamchiliklar. Umuman olganda, bu harbiy faxriylar duch keladigan muammolarga, ularga yordam berish tizimlari va faxriylarning ko'pchiligi ular boshidan kechirayotgan stressni engishning ta'sirchan usuli haqida o'ylashga undovchi va harakatlantiruvchi ko'rinishdir. Muallifning shaxsiy harbiy tajribasi, bu haqiqat darajasini beradi, aks holda u yo'qoladi. Harbiy xayriya tashkilotlari, ularning rollari va ular bilan qanday bog'lanish mumkinligi haqida ham juda foydali yoz bor. Bu kitob faxriy bo'lmaganlar uchun qimmatlidir, ular sobiq harbiylar duch kelgan muammolar haqida tushuncha berishga yordam beradi va faxriylar uchun qanday yordam mavjudligini ko'rsatadi.

Bo'limlar
Jang maydonidan evakuatsiya
Jabrlanganlarni kasalxonaga jang maydonidan olib boring
Jang maydonlarining shikastlanishi
Amputatsiya va protezlash
Yuz yaralari, yuz niqoblari, karlik va ko'rlik
Urush bevalari
Giyohvand moddalar, spirtli ichimliklar, qamoqxona, uysizlar va depressiya
Bu oilaga qanday ta'sir qiladi
Qurolli Kuchlar shartnomasi va uchinchi (xayriya) sektori
Invictus o'yinlari
Xayriya ishlari ro'yxati (2018 yil avgust)

Muallif: Piter Jekson-Li
Nashr: qog'ozli qog'oz
Sahifalar: 372
Nashriyot: Brown Dog Books
Yil: 2019



Kancellorsvil jangi haqida siz bilmagan 7 ta narsa

Kancellorsvil keng tarqalgan Li ’ ning eng buyuk va eng aql bovar qilmaydigan g'alabasi hisoblanadi. Deyarli 2-dan 1-ga ko'p bo'lishiga qaramay, Li xavfli va g'ayrioddiy taktika to'g'risida qaror qabul qildi. U kichik kuchlarini bir marta emas, balki ikki marta Hooker armiyasini qabul qilish uchun tanladi, shu jumladan Tomas va Stonewall Jacksonning Ittifoq generalining o'ng qanotida jasoratli bosqini. Kutilmaganda, Xuker o'z ustunligini qo'ymadi, aksincha mudofaa pozitsiyalariga tushib, nihoyat Rappahannok daryosi bo'ylab orqaga chekindi.


Stounuoll Jeksonning hayoti

U 1824 yil 20-21 yanvar kunlari yarim tunda, Virjiniya (hozirgi G'arbiy Virjiniya) Klarksburg markazidagi kichkina uyda tug'ilgan. Uning advokat otasi har doim moliyaviy qiyinchiliklarga duch kelgan. Tomas ikki yoshida tif kasalligidan vafot etib, oilasini qashshoq holda qoldirdi. To'rt yil o'tgach, uning bevasi Yuliya Neal Jekson ikkinchi marta turmushga chiqqanda, uning yangi eri qarindoshlariga topshirilgan katta bolalarini boqa olmadi yoki tarbiyalashni xohlamadi. Tomas amakisi Kammings Jekson bilan yashashga yuborilgan edi, u Tostdan 25 mil narida, Veston shahri yaqinida tegirmon va arra tegirmonini boshqargan. (Gristmill hali ham Jekson va G'arbiy Virjiniya shtati 4-L lagerida joylashgan.) Tomas Kammings bilan uy topdi, lekin oilaviy muhabbat kam edi. Uning erta hayotidagi sharoitlar uning o'zini tuta olmasligi va o'ziga ishonishiga yordam bergan bo'lishi mumkin.

1842 yilda, 18 yoshida, u qisqa vaqt ichida Lyuis okrugining politsiyachisi bo'ldi, lekin Uest -Poynt Harbiy Akademiyasiga tayinlanish uchun sinovdan o'tgan to'rtta mahalliy aholidan biri edi. Uchrashuv Gibson Butcherga o'tdi, lekin Butcher akademiyadan tezda chiqib ketdi va Jekson, agar u boshqacha qilib aytganda, ololmaydigan ma'lumotga ega bo'lishni umid qilib, kongressmen Semyuel Xaysga qassobning o'rinbosari bo'lishni so'radi. U uchrashuvni oldi.


The Battle Kindle Edition -dan keyingi jasorat

Jangdan keyin jasorat - Qurolli Kuchlar xizmatdan ketganidan keyin ruhiy va jismoniy shikastlanishdan qanday omon qolgani haqidagi hikoya.
Piter JEKSON-LI
Hammom, o'z-o'zini nashr etish bo'yicha hamkorlik, 2019
370 pc ISBN 978-1-78545-344-1 (sbk)

Bu kitobning yordamchi nomi uning maqsadi va mazmunini qisqacha tushuntiradi. Qaysidir ma'noda bu o'qish uchun aql bovar qilmaydigan kitob bo'lsa, boshqa tomondan ilhomlantiradi. Kitobda jang maydonidan Invictus o'yinlariga evakuatsiya qilishdan va xayriya tashkilotlarining foydali ro'yxatidan boshlab, o'n bitta asosiy bob bor. Kitob zaiflar uchun emas, chunki u amputatsiya va yuz yaralari kabi mavzularni qamrab oladi.

Har bir bobda Qurolli Kuchlarimizning jangovar vaziyatda qatnashgani haqidagi ko'plab shaxsiy misollar keltirilgan. Asosiysi, bu oxirgi paytlarda Iroq va Afg'onistondagi mojarolar. Muallif bu kitobni yaxshi yozgan, chunki uning mavzularini ochish qiyin va sezgir. Kitobda fotosuratlar bor, ularning ba'zilari shikastlangan. Shuni yodda tutish kerakki, har bir fotosurat shikastlangan shikastlanish bilan yashashga majbur bo'lgan haqiqiy odamning surati. Oxirgi bobda hozirgi va o'tmishdagi Qurolli Kuchlar xodimlarini qo'llab -quvvatlash bilan bog'liq xayriya tashkilotlari tafsilotlari keltirilgan. Bu boradagi yagona muammo shundaki, tafsilotlar vaqt o'tishi bilan o'zgarishi mumkin va umid qilamanki, bu ro'yxat onlaynda mavjud.

Xulosa qilib aytganda, muallif o'z minnatdorchiligida shunday deydi: "Umid qilamanki, mazmun jamoatchilikka qurolli kuchlarni jismoniy va/yoki ruhiy jarohatlar tufayli tark etgan xizmat xodimlari o'tishi kerak bo'lgan muammolar va to'siqlar to'g'risida tushuncha beradi." Menimcha, bu kitob maqsadga erishadi va undan oshadi. Menimcha, bu juda hayajonli va Ikkinchi Jahon urushi bilan bog'liq bo'lgan asosiy qiziqishim shu kitobning mavzusi o'sha davrda ham qo'llanilgan edi. Menimcha, qiyosiy tadqiqot juda qiziq bo'lardi. Umuman olganda, men hamma o'quvchilarga tavsiya etadigan juda kuchli va o'ylantiruvchi kitob.

Qirollik dengizining va Folklendning sobiq faxriysi Piter Jekson Li tomonidan yozilgan "Jangdan keyingi jasorat" kitobi o'quvchini ko'pchilik boshidan kechirmaydigan sayohatga olib chiqadi. Kitob sayohatnomasi bo'lib, unda erkaklar va ayollar qanday qilib jang maydonidagi shikastlanishdan tinch hayotga qaytishini tushuntirib beradi. Kitob, shuningdek, jang maydonidagi tibbiyot, ruhiy salomatlik, protezlash, rekonstruktiv jarrohlik, siyosat va ijtimoiy farovonlikdagi o'zgarishlarni o'rganadi. O'z navbatida, kitoblar ilhomlantiradi, hayajonlantiradi va chuqur tashvishga soladi.

Kitob muvozanatli, bema'nilik, aniq uslub va ohangda yozilgan. Piter Jekson-Li faxriylar, oilalar, sog'liqni saqlash xodimlari, xayriya ishchilari va dalillar o'zlari uchun gapirishga imkon beradi. U har qanday texnik, tibbiy va protsessual yutuqlarning tarixini tushuntiradi, bu esa jang maydonidagi jarohatdan omon qolishga imkon beradi. Ammo, jang maydonidagi shikastlanishlarning omon qolish qobiliyati tobora ortib borayotgan bo'lsa -da, uzoq muddatli parvarishlashda aksincha. Ketma -ket hukumatlar ruhiy salomatlikdan tortib uy -joygacha bo'lgan hamma narsada jazolarni qisqartirishni nazorat qilishdi.

Piter Jekson Li kitobining oxirgi uchdan bir qismi Qurolli Kuchlar, Millat va Buyuk Britaniya hukumati o'rtasidagi ahdni tushuntiradi. Kitobda 150 ga yaqin milliy xayriya tashkilotlari va boshqa xizmatlar mavjud bo'lib, ular hozirgi xizmat xodimlari, faxriylar va ularning oilalariga yordam va ko'mak beradi. Kitobning 70 sahifasidan ko'prog'i, yordam ko'rsatadigan xayriya tashkilotlari ro'yxati qo'rqitadi. Bu Qurolli Kuchlar ahdiga xiyonat va hukumat siyosatining o'nlab yillar davom etgan muvaffaqiyatsizligini ko'rsatadi. Ko'p jihatdan, bu kitob dahshatli, ko'p yillik milliy sharmandalik haqidagi hikoyadir.


Bu kitoblar yozgi o'qish ro'yxatida bo'lishi kerak

Ba'zida kitob bilan o'tirish, uy ishlarini bajarish kerak bo'lganda, o'zingizni befarq his etishi mumkin, ko'pincha oilaviy ehtiyojlar sizning ehtiyojlaringizdan ustun turadi yoki siz bir bolalar tadbiridan boshqasiga sayohat qilish uchun ko'proq vaqt sarflashingiz mumkin. Harbiy oilalar sizni o'z-o'zini sevishga o'rgatish uchun 2019 yil yozgi o'qish ro'yxatini taqdim etadi.

Ko'pchilik kattalar hali ham o'zlari uchun o'qiydilar. PEW tadqiqot markazi so'nggi 12 oyda amerikaliklarning qariyb to'rtdan uch qismi kitob o'qiganini va audiokitoblardan foydalanish ko'payib borayotganini aytadi. Agar sizda jismoniy kitobni ushlab turishga vaqtingiz bo'lmasa, marshrutda audiokitob o'ynang. Agar siz raqs darsi tugashini kutayotgan bo'lsangiz, elektron kitob siz bilan bo'lgan har qanday mobil qurilmada sizni kutadi.

Lekin nima o'qishni bilmay qolmang. Iyul sonining mualliflari bizga taklif qilgan kitoblardan birini boshlang.

Surat Simon va Shuster tomonidan berilgan.

“Mos kelmaydigan: itoatsizlik xotirasi"Anuradha Bhagvati tomonidan

"Men Anuradha Bhagvati" Mos kelmaydigan: itoatsizlik xotirasi "ni o'qiganimdan xursandman. Men xotiralarni o'qishni yaxshi ko'raman, ayniqsa o'z tajribamdan tubdan farq qiladigan tajribali kuchli ayollar yozganlarini. Men har doim xizmatda bo'lgan ayollarni chuqur hurmat qilganman va Bhagvati hayoti haqida ko'proq bilishni xohlayman ". -Jenn Bedard

“Stol atrofidagi hikoyalar: Kulgi, donolik va harbiy hayotdagi kuch"Ko'plab harbiy oilaviy yozuvchilar tomonidan

"Men harbiy turmush o'rtoqlar yozgan ko'plab kitoblarni o'qiganman, lekin men hali ham o'qishni xohlayman." Stol atrofidagi hikoyalar ". Bu 40 dan ortiq harbiy oilalarning qisqa hikoyalarini o'z ichiga oladi. tarqatish va ajralish. Ishonchim komilki, har bir harbiy turmush o'rtog'i ichki xotiralar bilan o'rtoqlashishi mumkin. " -Lizann Lightfoot

“Amerika ruhi: chidamlilik, jasorat va imon profillari"Taya Kayl tomonidan

"Mening plyaj sumkamga Taya Kaylning" Amerika ruhi: chidamlilik, jasorat va imondagi profillari "kiradi. Men qiyinchiliklarni g'alabaga aylantirgan odamlarning hikoyalarini o'qishdan boshqa ilhomlantiruvchi narsani o'ylay olmayman". -Kara Lyudlou

Surat Kim Mills muallifi Facebook sahifasidan olingan.

“Uyga hamma yo'l"Kim Mills tomonidan

"Bu yoz men" Uyga boradigan yo'llar seriyasini "o'qiyapman. Bu harbiy xizmatga kirishdan oldin va keyin bir -birlarini hayotdan qutqarish uchun do'stlik, muhabbat va onlarni topadigan ikki yosh haqida. Men odatda bunday kitoblarni kattalashtiraman, chunki men ularning hikoyalarini o'rganishni xohlayman. Harbiy turmush o'rtog'i Kim Millsga rahmat! ” – Tiffani Lourens

“Veronikaning qahramoni"Veronika Ortiz Rivera va Jared Laski

"Mening yozgi o'qishimga Veronika Ortiz Rivera va Jared Laski (Lulu nashriyot xizmatlari)" Veronikaning qahramoni "kiradi, dengizchi beva xotinning Xaver Ortis Riverani Afg'oniston mojarosida sevgani va yo'qotgani haqidagi xotirasi. 2010 yilda o'g'lining otasining tobutini kutib olgani surati internetda tarqalganda, xalqning yuragi ezildi va men hikoyaning qolgan qismini eshitishni sabrsizlik bilan kutaman ”. -Kristal Kupper

“Sizning cho'ntagingizda yigirma yillar: pulni boshqarish bo'yicha yigirma bir narsa"Keyt Nikson Ananiya tomonidan

"Shaxsiy moliya haqidagi kitob, bu ham qiziqarli va oson o'qiladi ?! Hamkasb hamkasbi Keyt Nikson Ananiyaning "Sizning cho'ntagingizda yigirma yillar: pulni boshqarish bo'yicha yigirma bir narsa uchun qo'llanma". Keyt - iqtisodchi va blogger, lekin bu qo'llanmani haqiqatan ham jozibador qiladigan narsa - u kollejni tugatgan yoshligidagi tajribalari bilan o'rtoqlashadigan hazil latifalar. " -Lila Kvintiliani

Emi Pottingerning surati.

“G.I. Itlar: Judy"Lori Kalxoven tomonidan va"Bundan yaxshiroq do'st yo'q"Robert Vayntraub

"Mening yozgi o'qish ro'yxatim? Albatta, bunga ba'zi ona-qiz vaqti kiradi. Biz nemis qisqa sochli ko'rsatgichimizni yaxshi ko'ramiz, shuning uchun men uning haqiqiy urush qahramoni ekanligini bilganimda, meni sotishdi. Judi Ikkinchi Jahon Urushida omon qolgan va ko'plab askarlarga hamroh bo'lgan. Menga bu hikoya kattalar uchun ham, bolalar uchun ham yoqishi yoqadi! ” -Ammi Pottinger

“Los Alamosning xotinlari"TaraShea Nesbit tomonidan

"Mening tanlagan kitobim - Ikkinchi Jahon urushi yadro tadqiqotlari va Manxetten loyihasi chog'ida Nyu -Meksiko shtatining Los -Alamos shahrida joylashgan birinchi turmush o'rtoqlar haqida yozilgan" Los Alamosning xotinlari "TaraShe Nesbit. Bu kitob Los Alamos oilalarining maxfiy hayotini jasur va yorqin nuqtai nazardan baham ko'radi. -Kimberli Rot

Yozuvchining takliflaridan tashqari, bizning chuqur kitob sharhlarimizga ham havola qiling:

  • "Minnatdor amerikalik: o'z -o'ziga xizmatga sayohat", Gari Sinis
  • Xodimlar serjanti tomonidan "Go'zal ismli it". Rob Kugler
  • Doktor Jill Baydenning "Nur kirgan joy"
  • Erin Millerning "Yakuniy parvoz final jangi"
  • Piter Jekson Li "Jangdan keyingi jasorat"

Siz yotishdan oldin farzandlaringizga o'qiyotganingizda, va'z qilgan narsangizga amal qiling. Agar bolangiz yaxshi tinglovchi bo'lishi, yangi so'zlarni o'rganishi va dunyoviy bo'lishi muhim bo'lsa, o'zingizni qisqartirmang. Formatidan qat'i nazar, o'zingiz uchun kitob oling.


‘Courage After the Battle ’ - Buyuk Britaniya faxriylari uchun ovoz

"Jangdan keyin jasorat" kitobxonlarni jamiyatning harbiy xizmatchilar oldidagi mas'uliyati haqida o'ylashga undaydi.

Piter Jekson-Li tomonidan "Jangdan keyin jasorat" asari harbiy xizmatchilarning tajribalarini o'rganadi, bu maqsadlar fuqarolik o'quvchilariga bu qiyinchiliklar to'g'risida ma'lumot berish va harbiy xizmatchilarni qo'llab-quvvatlashga qaratilgan.

Buyuk Britaniya Qurolli Kuchlariga e'tibor qaratgan holda, bu matnda tarixan og'ir jismoniy va ruhiy shikastlanishlarga olib kelgan sharoitlar ko'rib chiqiladi va keyinchalik bu yaralarni davolash va davolash uchun tashkil etilgan Buyuk Britaniyaning turli tashkilotlari ko'rib chiqiladi. Kitobning tuzilishi turli xil og'ir jarohatlarni baholash, evakuatsiya qilish va davolash jarayonini o'z ichiga oladi, matnning katta qismi bu jarohatlarning harbiy xizmatchilarga va ularning oilalariga uzoq muddatli ta'siriga bag'ishlangan.

Ushbu matnda Jekson-Li o'z mamlakatlari manfaati uchun qurbon bo'lgan harbiy xizmatchilarga hozirgi tizim qanday xizmat qilishini yoki xizmat qilmasligini tanqid qiladi. Jasorat, tashkilotning zaif tomonlarini aniqlaydi va milliy sog'liqni saqlash dasturlari to'xtatiladigan yoki Jekson-Lining ta'kidlashicha, milliy dasturlar harbiy xizmatchilarni etarli darajada qo'llab-quvvatlay olmaydigan joylarni tanlash uchun tashkil etilgan xususiy xayriya tashkilotlarining ko'pligini hisobga olgan holda, takomillashtirish zarurligini tasdiqlaydi. .

Kitob tematik tarzda tuzilgan va tadqiqot qo'llanmasi yoki ma'lumotnoma sifatida xizmat qilishi mumkin. Jekson-Lining matni shaxsiy latifalar, hukumat statistikasi, shaxsiy hisoblar, ilmiy tadqiqotlar va notijorat tashkilotlardan olingan ma'lumotlar ko'rinishidagi keng dalillarni o'z ichiga oladi. Bu xilma -xil dalillar to'plami matnni mozaikaga yoki yamoqli choyshabga o'xshatadi, ular murakkab bir butunni tashkil etuvchi va kattaroq hikoyani birlashtiradigan o'ziga xos alohida komponentlardan iborat. Kitob oxirida Jekson Li xizmat ko'rsatuvchi xodimlarni qo'llab-quvvatlash uchun yaratilgan Buyuk Britaniyaning xayriya tashkilotlarining batafsil indeksini taqdim etadi.

Kitobdagi yozuvlar ba'zida biroz adashib va ​​diqqat markazida bo'lmagandek tuyulsa -da, bu matn muhim signal bo'lib, o'quvchilarni fuqarolik jamiyati va qurolli kuchlar o'rtasidagi munosabatni tanqidiy ko'rib chiqishga undaydi.

O'quvchilar jamiyatning harbiy xizmatchilar oldidagi mas'uliyati haqida o'ylashlari va jamiyatning bu shaxslar oldidagi qarzini qanchalik to'layotganini o'ylashlari tavsiya etiladi. Shu bilan birga, bu matn umumiy manfaat uchun ko'p qurbon bo'lgan erkaklar va ayollarning ovozlarini chindan ham eshitish va qadrlash mexanizmini beradi.


Tarkibi

Li Texas shtatining El -Paso shahrida Barbara Jan Tuttda tug'ilgan, Mildred Adaire (asli Parish) va podpolkovnik Garvin Aleksandr Tuttning qizi. [4] Li afroamerikalik va DNK tahliliga ko'ra, u asosan Gvineya-Bisau va Syerra-Leone xalqidan kelib chiqqan. [5] [6] U 1960 yilda ota -onasi bilan Texasdan Kaliforniyaga ko'chib o'tgan va Los -Anjelesning Pakoima mahallasidagi San -Fernando o'rta maktabida o'qigan. [7] Li Mills kollejiga o'qishga kirganida jamoat yordamini olgan ikki farzandning yolg'iz onasi edi. [8] U 1975 yilda Berkli, Kaliforniya Universitetidan MSW oldi. [9]

Mills kollejining qora tanli talabalar uyushmasi prezidenti sifatida Li Kongress a'zosi Shirli Chisholmni kampusda gapirishga taklif qildi va 1972 yildagi Chisholmning prezidentlik kampaniyasi ustida ishlashni davom ettirdi va 1972 yildagi Demokratik Milliy Kongressida uning delegati sifatida xizmat qildi. [10] Shuningdek, talabalik chog'ida u Qora Pantera partiyasi jamoatchilikni o'rganish markazining Oklend bo'limida ko'ngilli bo'lgan va Panther asoschilaridan biri Bobbi Sealning 1973 yilda Oklend meri kampaniyasida ishlagan. [11]

Saylovlarni tahrirlash

Li AQSh Vakillar palatasiga kirishdan oldin AQSh vakili Ron Dellumsning xodimi, shuningdek Kaliforniya shtati assambleyasi va Kaliforniya shtati senatining a'zosi bo'lgan. U 1998 yilgi maxsus saylovda 66% ovoz bilan Kongressga saylangan. U o'sha yili 82,8% ovoz bilan o'z huquqini qo'lga kiritdi va uzoq vaqtdan beri mamlakatning eng demokratik tumanlaridan biri bo'lganida, to'qqiz marta muhim muxolifatsiz qayta saylandi. Hozirda u K+partiyalarining ovoz berish indeksiga ega D+40, bu Kaliforniyaning eng demokratik okrugi va mamlakatdagi demokratlar soni bo'yicha to'rtinchi o'rinni egallaydi. Tuman va uning oldidagilar 1959 yildan beri uzluksiz Demokratik qo'lida.

Muddati tahrir

Li uyining a'zosi sifatida ovoz berish rekordini reytingga kiritdi Milliy jurnal 2007 yilda, 2006 yildagi iqtisodiy, ijtimoiy va tashqi siyosat masalalari bo'yicha o'tkazilgan ovoz berish natijalariga ko'ra, Li umumiy 84,3% to'plagan, ya'ni u palataning 84,3% dan ko'ra ko'proq liberalroq pozitsiyasi bilan ovoz bergan. Milliy jurnal Lining ovoz berishida iqtisodiy masalalar bo'yicha 82%, ijtimoiy masalalar bo'yicha 92% va tashqi siyosat bo'yicha 65% liberal ovoz berdi. Ijtimoiy masalalar bo'yicha 92% reytingni Li boshqa 35 qonun chiqaruvchi bilan birlashtirgan, ular hammasi eng yuqori va eng liberal reytingni egallagan. [12] Li "Progressive Punch" dan 97% progressiv reytingni, [13] va Amerika Konservativ Ittifoqining 4% konservativ reytingini oldi. [14] 2016 yilda GovTrack -ning Kongress a'zolari to'g'risidagi 2015 yildagi hisobot kartasi Li uyning eng progressiv 3 -a'zosi bo'ldi. [15]

Li senator Barak Obamani 2008 yilgi Demokratik partiyadagi prezidentlik saylovida qo'llab -quvvatladi. [16] 2019 yil fevral oyida u senator Kamala Xarrisni 2020 yildagi Demokratik partiyasida ma'qulladi. [17]

AUMF muxolifati tahrirlash

Li 2001 yilda terrorchilarga qarshi harbiy kuch ishlatishga ruxsat berish to'g'risida "Yo'q" ovoz bergan Kongress a'zosi sifatida butun mamlakat e'tiborini tortdi, chunki u harbiy harakatlarga qarshi bo'lgani uchun emas, balki AUMFga ishongani uchun ovoz bermadi. Vaziyatga oid faktlar hali aniq bo'lmagan paytda prezidentga urush ochish uchun yozma, haddan tashqari keng vakolatlar berilgan. U "hamkasblarini" chiqish strategiyasi va maqsadli maqsadsiz ochiq urushni boshlashdan ehtiyot bo'lishga "ogohlantirdi." [18]

"Bu 11 sentyabr voqealarida qatnashgan har qanday odamga-har qanday mamlakatda, bizning davlatimizning uzoq muddatli tashqi siyosati, iqtisodiy va milliy xavfsizligi manfaatlarini hisobga olmagan holda va vaqt chegarasi bo'lmagan holda, hujum qilish prezident uchun bo'sh chek edi. haddan tashqari keng vakolatlar, Kongress o'z deklaratsiyasining o'lchamlarini tushunish uchun o'z majburiyatini bajara olmadi. Men prezidentga urush olib boruvchi vakolat berishni qo'llab-quvvatlay olmasdim, menimcha, bu ko'proq begunoh odamlarning hayotini xavf ostiga qo'yadi. Prezident konstitutsiyaviy vakolatlarga ega. millatni keyingi hujumlardan himoya qiling va u qurolli kuchlarni aynan shu maqsadda safarbar qildi, Kongress faktlar kelishini kutib, keyin harakatlarimizning oqibatlari to'g'risida to'liq ma'lumotga ega bo'lishi kerak edi ". [19]

Bu ovoz berish butun mamlakat bo'ylab yangiliklar tayyorladi va katta va o'ta qutbli javob berdi, uning qo'ng'iroqlari Capitol Hill ofisining kommutatorini blokirovka qildi. Garchi bu uning ko'pchilik saylovchilarining e'tiqodlarini aks ettirganga o'xshasa -da, millatning boshqa joylaridan kelgan javoblarning aksariyati g'azablangan va dushman bo'lib, ba'zilari uni "kommunist" va "xoin" deb atashgan. Ko'pgina javoblar uning yoki uning oilasiga o'lim tahdidlarini o'z ichiga olgan, shuning uchun Kapitoliy politsiyasi oddiy kiyimdagi tansoqchilarni tunu-kun ta'minlagan. [19] Shuningdek, u siyosatchilar tomonidan tanqid qilindi va konservativ gazetalarning tahririyat sahifalarida, masalan. Jon fondining ustuni The Wall Street Journal. [20] Bu ovoz uchun 2002 yilda Xalqaro Tinchlik Byurosi tomonidan Seán MacBride Tinchlik mukofoti bilan taqdirlangan.

U o'z nutqida, Milliy sobor dekani, ruhoniy Natan D. Baxterdan iqtibos keltirdi: "Biz harakat qilayotganimizda, biz yomon ko'rgan yomonlikka aylanmaylik". [21]

2017 yil 29-iyunda Vakillar palatasi mablag'larini ajratish qo'mitasi Li-ning AQShning 11-sentabrdan keyingi harbiy harakatlarining asosi bo'lgan harbiy kuch ishlatishga 2001 yildagi ruxsatini bekor qilish to'g'risidagi tuzatishini ma'qulladi. O'zgartirish, agar qabul qilinsa, 2001 yilda harbiy kuch ishlatish uchun berilgan ruxsatnomani 240 kun ichida bekor qilishni talab qilardi. [22] 2021 yil iyun oyida u AUMFni bekor qilish to'g'risidagi palatadagi ikki partiyali qonun loyihasiga homiylik qildi, u 268 dan 161 gacha o'tdi. Shunga o'xshash ikki partiyali qonun loyihasi Senat tomonidan ko'rib chiqiladi. [23]

Boshqa tashqi siyosat qarashlari Tartibga solish

Li liberal demokrat deb hisoblansa -da, u kongress davomida o'z partiyasi a'zolari bilan, ayniqsa tashqi siyosat masalalari bo'yicha, vaqti -vaqti bilan ajralib turardi. U 1999 yilda Yugoslaviya Federativ Respublikasida harbiy operatsiyalarni cheklash, havo hujumlariga ruxsat berish va respublikachilar tomonidan AQSh qo'shinlarini operatsiyadan butunlay olib chiqish rejasini qo'llab-quvvatlash uchun ovoz berdi. [24] Li Iroqqa qarshi ovoz berdi. 2002 yildagi urush rezolyutsiyasi. [25] [26] [27] Li 2005 yilgi "Internetda so'z erkinligi to'g'risida" gi qonunga ovoz bergan 46 demokratlardan biri edi. [28] Li shoshilinch qo'shimcha mablag'larga qarshi ovoz bergan 13 demokratdan biri edi. 2007 yildagi qonun loyihasi, shu jumladan Iroqdagi urushni moliyalashtirgan, lekin AQSh qo'shinlarini olib chiqish 1 oktyabrga qadar boshlanishi kerak edi. [29] Shu bilan birga, Li 2 may kuni Prezident Bushning veto qo'ygan qarorini bekor qilish uchun ovoz berdi. [30] 2009 yil noyabr oyida Li 367 vakillardan biri bo'lib, BMTning Goldstone hisobotini qoralagan 867 -sonli palatalar rezolyutsiyasiga "yo'q" ovoz berdi. [31] Li 2010 va 2011 yillarda Afg'onistondan qo'shinlarni olib chiqish uchun ovoz berdi. [32] [33] Li, shuningdek, Pokistondan va oxirgi paytlarda Liviyadan qo'shinlarni olib chiqishni o'z ichiga olgan shunga o'xshash rezolyutsiyalarni yoqlab ovoz berdi. [34] [35] Li, shuningdek, 70 demokratlardan biri bo'lgan respublikachi hamkasblariga qo'shilib, Liviyada cheklangan kuch ishlatishga ruxsat beruvchi rezolyutsiyaga qarshi ovoz berdi. [36] Li, shuningdek, Liviyadagi harbiy operatsiyalar uchun ajratilgan mablag'larni cheklash uchun ovoz bergan 36 nafar demokratlardan biri edi. [37]

2017 yil avgust oyida bergan intervyusida Li, Prezident Trampning Shimoliy Koreya haqidagi izohlari haqida shunday dedi: "Uning shov-shuvli harakatlari dunyoni xavf ostiga qo'yadi. Qo'shma Shtatlar xonada o'sishi kerak" va uning ritorikasi unga yangiliklarni eslatdi. o'smirlik davridagi Kuba raketa inqirozi haqida, "urush so'zlari hozirgidek chuqur va xavfli emas edi". [38]

2018 yil sentyabr oyida Li 11 demokrat vakillaridan biri bo'lib, "sentyabr oyida AQSh Qurolli Kuchlarini Saudiya Arabistoni boshchiligidagi koalitsiya bilan urushda qatnashishdan qaytarish to'g'risida 1973 yilgi Urush kuchlari rezolyutsiyasini o'z ichiga olgan yangi imtiyozli rezolyutsiya qabul qilish niyatida", degan niyatini e'lon qilgan. hutiylar qo'shimcha eskalatsiyalar davom etishi va tinchlik kelishuviga erishilmasligi kerak. " [39]

2019 yil aprelda, Uy Yamandagi Saudiya Arabistoni boshchiligidagi koalitsiyani Amerika qo'llab-quvvatlamasligi haqidagi rezolyutsiyani qabul qilgandan so'ng, Li to'qqiz qonun chiqaruvchilardan biri bo'lib, Trampga u bilan uchrashishni so'ragan va "Senatning 7-sonli qo'shma rezolyutsiyasini imzolashga" undagan. AQSh ma'muriyati tomonidan 2015 yilda boshlangan Saudiya Arabistoni boshchiligidagi koalitsiyaning Yamanning hutiy kuchlariga qarshi qurolli to'qnashuvida AQSh harbiylarining ruxsatsiz ishtirokini tugatish uchun 1973 yildagi "Urush kuchlari to'g'risida" gi qonunni chaqiradi. Ular "Saudiya Arabistoni boshchiligidagi koalitsiya Yaman husiylariga qarshi urushining bir qismi sifatida havo-quruqlik blokadasini o'rnatgani, bu hayotiy tovarlarning to'siqsiz tarqatilishiga to'sqinlik qilib, ko'p sonli tinch aholining azoblanishi va o'limiga hissa qo'shdi", deb ta'kidladilar. butun mamlakat bo'ylab "va Trampning rezolyutsiyani ma'qullashi" Saudiya Arabistoni boshchiligidagi koalitsiyaga to'rt yillik urushni tugatish uchun kuchli signal "beradi. [40]

2019 yil iyul oyida Li Isroilni nishonga olgan Global Boykot, ajratish va sanktsiyalar harakatini qoralovchi Vakillar palatasi rezolyutsiyasiga qarshi ovoz berdi. Qaror 398-17da qabul qilingan. [41]

2020 yil oktyabr oyida Li davlat kotibi Mayk Pompeoga Ozarbayjonning armanlar yashaydigan Tog'li Qorabog 'anklaviga qarshi hujum operatsiyalarini qoralagan maktubni imzoladi. [42]

Qurolni boshqarish tahrirlash

Li qurollarning mavjudligini cheklovchi qonunlarning kuchli himoyachisi. U 2016 yilda Vakillar palatasida qurolli zo'ravonlikka qarshi o'tirishda qatnashgan. [43] Kongressning demokrat a'zolari qurol -yarog 'cheklovlarini kuchaytiruvchi qonunni kiritishga urinish maqsadida "Bill yo'q, tanaffus yo'q" shiorini qabul qilishdi. [43] Li o'tirish haqidagi bayonotida shunday dedi: [44]

Qayta -qayta, Respublikachilar uyi bizning qurolli islohotlar o'tkazishga, shu jumladan terrorchilikda gumon qilinayotganlarga qurol -yarog 'sotib olishga ruxsat beradigan bo'shliqni yopishga to'sqinlik qilib, amerikaliklarning xavfsizligini ta'minlash qobiliyatimizni to'sib qo'ydi. Bu urush qurollari, ba'zilari daqiqasiga 900 o'q otishi mumkin, Amerika ko'chalarida joy yo'q. Biz shunchaki bu jinnilikka yo'l qo'yolmaymiz. Mening saylovchilarim va butun mamlakatdan kelgan odamlar harakat qilishni talab qilishdi, lekin ularga Vakillar palatasining respublika rahbariyati e'tibor bermayapti. Juda ko'p odamlar qurolsiz zo'ravonlikdan adashgan. Yetarli, Kongress amerikaliklar hayotini himoya qilish uchun harakat qilishi kerak.

Atrof -muhitni tahrirlash

Li 2018 yil fevral oyida "Ayollar va iqlim o'zgarishi to'g'risida" gi qonunni taqdim etdi. Qonun loyihasi Ayollar va iqlim o'zgarishi bo'yicha federal idoralararo ishchi guruhini tuzishga qaratilgan. [45] Li qonun haqida shunday dedi: "Iqlim o'zgarishi dunyoning eng kambag'al aholisiga nomutanosib ta'sir ko'rsatib, butun dunyodagi jamoalarga ta'sir qilmoqda. Ayollar dunyodagi kambag'allarning ko'p qismini tashkil qiladi va ayniqsa, atrof -muhitning keskin o'zgarishiga juda zaifdir. O'z oilalaridagi etakchilar, ayollar oziq -ovqat va toza suv, xavfsiz uy -joy va yaqinlariga g'amxo'rlik qilishga chaqiriladi. Iqlim o'zgarishi yomonlashib, tarixiy qurg'oqchilikni, dengiz sathining ko'tarilishini va kuchli bo'ronlarni qo'zg'atadi, ayollar va qizlar og'ir yukni o'z zimmalariga oladilar. bu global inqiroz ". [46]

Ta'lim tahriri

Li AQShning CARICOM davlatlari bilan tashqi aloqalarini yaxshilaydigan Shirley A. Chisholm Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari va Karib dengizi ta'limi almashinuvi to'g'risidagi qonunning muallifidir. Bu qonun AQSh Xalqaro Taraqqiyot Agentligini (USAID) Karib havzasidagi boshlang'ich va o'rta maktablarning mavjud tashabbuslarini o'qituvchilarni o'qitish usullari va jamoaning maktab faoliyatiga faolligini oshirish bo'yicha keng ko'lamli dasturni ishlab chiqishga yo'naltiradi. [47] Qonun loyihasi sobiq vakili Shirli Chisholm nomiga qo'yilgan, u Chisholm Demokratik partiyadan prezidentlikka nomzod bo'lganida, siyosatga aralashishga ko'maklashishga yordam bergan, Chisholm kampaniyasining Shimoliy Kaliforniya raisi bo'lgan.

Qora panteralar tahrir

1968 yilda Li Kaliforniya shtatining Oklend shahridagi "Qora Pantera partiyasi" jamoatchilik ta'lim markazida ko'ngillilik qila boshladi. [48] ​​Li, shuningdek, Bobbi Sealning 1973 yilda Oklendda meri bo'lish kampaniyasida ishlagan.

Li 2017 yilda "Qora Pantera merosi" loyihasini moliyalashtirishni olib tashlagan Milliy bog'lar xizmati bilan rozi bo'lmadi. Vakil "Qora pantera partiyasi tadqiqotlari, talqini va xotira loyihasi" manbalaridan mahrum etilgani g'azablanarli. "Qora Pantera" partiyasi fuqarolik huquqlari harakatining ajralmas qismi bo'lgan va jamoatchilik o'z tarixini bilishga haqli. Men Milliy Park xizmati va Ichki ishlar vazirligiga ushbu muhim federal resurslar nima uchun olinganligi haqida to'liq tushuntirish berishni so'rayman. uzoqda ". [49]

Nasha nashri

Li Kongressda nasha haqidagi qonunlarni isloh qilish bo'yicha bir qator harakatlarni qo'llab -quvvatladi. 2018 yilda u nasha nazorati ostidagi moddalar to'g'risidagi qonunni olib tashlash, nasha to'g'risidagi qonunlarni nomutanosib ravishda (irqi yoki daromad holati bo'yicha) bajaradigan davlatlarni jazolash va ijtimoiy adolat bilan bog'liq boshqa islohotlarni amalga oshirish uchun marixuana adolat qonunini kiritdi. [50] Li kiritgan qo'shimcha qonunlar shtatlarning tibbiy marixuana mulk huquqlarini himoya qilish to'g'risidagi qonunini, [51] faxriylar tibbiy nasha xavfsiz bandargohi to'g'risidagi qonunni, [52] haddan tashqari federal ijro etishni cheklash va nasha to'g'risidagi qonun hujjatlarini (REFER), [53] va Rivojlanayotgan nasha savdosida adolatli va barqaror ishtirokni amalga oshirish (RESPECT). [53] Li, marixuanani taqiqlash to'g'risidagi Federal qonunning 2011 yilda birinchi marta kiritilishining asl homiysi edi. [54] 2019 yil yanvar oyida u Kongress nasha guruhining hamraisi etib tayinlandi. [55]

Prezident sayloviga e'tirozlar Tahrir

2000 yilgi prezidentlik saylovlaridan so'ng, Li va uyning boshqa a'zolari Floridadagi ovozlarni sanashga e'tiroz bildirdilar. Hech bir senator ularning e'tiroziga qo'shilmagani uchun, uni vitse -prezident Al Gor rad etdi, u saylovda Jorj Bushga yutqazdi. [56]

Li 2004 yilgi prezidentlik saylovlarida Ogayo shtatining ovozlarini qabul qilmaslik uchun ovoz bergan 31 uy demokratlaridan biri edi. [57] Bush Ogayo shtatida 118,457 ovoz bilan g'alaba qozondi. [58]

2016 yilgi prezidentlik saylovlaridan so'ng, Li Michigan va G'arbiy Virjiniya saylovchilarining ovozlariga e'tiroz bildirdi. Hech bir senator uning e'tirozlariga qo'shilmagani uchun ular rad etildi. [59] Donald Tramp Michigan shtatida 10 000 dan bir oz ko'proq, G'arbiy Virjiniyada 300 000 dan ortiq ovoz bilan g'alaba qozondi. [60]

Mudofaa byudjetini tahrirlash

Li AQSh harbiy byudjetini 10 foizga qisqartirishga chaqirdi. [61] She backed an amendment to reduce the size of the $740 billion National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2021, but it was rejected by a majority of Democrats and Republicans. [62]

Housing Edit

Lee has made affordable housing in the East Bay area and beyond a top priority. She has supported and backed legislation meant to expand home ownership opportunities, improve public housing quality, and assist the homeless. [63]

Health care Edit

Lee was strongly critical of the Stupak-Pitts Amendment, which places restrictions on health insurance plans providing coverage for abortions in the context of the Affordable Health Care for America Act. [64] Lee supports Medicare for All. [65]

Iqtisodiy tahrir

On September 29, 2008, Lee was one of 95 Democrats to vote against the defeated Emergency Economic Stabilization Act. [66] She voted for a modified version on October 3. [67]

Death penalty Edit

Lee's opposition to the death penalty was recognized in 2002 by Death Penalty Focus, which gave her the Mario Cuomo Act of Courage Award. [68]

Louis Farrakhan Edit

In March 2018 Lee said, "I unequivocally condemn Minister Farrakhan's anti-Semitic and hateful comments." [69]

Committee assignments Edit

On November 30, 2018, House Democratic leader Nancy Pelosi announced that she had recommended Lee to become one of three co-chairs of the Steering and Policy Committee [70] [71] alongside Reps. Rosa DeLauro (D-Conn.) and Eric Swalwell (D-Calif.). [70] [71] The change was approved on December 11, 2018. [72]

Caucus memberships Edit

On March 15, 2013, Lee announced the official relaunch of the Congressional Social Work Caucus to the 113th Congress as its new chairwoman. [80]

Lee was Chair of the Congressional Black Caucus from 2008 to 2010. [1]

On November 28, 2018, Lee lost an attempt to become Chair of the House Democratic Caucus to New York Representative Hakeem Jeffries. [81] Lee blamed ageism and sexism for her defeat. [82]

United Nations assignments Edit

In 2002, the Peace Abbey in Boston gave Lee the Courage of Conscience Award for her courage to stand alone and vote against the call to war after the September 11 attacks. [83] In her speech she said, "let us not become the evil that we deplore." [84]

In 2003, she was recognized as a Woman of Peace at the Global Exchange Human Rights Awards in San Francisco with Bianca Jagger, Arundhati Roy and Kathy Kelly. [85] In 2010, Lee took the food stamp challenge and also appeared in the documentary film Food Stamped. [85]

In 2014, Lee, Hill Harper, and Meagan Good contributed to Enitan Bereola II's bestselling book Gentlewoman: Etiquette for a Lady, from a Gentleman. [86]

Lee has two sons, Tony and Craig, both of whom work in the insurance industry. Tony Lee is the CEO of Dickerson Employee Benefits, one of the nation's largest African-American owned insurance brokerage/consulting firms. Craig Lee is a long-term senior executive at State Farm. [85]

Lee married pastor Clyde Oden Jr. on December 31, 2019. [87]

In 2014, Lee received endorsements from the California Labor Federation, AFL-CIO, Feminist Majority Political Action Committee, J Street PAC, NARAL Pro-Choice America, Sierra Club, and United Auto Workers. [88]


Why Didn’t Robert E. Lee Attack Washington After Chancellorsville?

Just finished reading TIME Magazine’s “Gettysburg: A Day-by-day account of the greatest Battle of the Civil War.” For me, I found it very interesting, but it left me with a question.

After his victory at Chancellorsville, why didn’t General Lee head straight for Washington? With the Union Army in the mess it was in at the time, he very well might have gotten through and taken it—ending the war in the South’s favor three years early. Instead, it sounds like he spent the whole war going out of his way to avoid the city.

Although arguably General Robert E. Lee’s most remarkable victory, Chancellorsville left the Army of Northern Virginia with plenty of its own wounds to lick, along with depleted supplies, including horse fodder for Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart’s Cavalry Corps, which were replenished by the arrival of Lt. Gen. James Longstreet with the provisions he had acquired during his Suffolk campaign. Lee also had to find a successor to his fallen Second Corps commander, the late Lt. Gen. T.J. “Stonewall” Jackson, and wait for the wounded Maj. Gen. A.P. Hill to recover and take charge of the newly formed Third Corps.

Even once he got underway toward Pennsylvania, Lee doubted that he could have taken Washington directly, since Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker had stationed his corps in locations that would assure their being between him and that target—and even if he took it, he doubted his ability to hold it. Lee’s strategy all along had been psychological (before anyone knew the term): to march around Washington, hoping the threat the Army of Northern Virginia constituted would pressure nervous politicians to urge Abraham Lincoln into at least talking to Richmond, which as an act of recognition would constitute a victory in itself. In the process, Lee also hoped he could draw the Army of the Potomac into a battle that would result not in its defeat or embarrassment, but in its partial or complete annihilation, thereby putting more serious pressure on Washington. He did stumble into such a situation at Gettysburg, but on terms that proved far less favorable than he would have wanted—and he paid a heavy price for going through with it anyway.

In any case, seizing Washington outright was never part of Lee’s strategy. He probably had studied enough history at West Point to know how decisive it had been when the British secured Philadelphia in October 1777—or, for that matter, when they took and burned Washington itself in August 1814.

Jon Guttman
Research Director
World History Group
More Questions at Ask Mr. History

Readers interested in Gettysburg should check out “Gettysburg: Three Days of Courage and Sacrifice” from the staffs of Amerika fuqarolar urushi va Fuqarolar urushi davri magazines. It includes more than 30 first-person accounts.—Ed.


Customers Also Bought Items By


Peter Salem – African American Patriot During the American Revolutionary War

Peter Salem by Walter J. Williams Jr.

Peter Salem, a slave who was freed to fight in his master’s militia, is credited for stepping forward at a critical point in the Battle of Bunker Hill outside Boston in 1775 he fired the shot that killed British Royal Marine Major John Pitcairn. At the time of the battle, Salem was already a veteran who had stood in defiance with the Framingham militia at Concord Bridge two months earlier. He continued to serve in Colonel Nixon’s regiment, seeing action in the New York City Campaign and several major battles throughout the war, including pivotal battles at Saratoga, NY – the 19 th of September and the 7 th of October, 1777. He was also present at the Battle of Stony Point, July 15-16, 1779, a midnight assault on a British garrison about ten miles south of West Point on the Hudson River.

Peter Salem was born a slave in Framingham, Massachusetts in 1750 his birthday is still celebrated in Framingham on October 1 st . The names of his parents have been lost to history. He was owned by Jeremiah Belknap, an army captain who reportedly named Salem for his own earlier residence in Salem, Massachusetts. Some earlier scholars report that Salem fought as a slave in Belknap’s regiment. It is now widely believed that he was sold to Major Lawson Buckminster sometime in early 1775.

Because of fear of slave insurrections, both north and south, African Americans were barred from legally serving in militias since 1656. The Committee of Safety, fearing hostilities and dealing with a low turnout rate for white recruits, allowed the recruitment of free blacks. Major Buckminster freed Salem so he could enlist in his regiment and thus Salem joined Captain Simon Edgel’s company of ‘minutemen’, those who were prepared for action at a minute’s notice.

John Trumbull’s painting depicting The Death of General Warren at the Battle of Bunker Hill, 1775. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

On April 19 th , 1775, Salem stood by his former masters and fought at the Battles of Concord and Lexington, Massachusetts. Five days later, he enlisted in Colonel John Nixon’s Fifth Massachusetts Regiment and was assigned to Captain Thomas Drury’s company.

Peter Salem fires the fatal shot that kills Major Pitcairn at the Battle of Bunker Hill by J.E. Taylor — Image by © CORBIS

Though Salem fully participated in the Battle of Lexington and Concord Bridge, it was in the Battle of Bunker hill that he gained notoriety among the officers of the newly formed Continental Army. During the battle, he was a soldier in Colonel Nixon’s Massachusetts regiment and positioned in the redoubt that was ultimately over run by the British Nixon’s regiment having sustained the most casualties of the American forces that day. Some skeptics have questioned Peter Salem’s role in firing the fatal shot that killed Major John Pitcairn, one of the most important figures on the British side. However there is no denying the important role Salem played in the battle and the evidence is strong that Salem fired the fatal shot. Several witnesses noted Salem’s actions in their diaries or later writings. The most accurate account of the battle is referenced in a letter by Aaron White of Thompson, Connecticut, which provides what many scholars believe to be the most accurate account of what took place. In 1807, White recorded the following, based on an account by an eyewitness:

The British Major Pitcairin had passed the storm of our fire and had mounted the redoubt, when waving his sword, he commanded in a loud voice, the rebels to surrender. His sudden appearance and his commanding air at first startled the men immediately below him. They neither answered or fired, probably not being exactly certain what was to be done. At this critical moment, a negro soldier stepped forward and, aiming his musket at the major’s bosom, blew him through.

Some scholars believe that Salem is the black soldier that can be seen in the top left corner of Trumbull’s painting, just above Colonel Knowlton (white shirt) and Gen. Putnam’s head. Other scholars believe that Peter Salem is more prominently depicted on the right bottom section of John Trumbull’s painting “The Death of General Warren”

Salem’s superiors later introduced him to General George Washington as “the man who shot Pitcairn.” A celebrated painting by John Trumbull that was painted in 1787 and entitled The Death of General Warren at the Battle of Bunker’s Hill hangs in the U.S. Capitol rotunda in Washington, D.C. It shows a black soldier prominent in the painting that is thought to be Peter Salem holding a flintlock musket as Pitcairn falls, though some experts believe that he is more likely the much smaller image of a black soldier at the top of the painting.

Major General George Washington remained a southern planter with deep roots of prejudice and fear of slave insurrections. On November 12 th 1775, as supreme commander, he issued an order forbidding African Americans, slaves or freemen, from serving in the new American armed forces. With many enlistments expiring by the end of the year, the recruitment of whites was not going as well as hoped and many regimental leaders asked for their black soldiers to remain. Peter Salem resigned and left for home. When word reached Washington that on November 7 th 1775, Lord Dunmore, Royal Governor of Virginia, had freed all slaves of patriots willing to serve the British, he canceled his order. A new edict was issued on the 30 th of December that permitted free African Americans. After the Continental Congress approved the order on the 16 th of January, 1776, Peter Salem reenlisted and joined the forces en route to the Northern Army with orders to ward off General Burgoyne’s attempts to cut the colony in half.

Salem remained in General Nixon’s Brigade and participated in the Battles of Saratoga, Sept. 19 – Oct. 7.

Salem was discharged from the army on March 1 st , 1780, but remained in the Framingham Militia until the end of the war. After the war, he built a small cabin near Leicester, Massachusetts. He was married to Katy Benson in September, 1783. He tried his hand as a vegetable gardener but was unsuccessful and resorted to earning a meager living by weaving and repairing baskets and cane bottom chairs.

Peter Salem’s grave at the Old Bur

He was listed in the Framingham census of 1790 as head of a household of two free people of color. He and Katy had no children and the marriage was dissolved soon after the census was taken. Salem was favored by many members of the community and was popular among the children, telling them stories about the war. He remained poor his whole life and was destitute in old age, forced to seek charity. He died in the Framingham poorhouse and was buried in the town cemetery among whites, which was considered an honor for a former slave.

Framingham established an annual Peter Salem Day on June 17 th , 1882. A monument was erected at the Old Burying Ground. Unda shunday deyilgan: Peter Salem, A Soldier of the Revolution, Konkord, Bunker tepaligi, Saratoga, Died August 16, 1816. Some years later, the Daughters of the American Revolution placed a stone on the grounds where Salem’s cabin had once stood. It is inscribed: Here lived Peter Salem, A Negro soldier of the Revolution.

For more on Peter Salem’s role at the Battle of Bunker Hill and African American Soldiers in the Revolutionary War, Check out these previews and books on Amazon.

Shades of Liberty is the exciting new action-packed historical fiction series that chronicles African Americans who fought in the American Revolutionary War.



Izohlar:

  1. Rainer

    I pass the New Year's baton to you! Congratulate your fellow bloggers!

  2. Fenuku

    Vakolatli xabar :), jozibali tarzda ...

  3. Woodruff

    Bravo, qanday ibora..., hayratga soladigan fikr

  4. Vasilis

    Men bugun mavzuda ko'p o'qiyman.

  5. Ron

    I would like to encourage you to visit a site that has a lot of information on the subject that interests you.

  6. Pallatin

    Albatta, tezkor javob :)

  7. Aethelbert

    Bravo, bu porloq o'ylar qulay keladi



Xabar yozing