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Seltik parad dubulg'asi

Seltik parad dubulg'asi



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Kelt jangchilarini ko'rsatadigan dubulg'a Rim armiyasining britaniyalikni zabt etishiga yordam berdi

2010 yilda Angliyadagi temir davriga oid eski ibodatxonadan juda muhim topilma topildi. Unga temir davri va Rim davridagi tangalar va boshqa buyumlar kirgan. Kashfiyotlar orasida 2000 yillik Rimning ajoyib otliq dubulg'asi bor edi. Birinchi kashfiyotdan 10 yil o'tgach, qayta tekshirilgandan so'ng, ba'zilarning fikricha, dubulg'a inglizlar va rimlar o'rtasidagi erta munosabatlarning tabiati va Rim yordamchi kuchlarining rivojlanishiga yangi nuqta qo'yadi.


Tez-tez so'raladigan savollar

Ritsarning dubulg'asi nima deb nomlanadi?

Ritsarlar dubulg'alari har xil turlarda mavjud bo'lib, ular davrlar davomida o'zgarishlarni aks ettirgan. Katta dubulg'a va boshqa dubulg'alar/ritsar bosh kiyimlari haqida o'qing.

Sallaklar

Sallet - bu o'rta asr askarlari kiyadigan jangovar dubulg'a. Kaskadli dubulg'aning bu varianti XV asrda Evropaning ko'p qismida mashhur bo'lgan. U O'rta asr Italiyasidagi savatni butunlay o'zgartirdi. Bu dubulg'aning ko'plab variantlari bor edi, chunki har bir mamlakatning dizayniga ko'plab o'zgartirishlar kiritildi, lekin farqlar ahamiyatsiz edi. Masalan, Uyg'onish davri tarixchilarining ko'pchiligi italiyalik tokchani kamonchilarga yaxshiroq ko'rinishini ta'minlash uchun ochiq va egilgan bo'lishini tasvirlab berishgan. Biroq, dubulg'a ochiqchasiga ochilib borgan sari, askarlarning yuzlari shikastlanishga moyil bo'lib, askarlar yopiq dizaynga qaytishlariga sabab bo'ldi.

Armet

O'rta asrlar dubulg'asi dubulg'asi, yonoqlari piyola tagiga, quloqlari yaqiniga bog'langan, ko'rilgan dubulg'ani bildiradi. Yuz va ko'zlarni zarbadan himoya qilish uchun uning ko'zlari juda tor. Armet, jangchilarga ko'rsatgan himoyasi tufayli, o'sha paytda otda bo'lganida, ritsarlarning oddiy dubulg'asi edi. O'rta asrlar va Uyg'onish Evropasida uzoq vaqt davomida u dizaynning bosqichma -bosqich o'zgarishiga duch keldi, masalan, chap tomoni ko'proq himoyalangan bo'lishi uchun o'ng tomondan teshilgan shamollatish.

Buyuk dubulg'alar

O'rta asrlarning eng mashhur dubulg'alaridan biri-katta dubulg'a (shuningdek, katta dubulg'a, qozonli dubulg'a, heaume yoki chelak dubulg'asi deb ham ataladi). Bu O'rta asr askarining yuzini to'liq qoplagan birinchi dubulg'a. Dastlab, uning tepasi tekis edi, lekin bu bolg'alarga juda katta ustunlik berdi, shuning uchun ular bolg'a zarbalari ta'sirini kamaytirish uchun konusning tepasiga ega bo'lishdi. O'rta asr ritsarlari bu narsalarni yolg'iz kiyishmagan. To'g'ridan -to'g'ri zarbalarning ajoyib dubulg'alariga ta'sirini kamaytirish uchun ular boshlariga qo'shimcha plomba qo'yishadi.

Bascinet

O'rta asrlarda ishlatilgan dubulg'alardan, savat o'zining o'ziga xos shakli tufayli juda o'ziga xos edi. Uning shakli va konstruktsiyasi Evropada ilgari ishlatilgan temir kallakdan ancha farq qilar edi. O'rta asr dubulg'asining bu turi boshi baland va uchli edi. Keyinchalik, bo'ynini himoya qilish uchun uzaytirildi. Katta savat ishlatilganda dizayn o'zgardi. Konusning tepasi yanada yumaloq tepaga yo'l berdi.

Barbut

Barbut ritsarlarning dubulg'asi (italyancha barbuta)- yuzi T yoki Y shaklidagi tor teshikli, ko'zoynaksiz dubulg'aning baland shakli. Ular faqat XV asr oxirida italyan ritsarlari va askarlari tomonidan ishlatilgan. Barbut bitta plastinka po'latdan yasalgan, tepasi o'tkir taroqqa ko'tarilib, yon va orqa tomonga tushadi. Bu ajoyib hunarmandchilik buyumi o'sha paytda italiyalik temirchilar va qalbakilashuvchilarning ajoyib mahoratini namoyish etadi.


Urushning ellinistik dubulg'alari

Qadimgi Yunonistonda paydo bo'lgan va ko'zlari va og'izlari uchun uchta teshikli bronzadan yasalgan Korinf dubulg'asi Korinf shahar-shtatining nomi bilan atalgan va asosiy dizaynga moslashtirilishi dubulg'aning orqa va boshning butun boshini yopib qo'yishiga olib kelgan. bo'yin. Faol jangda bo'lmaganida, yunon hoplitlar (fuqarolar-askarlar) dubulg'ani yuqoriga ko'tarar edi va bu o'ziga xos dizayn Italiyada ko'plab variantlarni ilhomlantirdi, bu erda ko'z va og'iz teshiklari deyarli yopilgan edi.

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Bir chashka qahvaning narxi uchun siz Ancient Origins Premium -da bu va boshqa barcha katta afzalliklarga ega bo'lasiz. Va - har safar AO Premium -ni qo'llab -quvvatlaganingizda, siz mustaqil fikrlash va yozishni qo'llab -quvvatlaysiz.


Mening kollektsiyamning bir qismi

M35 Ikki o'lchamli Kriegsmarine dubulg'asi (dengiz floti)

Statistik ma'lumotlarga ko'ra, Kriegsmarine dubulg'alari Germaniya harbiy -dengiz kuchlarining kichikligi va po'lat dubulg'alarga nisbatan kamroq ehtiyoj tufayli Xer dubulg'asidan o'n baravar kam va SS dubulg'asidan uch barobar kam uchraydi.

Bu Kriegsmarine dubulg'asining ajoyib tiniq M35 dubulg'asi. 1940 yilgi qoidalarga muvofiq milliy qalqon davri olib tashlandi.

Ta'rif: Bu dubulg'a o'zining deyarli barcha "no'xat yashil" silliq parad bo'yog'ini saqlab qoladi.

Dubulg'aning chap tomonida qora qalqon shaklidagi tayoqchasida tayoqchalari bilan svastikani mahkam ushlagan, qanotlari quyuq, oltin sariq burgut tasvirlangan Wehrmacht burgut qalqoni tasviri bor. Burgut dekali 99,9%ni saqlab qoldi. Bu ET Kriegsmarine darsligi, burgut konturining chegarasi bilan.

Dubulg'aning o'ng tomonida 1940 yilgi qoidalarga muvofiq uchta rangli milliy etiket juda aniq olib tashlangan. Uchta astar tutuvchi perchinlar va ikkala o'rnatilgan shamollatish vintlari ham buzilmagan.

Dubulg'aning ichki qismida sakkizta barmog'i bilan qoplangan M31 ochiq tanli teri qoplamasi bor va asl liner galstuk ipi hali ham mavjud. Layner tasmasi 1939 yilga to'g'ri keladi va astar juda engil ishlatilishini ko'rsatadi. Layner 59 o'lchamli siyoh markasi bilan belgilanadi. Dubulg'aning ichki tojida 1939 yilgi qora, tasvirlar, Beschaffungsamt, (Xarid qilish idorasi), siyoh muhri bor.

Apronning ichki qismi, chap tomoni, ishlab chiqaruvchining kodi va o'lchami "ET66 stamp bilan muhrlangan, bu Eisen-und Hüttenwerke tomonidan ishlab chiqarilganligini ko'rsatadi, o'lchami 66.

Dubulg'a tabiiy alyuminiydan yasalgan qisqichli, po'latdan yasalgan qistirmalari buzilmagan, qoraygan charmdan yasalgan mahkamlagich bilan ta'minlangan, shuningdek, ishlab chiqaruvchining muhri va 1939 yil sanasi. Igna tasmasi juda yengil kiyimni ko'rsatadi.

Bu dubulg'a raf holatida va juda hurmatli muallif va kollektsioner Kelli Xiksning haqiqiyligi to'g'risidagi guvohnoma bilan birga keladi. Bu kerakli turdagi mustahkam, tegilmagan misol!

M35 Ikki o'lchamli Kriegsmarine dubulg'asi (dengiz floti)

Bu kanal orollarida qolgan Kriegsmarine M35 dublyajli yagona dubulg'asi.

Ta'rif: Bu dubulg'a o'zining 75% asl no'xat yashil va#8221 silliq parad bo'yog'ini saqlaydi.

Dubulg'aning chap tomonida qora qalqon shaklidagi tayoqchasida tayoqchalari bilan svastikani mahkam ushlagan, qanotlari quyuq, oltin sariq burgut tasvirlangan Wehrmacht burgut qalqoni tasviri bor. Burgutning dekalti 85% ni saqlab qoldi, uning o'lchamlari bir nechta qirg'in va tirnalishlar edi. Bu ET Kriegsmarine darsligi, burgut konturining chegarasi bilan.

Dubulg'aning o'ng tomonida qora, oq va qizil rangdagi uchta rangli milliy belgi mavjud bo'lib, u 90% ni bir nechta mayda chig'anoqlar va tirnalishlar bilan saqlagan. Hamma uchta laynerni ushlab turuvchi perchinlar va ikkala o'rnatilgan shamollatish vintlari ham buzilmagan.

Dubulg'aning ichki qismida M31 qora tanli teri qoplamasi bor, uning barcha sakkizta barmog'i bor va asl chiziqli galstuk ipi hali ham mavjud.

Layner tasmasi 1938 yilga to'g'ri keladi va astar qirralarning mo''tadil aşınmasını, o'rtacha yoshi va ishlatilishini ko'rsatadi. Layner zaif, o'qib bo'lmaydigan o'lchamdagi siyoh shtampi bilan belgilanadi. Kaskaning ichki tojida zaif, qora, tasvirlar, Beschaffungsamt, (Xarid qilish idorasi), siyoh shtampi bor.

Ichki, chap tomonda, apronda ishlab chiqaruvchining kodi va o'lchami "8220ET64" va "Eisen-und Hüttenwerke" tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan 64 o'lchamli muhr bosilgan.

Dubulg'a tabiiy alyuminiydan yasalgan qisqichli va po'latdan yasalgan qistirmalari buzilmagan, qoraygan charmdan yasalgan chig'anoq bilan ta'minlangan bo'lib, ishlab chiqaruvchisining muhri va 1938 yilga to'g'ri keladi. Igna tasmasi engil va mo''tadil choyshabli kiyimlarni ko'rsatadi.

Garchi bu dubulg'a yalpiz bo'lmasa ham, u yaxshi holatda va bu nemis dubulg'asini yig'uvchi uchun eng qiyin dubulg'alardan biri bo'ladi.

Juda chiroyli nodir M35 ikki o'lchamli kriegsmarine dubulg'asi.

M35 DAK Kriegsmarine Camo dubulg'asi (dengiz floti)

Kamuflyaj dubulg'alarini topishning eng qiyini - bu haqiqiy Kriegsmarine kamuflyajli dubulg'asi, shuning uchun har bir turdagi dubulg'a yig'uvchilar uchun ularni topish juda qiyin.

Bu men sotib olish baxtiga muyassar bo'lgan eski kolleksiyadan. U o'rta kulrang qum rangida ishlangan, ammo zanglab ketishi bilan vaqt juda chiroyli jigarrang rangga bo'yalgan.

Dubulg'a ET fabrikasini ko'rsatadi, M.35 bilan chegaralangan Kriegs Adler, burgutning tiniq tilla rangga ega va dekalning ikki barobar qalinligi chegara chizig'iga ega, bu svastika atrofida va burgutning yuqori qanotlarida aniq ko'rinadi,

Ishlab chiqaruvchilarning markalari - ET, dubulg'asi - 66 o'lchamli buyum. M.35 rusumli chin jabduqlar bilan to'ldirilgan bo'lib, ular askar tomonidan alyuminiy toka va mustahkamlangan M.31 tipidagi erta astar bilan qisqargan.

Cho'qqining pastki qismiga chiroyli tarzda chizilgan askarning ismlari qolgan. Hamma pinlar bor va ular guruch konstruktsiyasiga xos bo'lgan 35 ta nikelga xosdir, qirralarning izlariga nazar tashlasak, bu aniq dubulg'a ichida bo'lgan pinlar edi. Astar charmi o'rta jigarrang, bir oz yog'li va yog'li, yana teriga har xil nomlar yozilgan. Hammasi to'liq va yaxshi va egiluvchan bo'lib, asl galstuk kabeli hali ham mavjud. To'liq tegilmagan chiroyli patinli dubulg'a.

M35 Kriegsmarine Camo va tovuq simli dubulg'a (dengiz floti)

Men buni faqat yaxshi ko'raman, chunki hammasi davom etmoqda. Tovuq simli haqiqiy M35 Kriegsmarine Camo -ni qanchalik tez -tez topasiz?

1950 -yillarda Gernsidagi tunnelda tashlangan holda topilgan va u hech qachon to'plamda bo'lmagan.

Bu biroz qo'pol bo'lsa -da va menda dubulg'a yaxshiroq bo'lsa -da, bu mening ustki tokchamda.

Kanal orollaridagi kollektsionerlar uchun bundan yaxshiroq narsa bo'lmaydi!

M35 Double Decal Yarim savat tovuq simli dubulg'a, Heer (armiya)

Branislav Radovich va#8217s kitobining muqovasidagi dubulg'a Kanal orollaridan. Bu egizak bo'lishi kerak, chunki ular bir -biriga juda o'xshaydi va u ham Kanal orollaridan. Kim biladi, ikkalasi ham fotosuratdan bo'lishi mumkin! O'ylaymanki, yaxshi fikr.

Asl tovuq simli dubulg'alarni ham topish juda qiyin. Bu juda yaxshi mahalliy topilgan ‘Jersi va#8217 dubulg'a fon tarixi.

Ta'rif: Ushbu dubulg'a o'zining asl yashil zavod bo'yog'ining 85 foizini saqlab qoladi va bo'yoq bilan bo'yalgan.

Dubulg'aning chap tomonida kumush va qora chiziqli Wehrmacht burgutining etikasi bor, u 70% ga yaqin, dubulg'aning o'ng tomonida yana uchta rangli milliy etiket bor-taxminan 70%. Dubulg'a yarim olti savatli tovuq simiga o'ralgan va Brennen deb nomlangan.

Hamma uchta laynerni ushlab turuvchi perchinlar va ikkala o'rnatilgan shamollatish vintlari ham buzilmagan. Dubulg'aning ichki qismida M31 tanli teri qoplamasi bor, uning barcha barmoqlari buzilmagan. Layner umuman yaxshi holatda. Jag'ning kamari yo'q.

Ichki chap apron ishlab chiqaruvchining kodi va o'lchami bilan muhrlangan va "8220EF 64" va "Emaillenwerke A.G" tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan, hajmi 64.

Kamdan -kam 1 -piyoda divizion dubulg'asi

Bu dubulg'a o'zining 95% asl "yashil" va "8221" silliq parad bo'yog'ini saqlab qoladi. Dubulg'aning chap tomonida yaxshi yorqin kumush va tiniq qora chiziqli Wehrmacht burguti bor, u 95%ni saqlab qolgan. Dubulg'aning o'ng tomonida uchta rangli milliy belgi bor, bu yana 95%.

Uchta astar tutuvchi perchinlar va ikkala o'rnatilgan shamollatish vintlari ham buzilmagan. Dubulg'aning ichki qismida M31 tanridan ishlangan teri qoplamasi bor, uning barcha barmoqlari va asl galstuk ipi buzilmagan. Layner umuman juda yaxshi holatda.

Ichki chap tarafdagi apronga ishlab chiqaruvchining kodi va o'lchami SE 66 va#8243 muhri bosilgan bo'lib, bu ishlab chiqarishni Sächsische Emaillier-und Stanzwerke, AG Lauter, 66-o'lchovli, rolikli toka shaklidagi iyagich 1935 yil yozilgan.

Bu, albatta, juda hayajonli asar. Bu 1936 yilning birinchi oylarida SE tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan birinchi dubulg'alardan biri, ya'ni SE armiyadan birinchi shartnomalarini olganida. Shuning uchun u 1 -chi piyodalar diviziyasi (Wehrmacht) ning Grenadier Trosienga berilgan.

Bu dubulg'a, M35 -ning ikki o'lchamli dubulg'alaridan biri bo'lib, u aslida Uchinchi Reyxning birinchi yillarida, Polshaga, keyin Frantsiyaga bostirib kirgan paytda bo'lgan.

Layner va bilaguzuk 1935 yilga to'g'ri keladi va teriga keyinroq ishlatilgan siyoh shtamplari emas, balki teriga muhrlangan erta bo'rttirma chizig'ining o'lchami tushirilgan. Bundan tashqari, erta rolikli tokka iyagi tasmasi ham bor.

Faqat ajoyib tarixiy topilma, agar gaplashsa bo'lardi!

M35 ikki qavatli Heer dubulg'asi (armiya)

M35 dubulg'asi yuqori raf holatida

Ta'rif: Bu dubulg'a o'zining 97% asl "yashil" va "8221" silliq parad bo'yog'ini saqlab qoladi.

Dubulg'aning chap tomonida yaxshi yorqin kumush va qora chiziqli Wehrmacht burgut belgisi bor, u ham 95% milliy uch rangli dekalda saqlangan.

Uchta astar tutuvchi perchinlar va ikkala o'rnatilgan shamollatish vintlari ham buzilmagan. Dubulg'aning ichki qismida M31 tanli teri qoplamasi bor, uning barcha barmoqlari va asl galstuk ipi buzilmagan. Layner umuman juda yaxshi holatda.

Ichki chap apron ishlab chiqaruvchining kodi va o'lchami bilan muhrlangan va#8220N.S. 62 va#8221, Vereinigte Deutsche Nickelwerke, AG tomonidan ishlab chiqarilganligini ko'rsatadi. Shverte, o'lchami 62. Igna bog'ichi 1937 yilda yozilgan va ishlab chiqarilgan.

M40 bitta zarbli dubulg'ali Heer (armiya)

Men odatda M40 -larni yig'mayman, lekin menda faqat shunday bo'lishi kerak edi.

Ta'rif: Bu dubulg'a o'zining kulrang va#8221 naqshli bo'yog'ining 98 foizini saqlaydi.

Dubulg'aning chap tomonida yaxshi yorqin tonnali kumush va tiniq qora chiziqli Wehrmacht burguti bor, u 99%saqlanib qolgan.

Barcha uchta laynerni ushlab turuvchi perchinlar joyida. Dubulg'aning ichki qismida M31 tanli teri qoplamasi bor, uning barcha barmoqlari va asl galstuk ipi buzilmagan. Layner umuman juda yaxshi holatda.

Ichki chap apronga ishlab chiqaruvchilar kodi va o'lchami "#8220Q66" va "8221" shtamplari qo'yilgan bo'lib, bu F.W. Quist, G.m.b.H. Esslingen tomonidan ishlab chiqarilganligini ko'rsatadi, o'lchami 66. Igna bog'lagichi 1940 yil yozilgan.

Bu dubulg'aning qiziq tomoni shundaki, u kutilgan Q katta oyoq dekaliga ega emas. Bu vaqti -vaqti bilan mutaxassislar tomonidan tasdiqlangan.

M40 Bunker Camo dubulg'asi

Mana, juda kam uchraydigan Bunker Camo dubulg'asi juda och tsementli kul rangga bo'yalgan. Fotosuratda ko'rib turganingizdek, ular Atlantika devoridagi yangi bunkerlar bilan uyg'unlash uchun bo'yalgan.

Siz tez -tez ko'rmaydigan juda qiziqarli va noyob dubulg'a.

Ta'rif: Ushbu dubulg'a o'zining asl "Camo tsement kulrang" bo'yoqining 95% ni saqlaydi. Dubulg'aning chap tomonida Q uslubidagi burgutning yaxshi ovozi bor, u taxminan 97%ni saqlab qolgan.

Barcha uchta laynerni ushlab turuvchi perchinlar joyida. Dubulg'aning ichki qismida M31 tanridan ishlangan teri qoplamasi bor, uning barcha barmoqlari va asl galstuk ipi buzilmagan. Layner umuman yaxshi holatda.

Ichki chap apronga ishlab chiqaruvchining kodi va o'lchami "Q64 ″" muhri bosilgan bo'lib, u F.W. Quist, G.m.b.H. Esslingen tomonidan ishlab chiqarilganligini ko'rsatadi, o'lchami 64. Igna tasmasi ishlab chiqaruvchisi 1940 yil bilan belgilanadi.

M35 ikki o'lchamli Luftwaffe dubulg'asi (havo kuchlari)

A'lo darajali M35 dubulg'ali Luftwaffe dubulg'asi.

Ta'rif: Bu dubulg'a o'zining Luftwaffe ko'k/kulrang bo'yog'ining 97% ni saqlaydi.

Kaskaning chap tomonida ikkinchi naqsh bor (taxminan 1936/1937-1945), Luftwaffe burgut dekali 99% tugallangan.

Dubulg'aning o'ng tomonida uchta rangli qalqonli milliy dekal mavjud bo'lib, u 98%ni saqlab qolgan. Uchta astar tutuvchi perchinlar va ikkala shamollatish vintlari ham buzilmagan.

Dubulg'aning ichki qismida engil to'q teri, M31 layneri bor, sakkizta barmog'ining qolgan sakkiztasi qolgan. Asl chiziqli galstuk chizig'i hali ham mavjud. Layner hajmi belgilangan. Ichki, chap tomonda, apronda ishlab chiqaruvchining markasi va o'lchami "#8220ET60" va "Eisen-und Hüttenwerke tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan, o'lchami 60" ko'rsatilgan.

Dubulg'aning ichki tojida qora, oval, Beschaffungsamt, (Xarid qilish idorasi), 1938 yil siyoh shtampi bor. Astar tasmasi va iyak tasmasi ham 1938 yilga tegishli. Shuningdek, Luftwaffe polkining 33 -sonli oq siyohli shtampi bor. kiyish.

Yangilash qiyin bo'lgan yaxshi misol.

M35 ikki o'lchamli Luftwaffe dubulg'asi (havo kuchlari)

Yana bir ajoyib M35 ikki o'lchamli Luftwaffe dubulg'asi.

Ta'rif: Bu dubulg'a o'zining asl silliq Luftwaffe ko'k/kulrang bo'yog'ining 99 foizini saqlaydi.

Kaskaning chap tomonida ikkinchi naqsh bor (taxminan 1936/1937-1945), Luftwaffe burgut dekali taxminan 95% tayyor.

Dubulg'aning o'ng tomonida uchta rangli milliy qalqonli dekal mavjud bo'lib, u 98%ni saqlab qolgan. Uchta astar tutuvchi perchinlar va ikkala shamollatish vintlari ham buzilmagan.

Dubulg'aning ichki qismida och tusli teri, M31 layneri bor, sakkizta barmog'ining qolgan sakkiztasi qolgan. Asl liner galstuk chizig'i hali ham mavjud.

Layner hajmi belgilangan. Ichki, chap tomonda, apronda ishlab chiqaruvchining muhri va "8220Q66" va "8221" markali muhri bor.

Dubulg'aning ichki tojida qora, oval, Beschaffungsamt, (Xarid qilish idorasi), 1940 yil siyoh shtampi bor. Astar tasmasi va iyak tasmasi ham 1940 yilga tegishli.

Jigarrang charmdan yasalgan chig'anoq engil aşınmayı ko'rsatadi.

M40 bitta dekalli Luftwaffe Camo dubulg'asi

Juda jozibali kamo. Bu dubulg'a - bu jangovar kiyinishdagi ajoyib buyum.

Ta'rif: Bu dubulg'a 1944 yildagi uch tonna tan va yashil rangli kamuflyaj bo'yoqlarining 90% ni asl zavod qoplamasida saqlaydi.

Uchta astar tutuvchi perchinlar va ikkala shamollatish vintlari ham buzilmagan.

Dubulg'aning ichki qismida to'q to'q teri, M31 layneri bor, sakkizta barmog'ining qolgan sakkiztasi qolgan. Asl liner galstuk chizig'i hali ham mavjud. Layner hajmi belgilangan. Ichki, chap tomonda, apronda ishlab chiqaruvchining muhrlangan kodi va o'lchami SE 66 ″ bor, bu Sächsische Emaillier-und Stanzwerke, AG Lauter tomonidan ishlab chiqarilganligini ko'rsatadi, hajmi 66. U Gefr Groml deb nomlangan.

M35 Luftwaffe Woodchip Camo dubulg'asi

Bu quruvchilar tomonidan Jersidagi beshta emanzorda fermer xo'jaligi konvertatsiyasi paytida topilgan. Bu tegmagan yog'ochdan yasalgan kamo dubulg'asi, 3 ta hayotga ega bo'lganga o'xshaydi. Birinchidan, zavod M35 -ni tugatgandan so'ng, keyinchalik quyuq ko'k qo'l bo'yog'i va nihoyat, och yashil va jigarrang qoplamali juda qalin yog'ochdan yasalgan kamo. U ajoyib javon jozibasiga ega va shunchalik chirkinki, bu dubulg'ani haqiqiy go'zallikka aylantiradi!

Ta'rif: Bu dubulg'a 1944 yildagi ikki tonna tan va yashil rangli kamuflyaj bo'yoqlarining 95 foizini yog'ochdan yasalgan yog'ochdan yasalgan qoplamada saqlaydi. Uchta astar tutuvchi perchinlar va ikkala shamollatish vintlari ham buzilmagan. Dubulg'aning ichki qismida to'q to'q teri, M31 layneri bor, sakkizta barmog'ining qolgan sakkiztasi qolgan. Asl liner galstuk chizig'i va LBA bilan belgilangan chin ipi hali ham mavjud. Ichki apron nomlangan, lekin o'qilmaydi. Ishlab chiqaruvchining kodi va o'lchami, SE 64 ″, bu Sächsische Emaillier-und Stanzwerke, AG Lauter tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan 64 o'lchamli.

M35 ikki o'lchamli Waffen-SS dubulg'asi

Alderni, SS qo'shinlari kontsentratsion lagerlar bilan ta'minlangan yagona kanal oroli edi, nemislar orolda to'rtta qurdilar va bu Britaniya zaminida qurilgan yagona fashistlarning kontslagerlari edi. Bu dubulg'a - amerikalik faxriyning esdalik sovg'asi.

Bu dubulg'a umuman juda yaxshi holatda. Har qanday turdagi SS dubulg'alari jiddiy dubulg'a yig'uvchilar uchun Muqaddas Grailga aylandi.

Juda chiroyli va yig'ib olinadigan M35 ikki o'lchamli SS dubulg'ali.

Ta'rif: Bu SS dubulg'asi olma silsilasida yashil rangdagi asl silliq bo'yoqning 95% ni saqlaydi.

Dubulg'aning dubulg'aning chap tomonida klassik Q uslubidagi SS Runic belgisi bor, u Q etiketkalari bilan bog'liq odatdagi chayqalishni ko'rsatadi. Bu og'ir dala buyumlari va stavkalari taxminan 60% ni ko'rsatadi, shunda ular juda oz chayqalish va qirib ketadi.

Dubulg'aning o'ng tomonida tor qora tashqi chegarasi bo'lgan NSDAP partiyasi qalqoni, qora oq svastikali markaziy oq doira bilan qizil tayanchli maydon bor. Partiya qalqoni dekalti taxminan 95% ni ozgina qirib ketgan joylari bilan saqlab qolgan. Uchta astar tutuvchi perchinlar va ikkala o'rnatilgan shamollatish vintlari ham buzilmagan.

Dubulg'aning ichki qismida sakkizta barmog'i bilan qoplangan M31 tanli teri qoplamasi bor va astarning galstuk ipi hali ham mavjud. Layner qirralarning mo''tadil aşınmasını va o'rtacha yoshi va foydalanish tonusunu ko'rsatadi. Layner zaif, o'qib bo'lmaydigan o'lchamdagi siyoh muhri bilan belgilanadi.

Layner tasmasi 1939 yilga to'g'ri keladi. Ichki, chap tomonda, apronda ishlab chiqaruvchining kodi va o'lchami, "F.W. Quist, G.m.b.H. Esslingen, 62 o'lchamdagi ishlab chiqarilgan" belgisi ko'rsatilgan.

Dubulg'a tabiiy alyuminiydan yasalgan qisqichli, po'latdan yasalgan qistirmalari buzilgan va ishlab chiqarilgan muhrlangan va 1938 yilga tegishli. Qopqog'i qora rangdan yasalgan chig'anoq bilan qoplangan.

Bu qism SS dubulg'alari haqidagi bir qancha kitoblarning hurmatli muallifi Kelli Xiksning haqiqiyligi to'g'risidagi guvohnoma bilan birga keladi. Bu kerakli turdagi mustahkam, tegilmagan misol!

M35 Double Decal jang feild politsiya dubulg'asi

Bu mutlaqo kraker. Bu 1938 yil boshida ishlab chiqarilgan ET66, 3651 -sonli, 1937 yilgi chiziqli chiziq va iyak tasmasi. U ajoyib bo'yoq va dekallarga ega bo'lib, 100% ga yaqinlashadi va Politsiya Meister nomi bilan ataladi.

Meister eng yuqori ro'yxatga olingan unvon edi Ordnungspolizei Ikkinchi jahon urushi paytida,

The Ordnungspolizei yoki Orpo (inglizcha: Order Police) - 1936-1945 yillar oralig'ida natsistlarning forma kiymagan politsiya kuchlari.

Orpo tashkiloti fashistlar monopoliyasiga kirdi va Ikkinchi Jahon urushi oxirigacha SS nazorati ostida xizmat qildi.

Ular deyarli Uchinchi Reyxning huquqni muhofaza qilish va favqulodda vaziyatlarni bartaraf etish tashkilotlarini qamrab olishdi.

Old front janglari bilan bir qatorda, tartibni saqlashga yordam berish uchun bosib olingan va mustamlaka qilingan mamlakatlarning tinch aholisini qo'rqitish vazifasi bor edi.


Seltik "Kelt" yoki "Seltik" deb talaffuz qilinadi?

"Keltik" va "seltik" so'zlarining kelt talaffuzi haqidagi savol - bu "diniy" masalalardan biri. "Men ingliz tilining barcha asosiy lug'atlarini, shu jumladan mening shaxsiy sevimlilarim ingliz tilining Amerika merosi lug'atini tekshirdim.Qisqartirilmagan, Beshinchi nashr) va Oksford inglizcha lug'ati. Hamma lug'atlarda ham talaffuz qabul qilinadi, degan xulosaga kelishgan, lekin “keltic ” afzallik beriladi va odatda birinchi o'rinda turadi.

Derivatsiya argumenti va kelt talaffuzi

Ayrimlar borki, "keltik" - "to'g'ri" talaffuz, chunki Irlandiya ham, Uels ham ingliz tilida K harfi bilan ifodalangan tovushni ko'rsatish uchun C harfidan foydalanadi. Bu yolg'on dalil, chunki qadimgi keltlar o'zlarini "keltlar" deb atashmagan. So'z Kelt dan olingan Keltoi, yunonlar nomi Dunay va Ron daryolari bo'yidagi "vahshiy" qabilalarga berilgan. Rimliklar yunoncha nom oldi, lekin uni yozdilar Selta, va bu so'z frantsuzcha ko'rinishga kirdi Keltlar, ingliz tilidan kelib chiqqan Kelt.

"Selt" yoki "kelt" ning to'g'riligi haqidagi bahs, ehtimol, oxir -oqibat, kelt so'zining ingliz tiliga ikki marta, bir marta frantsuz va bir marta, ehtimol, yunon tilidan nemis olimlarining nashrlari orqali kirishi bilan bog'liq. Keltoi, shuning uchun "kelt". (Amerika merosi lug'atining etimologiyasi va foydalanish yozuviga qarang.

Keltlar talaffuzi: ilmiy imtiyoz

Men keltlarning talaffuzi sifatida keltlarning tillari va madaniyatlarini, shuning uchun ham ingliz tilida so'zlashadigan o'rta asrlar va keltistlarni (bu "keltikistlar" ni) anglatadi.

Men "keltika" yoki "seltika" to'g'ri kelt talaffuzi deb so'raganimda, shuni ta'kidlashni istardimki, kelt tilida so'zlashuvchilar uchun "keltika" ni afzal ko'rsatsak, biz hind-evropa tilida so'zlashuvchilarni professional bilan aralashtirib yubormaymiz. basketbolchilar (Bostonda) yoki futbolchilar (Glazgoda). Ammo, yoki talaffuz texnik jihatdan to'g'ri, mahalliy lug'atingizga qarang.


Dubulg'alar

Knight do'koni Buyuk Britaniyada sotiladigan tarixiy dubulg'alarning eng keng to'plamlaridan birini taklif qiladi. Bizning xilma -xil assortimentimiz Reenaktorlar, Jonli aktyorlar (LARP), Kollektorlar, Sahna jangchilari (Teatr) va TV prodyuserlariga xizmat qiladi.

Biz tarix davomida dubulg'alarning ajoyib tanlovini sotamiz. Klassik davrdan boshlab biz kelt, yunon va rim dubulg'alarini taklif qilamiz, masalan, Rim legioner dubulg'asi va yunon korinf dubulg'asi. Qorong'u asrning keyingi davridan boshlab bizda sakson va viking dubulg'alarining ajoyib tanlovi bor, masalan, misli mis va Satton Xu dubulg'alari. Bizning O'rta asr dubulg'alari assortimenti beqiyos! Bizda O'rta asrlardan dubulg'alarning katta tanlovi bor, ular orasida Norman dubulg'alari, Buyuk dubulg'alar, cho'chqalar savatlari, tokchalar, yopiq dubulg'alar va choynak shlyapalari bor. Bizda Uyg'onish davri dubulg'alari, shu jumladan Ingliz fuqarolar urushidagi omar va kostryulkalar, 20 -asrning ikkinchi jahon urushidagi dubulg'alari bor.

Bizning dubulg'alarimiz turli xil qalinliklarda, masalan, 14, 16 va 18 o'lchagichlarda mavjud bo'lib, ko'pchilik guruhlar uchun xavfsizlik talablarini o'z ichiga oladi. Bizning qurolli qalpoqchalar va dubulg'a stendlarimiz dubulg'a sotib olishni to'ldirishning eng yaxshi usuli hisoblanadi.


Kelt qurollari san'ati

Aksariyat sharhlovchilar keltlarning g'ayrioddiy kurash uslubiga ega ekanliklarini qayd etishgan. Ularning asosiy quroli og'ir, uzun pichoqli qilich bo'lib, ular halokatli mahorat bilan ishlatilgan. Ko'rinib turibdiki, bunday qurol yunonlar va O'rta er dengizining boshqa qo'shinlari tomonidan qo'llab -quvvatlangan kuchli harbiy tuzilishga qarshi kurashish uchun yaratilgan. Keltlar jangchilari jahldor frontal hujum qilib, askarlarning qattiq massasini buzishga harakat qilishdi. Agar bunday yondashuv muvaffaqiyat qozonsa, kuchli qurollar zarur edi va miloddan avvalgi IV asrda Keltlar kengayishi davrida erishilgan tezkor yutuqlarga qaraganda, taktika bir muddat samarali bo'lgan. Shunga qaramay, kamchiliklar bor edi. Dastlabki hujum ko'pincha ko'p qurbonlarga olib keldi va agar u muvaffaqiyatsiz bo'lsa, hujumning tezligi tezda tugashi mumkin edi.

XRISTIAN CELTIC-STYLE SANATI
Erta haqida ma'lumot olish uchun
cherkov artefaktlari qilingan
erta xristian cherkovi uchun
Irlandiyada mana bu manbalarga qarang:
Keltlar uslubidagi xristian san'ati
Ardag Chalice
Derrinaflavan Chalice
Tully Lough xoch
Moylough kamar ziyoratgohi
Kelt zargarlik buyumlari san'ati

IRLANDDA ART/ARCHITEKTURA
Haqida ma'lumot va ma'lumot olish uchun
rasm va haykaltaroshlik evolyutsiyasi
Munster, Leinster, Connacht va
Ulster, qarang: Irlandiya san'ati tarixi.
Muhim saytlar ro'yxati uchun
madaniy va badiiy qiziqish, qarang:
Irlandiya arxeologik yodgorliklari.
Batafsil ma'lumot uchun qarang:
Irlandiya me'moriy yodgorliklari.

Badiiy san'at evolyutsiyasi
Sanalar ro'yxati uchun qarang:
San'at tarixi xronologiyasi. Tafsilotlar uchun
dan san'at asarlari evolyutsiyasi
tosh davri, qarang:
Tarixdan oldingi san'at xronologiyasi.

Ko'p qadimiy manbalar buni tasdiqlaydilar, agar Keltlar zudlik bilan yutuqqa erisha olmasalar, qanday qilib ular butunlay tushkunlikka tushishi mumkinligi haqida xabar berishadi. Qolaversa, qilich og'irligi uni ishlatishni qiyinlashtirdi, bu esa qo'l jangi bo'yicha katta kamchilik ekanligini isbotladi.

Dizayn nuqtai nazaridan, pichoqning kattaligi muhim ahamiyatga ega edi va bezakning ko'p qismi aynan shu sohada to'plangan. Tutqichlarga u fil suyagi va amber kabi qimmatbaho materiallar bilan bezatilgan bo'lishi mumkin, aks holda stilize qilingan odam qiyofasi yasanishi mumkin edi. Ikkinchisi ajoyib funktsional alternativani taqdim etdi. Shaklning tanasi qo'llar va oyoqlarning proektsiyasi bilan ikkala tomondan mahkamlangan qo'l ushlagichi vazifasini bajargan, pommel esa ko'zlari bo'rtib ketgan qo'rqinchli boshdan hosil bo'lgan. Kelt jangchilarining inson boshiga bergan ramziy ahamiyatini inobatga olgan holda, bu motif o'ziga xos talisman sifatida kiritilgan bo'lishi mumkin. Eng aniq raqamlarni miloddan avvalgi II asrga tegishli qilichlarda uchratish mumkin. Keyinchalik bu turdagi metall buyumlarning namunalariga ko'pincha provinsiyalik Rim san'ati ta'sir ko'rsatgan. Ularda ba'zida bosh sochlar bilan ko'rsatiladi va yuz ifodasi odatda yumshoqroq va tabiiyroq bo'ladi.

Umuman olganda, qoraqo'tirlar bezatish uchun ko'proq imkoniyatlarni taklif qilishdi va variantlar diapazoni juda katta edi. Eng mashhur individual misol-bu 994-yildagi qabrdan kelgan proto-keltiklar Xollstatt. Bu rasmlar - askarlar, chavandozlar va g'ildirakni aylantiruvchi figuralar - kelt san'atida g'ayrioddiy bo'lgan hikoya sifatiga ega. Chapdagi (yoki nuqtada) stilize qilingan ajdaho, odatda, ancha xosdir. Haqiqiy Keltlar uslubida, ular deyarli qoraqo'tirning chetini siljitganday tuyuladi.

O'simliklar va stilize qilingan hayvonlar La Tene davrida eng mashhur motiflar bo'lgan. Valdalgeyshem davrida, xususan, hunarmandlar qobiqning butun uzunligini bosib o'tadigan tendril naqshlarini afzal ko'rdilar. Ular odatda kompas yordamida yaratilgan. Tendril dizaynlari ko'pincha hayvonlarning mayda -chuyda ko'rsatmalari bilan jonlanardi. Cernon-sur-Cooleda topilgan frantsuz qichig'ida burgutli ko'zli kuzatuvchilar qushlarning oddiy boshlarini aniqlay olishadi. Bular tirqish chizig'i bilan birlashib, keskin dumaloq egilgan, ko'zga o'xshagan ko'zdan va zo'ravon tumandan boshqa narsadan iborat emas.

Ajdaho juftlari (S shaklidagi shakllar orqa tomonga joylashtirilgan), shuningdek, miloddan avvalgi IV asrga borib taqaladigan ko'plab qoraqo'tir naqshlarida ham tasvirlangan. Misollar Keltik Evropasida topilgan, lekin eng katta konsentratsiya Vengriya va Shveytsariyada ishlab chiqarilgan. Bu erda kamida oltita qoraqo'tir topilgan Kosd qabristoni, Budapesht yaqinida. Ulardan ba'zilari dafn marosimiga qo'yilishidan oldin, odatiy tarzda shikastlangan. Umuman olganda, Shveytsariya konstruktsiyalari unchalik ko'rkam bo'lmagan va tez -tez qoraqo'tir og'zi atrofidagi hududlar bilan cheklangan. Odatdagidek kesish va tarash usullaridan tashqari, ularning qurol-aslahalari bezovtalanish yoki halqali zarb bilan bezatilgan.

Shunga o'xshash dizaynlarni kelt nayzalarining qolgan qoldiqlarida ham kuzatish mumkin. Bu qurollar La Tene davrining boshlarida keng qo'llanilgan va har doim jangchilarning birinchi qabrlarida bo'lgan. Haqiqatan ham, kelt fraktsiyalarining eng jangovar jangchilaridan biri bo'lgan Gaesatae, o'z nomini Gaulus nayzasini Gaesumdan olgan deb taxmin qilinadi. Ammo keyingi davrlarda qurolning ta'siri asta -sekin kamaya boshladi.

Arxeologlar Seltik joylarida qurol va zirhlarning ikkita alohida sinfini uchratishdi. There are the functional items, often bearing the scars of battle, which were interred in warriors' graves. In addition, there are much more attractive articles, lavishly decorated and clearly never intended for practical use. These ceremonial pieces were placed in the graves of chieftains or other figures of exalted rank. Alternatively, they were donated to the gods as a form of sacrifice. Many of these items have been retrieved from rivers and lakes, where they were deliberately discarded. From an archaeological point of view, the advantage of this practice is that the artifacts have often survived in remarkably good condition. This is in marked contrast to the process of ritual damage, where objects were bent or broken prior to the sacrifice.

The splendour of much of this weaponry derives partly from the Celtic taste for ostentation, a fact that is confirmed in several classical sources, and partly from their reverential attitude to arms and armour. The finest pieces were thought to have distinctive personalities of their own. Reflecting this, the weapons of Celtic legend were often given names and had special powers attributed to them. Most people will have heard of King Arthur's sword, Excalibur, but this is only one example among many. In the early Irish epic, the Tain Bo Cuailnge, Fergus Mac Roth wielded a mighty sword called Cladcholg, which was powerful enough to slice through hilltops. Similarly, another character in the tale owned a shield called Ochain. This shrieked aloud whenever its master was in danger, and caused all the other shields in Ulster to scream in unison with it. Stories of this kind would have been familiar to many Celtic chieftains, who would doubtless have given personal names to their own weapons.

The shields used by Celtic warriors were quite different from their Mediterranean counterparts. The latter were normally round or curved, whilst the Celts preferred to use long, flat shields with a protruding central section. This could either take the form of a circular boss or a slender, rib-shaped umbo. The purpose of the cavity was to provide the warrior with a more comfortable handgrip which, in turn, offered greater manoeuvrability. The drawback, however, was that the boss could endanger the wearer. In early La Tene models, it was only held in place by two nails, which could be pushed dangerously close to the warrior's hand, if the protrusion was struck with any force. In time, this led to the enlargement of the boss, so that the nails could be located further away from the hand or, alternatively, to the creation of a combined boss and rib cavity.

On most ceremonial items, the decoration was focused on this important central section. Craftsmen delighted in adding swirling La Tene designs to the circular boss, studding it with pieces of red glass or enamel. In a few instances, only the central boss has survived, suggesting that it may originally have been fixed onto a wooden or leather shield.

The most elaborate designs exploited the combination of the mid-rib and the boss. This is illustrated most persuasively on two British shields, which were dredged out of the River Witham and the River Thames. In both cases, the ends of the rib have been enlarged to form two extra bosses. These are purely ornamental, serving no practical purpose. Ustida Witham shield, the bosses were created with a mixture of delicate repousse work and engraving. This was at its finest on the edges of the outer roundels, where the artist conjured up a subtle evocation of two long-snouted beasts, in the ambiguous manner which the Celts admired so much. The Witham shield has also attracted attention for another reason. Tiny rivet holes indicate that it once bore an entirely different design, which was removed by a later owner. The original pattern was a primitive representation of a boar with spindly, stilt-like legs. This was apt, since the boar was a conventional war symbol, but it is equally clear why the new owner replaced it with the sinuous elegance of the current design. The change is also interesting, because it confirms that Celtic warlords liked to personalize their equipment, just as the knights of a later age would do through the medium of heraldry.

Ustida Battersea shield, the same format has been taken a stage further. The mid-rib has effectively disappeared and the three roundels have expanded to cover much of the shield surface. The boss surrounding the handgrip - the only functional element in the design - forms just a small part of the central roundel. Around it, the craftsman has constructed a fluid, curvilinear pattern, consisting mostly of interlocking S-shapes and spirals. This theme is continued in the coloured enamel inlays, which feature a number of tiny swastikas. These rotate in a clockwise direction and can be classed as angular spirals. Apart from their obvious elegance, spirals also offered artists the opportunity to create playful hints of figuration. If you look at the shield from different angles, faces seem to appear. In the central roundel, for example, it is possible to make out stylized birds' heads, while the spirals which connect the roundels have been interpreted either as bulls with extravagantly curved horns or men with flowing moustaches.

There is no doubt that the Battersea shield was conceived purely as a luxury item. Originally, it was gilded and, almost certainly, it was deposited in the Thames as a votive offering. This trend was echoed in the production of helmets, where the use of precious materials and showy designs was even more widespread. The most lavish Celtic helmets were those created in the 'jockey-cap' format. These were inspired by Etruscan or Italian models and date back to around the 4th century BCE. In most cases, thcy consist of a hemispherical cap, a hinged cheek-flap, a neck-guard, and a fitting at the top for a plume or crest. Bands of decoration cover the entire surface, which may also be studded with pieces of coral or coloured glass.

The most spectacular example is the Agris helmet, which was discovered in a grotto near Angouleme in 1981. The crown itself is iron, but the attachments are made of bronze, covered in gold leaf, and the rivets are silver. The bands of dccoration have a transitional flavour, blending elements from the Early and Waldalgesheim Styles. Geometric patterns nestle alongside running palmette and lotus motifs. The sinuous decoration on the one surviving cheek-piece is particularly interesting, as it appears to represent a horned serpent. This was a conventional chthonian symbol, which implies that the grotto may have been revered as an entrance to the Celtic Otherworld.

The style of this piece is not far removed from another French helmet of similar date, which was discovered at Amfreville-sous-les-Monts. In this case, the helmet was retrieved from the dried-out bed of a tributary of the Seine, which suggests that it may have been used as a traditional votive offering. Here, only the central band is covered in gold leaf, though its pattern is considerably more refined than the Agris model. It consists of a linked arrangement of triskeles (three-coiled spirals), interspersed with elongated S-curves, The outer bands feature openwork decoration, inlaid with nuggets of coloured glass.

Another notable jockey-cap helmet was discovered in 1895, in a tomb complex at Canosa di Puglia. Despite its Italian location, this, too, was probably made in Gaul and perhaps belonged to a Celtic mercenary. In this case, there is no gold leaf at all. Instead, the openwork design of lyres and S-curves is set with pieces of coral. Comparisons have often been drawn between this and the painted decoration on the Prunay vase, which dates from the same period.

In other Gaulish helmets, the surface design was generally less ornate, but the overall shape was often more elaborate. This is particularly true of the lofty, pointed helmets, which have been discovered in the Marne region. Several historians have noted the similarity between their distinctive silhouette and contemporary Persian helmets, suggesting that the influence may have been transmitted through Italy, but it is equally possible that the style developed independently in Gaul. The two most celebrated examples come from warrior graves at Berru va La Gorge Meillet. In both cases, the decoration takes the form of incised motifs, such as swastikas and palmettes, and vacant discs which probably once contained pieces of coral. Although not as lavish as the 'jockey-caps', these helmets were certainly produced for figures of high standing. The warrior at La Gorge Meillet was interred with full military regalia and an Otherworld feast. The remains of his charioteer were buried above him.

Across the Channel, the nearest equivalent is the Waterloo Bridge helmet, which was discovered in the River Thames. This is considerably later, dating from around the 1st century BCE, and it displays a sparse, asymmetrical pattern of winding tendrils. Its most interesting features are the horns, which are studded with ornamental rivets. Horns symbolized virility and aggression, making them the ideal adornment for a war helmet.

Classical authors often commented on the terrible din which Celtic warriors made when they went into battle. Much of this was accomplished through a combination of shouts, boasts and taunts, but the Celts also made use of ear-shattering war horns. Writers such as Polybhls and Diodorus Siculus described the instrument as a carnyx, a Greek word for an animal-headed trumpet. Depictions of it can be found on the Roman arch at Orange, in the south of France, where it was pictured along with other items of local booty. More interestingly, it is also shown on one of the plates of the Gundestrup Cauldron. There, the instruments are carried aloft by a group of warriors. Each one consists of a long-stemmed horn, crowned by the head of an open-mouthed boar. The latter was a traditional symbol of war and, fittingly, several of the warriors on the cauldron were portrayed with boar-crests on their helmets.

Findings of an actual carnyx are rare. Sir Joseph Banks, the famous naturalist, owned one but destroyed it accidentally, in an ill-advised attempt to analyse its metal. Fortunately, however, substantial remains of another carnyx were unearthed by peat-cutters at Deskford in Scotland. This example is made of beaten bronze and probably dates from the 1st century CE. At the time of its discovery in 1874, the boar's head still retained its enamelled eyes and movable wooden tongue, though these have since disappeared.

Celtic Horse Fittings and Equipment

Horses and chariots played an integral role in the martial activities of the Celts. Accordingly, warrior chieftains took pains to deck them out with the kind of finery that would set off their own ceremonial gear. Horse-bits, harness mounts and terrets (chariot rings) were all adorned with the full repertoire of Celtic motifs. Many examples of these have been found in the cart or chariot burials, which date back as far as the Hallstatt period. In these, persons of high rank were interred along with the vehicle. In most cases, the chariot was dismantled and, on rare occasions, the owner's horses were sacrificed and placed inside the grave.

There are enormous regional variations in the style of decoration employed on these accoutrements. Some of the most sumptuous chariot graves were discovered in the Marne region in France, where there was a pronounced taste for openwork phalerae (bronze discs), decorated with enamel. The example from the tomb at Cuperly (4th century BCE.), meticulously designed with the aid of compasses, is particularly fine. Phalerae were normally used as harness fittings, although they might occasionally be fixed to a warrior's armour.

The items found at the chariot grave of Mezek in Bulgaria, could hardly be more different. These include a range of yoke mounts, terrets and linchpins, which are prime examples of the Plastic Style. Knobbed protruberances jut out at every angle, hinting at swollen-cheeked faces and bulging eyes.

In Britain, by contrast, the preference was for brightly coloured enamel mounts, which made use of the latest champlevé enamelling techniques. Here, the principal finds were made at Polden Hill in Somerset, where a sizeable hoard of mounts and fittings was uncovered by a ploughman in 1803, and at Stanton in Norfolk. A few items relate specifically to horses. Depictions of the animal are surprisingly rare, but one of the most charming is a tiny chariot mount, which was discovered at Melsonby in Yorkshire, among a hoard of artefacts buried by the Brigantes. The horse's face is conveyed by a few simple curves, an example of Celtic stylization at its finest. More unusual still is the bronze pony cap, which was extracted from a bog at Torrs in Scotland. The cap once belonged to the novelist, Sir Walter Scott, and it features a repousse design with spiral and bird's head motifs.

• For more about the history of Irish culture, see: Visual Arts in Ireland.
• For more about painters and sculptors, see: Famous Irish Artists.
• For information about the cultural history of Iron Age Ireland, see: Irish Art Guide.
• For more on the history of Celtic weaponry and metalworking, see: Homepage.


The Other Irish Riots of July

Thanks in large part to Martin Scorsese’s epic movie, Nyu -York to'dalari, starring Daniel Day-Lewis, Leonardo DiCaprio and Liam Neeson, the New York Draft Riots are now more or less permanently lodged in the consciousness of most Irish-Americans who are interested in their history.

A slew of books written prior to the movie’s release also helped. There is Peter Quinn’ s epic 1994 novel, The Banished Children of Eve, as well as Kevin Baker’s equally accomplished tome Paradise Alley written a decade later.

And the books just keep on coming. In 2005, Barnet Schecter published yet another well-received study of the Draft Riots entitled The Devil’s Own Work: The Civil War Draft Riots and the Fight to Reconstruct America (Walker & Company).

But there were another series of Irish American riots in July. They were about as deadly as the Draft Riots. And they forced Irishman to fight Irishman. True, such fighting was seen during the Draft Riots too: Immigrant police officers had to arrest, even fire upon, their rampaging countrymen. Irish-born soldiers from the frontlines of the U.S. Civil War were also called in to put down Irish rioters.

But during the Riots of July 12, 1871 – the so-called Orange Riots – ancient troubles from Ireland were transported directly to American soil.

The Catholic-Protestant tension you see to this day in Northern Ireland unfolded in a bloody way on the streets of New York, first in 1870, then more ferociously in 1871.

When all was said and done, scores were dead, hundreds were injured, and the Irish-dominated political machine of Tammany Hall collapsed. The Orange Riots also “made clear that there could never again be an Irish America including Protestants and Catholics,” according to scholar Timothy J. Meagher.

So what exactly were these Orange Riots, and how did they come about?

TWEED’S RISE AND FALL

That the Orange Riots led to the downfall of Boss Tweed’s Tammany Hall is quite ironic. After all, Tweed rose to power by brokering – some might say in an exploitative fashion – a peace deal between Irish Democrats and Protestant reformers in the wake of the Draft Riots of 1863.

But by 1870, anti-Tammany (which often meant the same thing as anti-Irish Catholic) forces of reform were swirling around a vulnerable Boss Tweed. The New York Times and other elites never missed an opportunity to groan about corruption at Tammany Hall, and their belief that New York City had become a scrubby outpost of Dublin.

In this context, the annual march of the American Orange Order was held on the West Side of Manhattan. The Orange Order was formed in Ireland in 1795 “to maintain and uphold the Protestant Faith,” according to their charter.

The group was named for William III, Prince of Orange, who defeated the Catholic James II at The Battle of the Boyne in Ireland in 1690.

As far back as the 1820s, according to The Encyclopedia of the City of New York, there was tension between Irish Catholics and Protestants during the July 12 march, which still attracts controversy to this day in Northern Ireland.

Famed exiled United Irishman Thomas Addis Emmet noted that in July of 1824 the Orange marchers received a “humiliating thrashing” from the “Green Irish.”

The “Orange Irish” population of New York had historically been significant. But, following the massive Famine immigration of Catholics in the 1840s and 1850s, it was soon dwarfed by the Irish Catholic population. Once the Tammany Democrats sided with Irish Catholics, it was clear that any hostility Protestant New York Irish (who were generally Republican) had for their Catholic Irish counterparts would likely grow.

So, in July of 1870, as Michael A. Gordon notes in his authoritative study The Orange Riots: Irish Political Violence in New York City, 1870 and 1871, two thousand or so Orangemen gathered in lower Manhattan and marched all the way uptown to Elm Park at Ninety-Second Street, where a Boyne Day Picnic was planned. Significantly, the march was also joined by members of the American Protective Association (APA), a nativist group best known for its hostilities towards Catholics in general and Irish immigrants in particular.

As is often the case with events such as this, accounts differ as to which side caused fists to fly and shots to be fired. Gordon and others say the Orangemen taunted Irish Catholic laborers along the parade route, singing tunes such as “Protestant Boys” and “Croppies, Lie Down.” There was even one report of a pistol being fired into a Catholic church.

Some on the Orange side said it was the immigrants who launched an unprovoked attack on the peaceful parade.

Either way, Irish Catholic workers eventually broke down the Elm Park gates, “scaled fences, and attacked those inside,” Gordon has written.

“Fighting spilled onto nearby streets, then eastward to Central Park, then down to Eighty-Second Street, and finally onto Eighth and Ninth A venue streetcars as Orangemen and APA members tried to hurry their families to safety.”

Only a burst of rain cooled off the battle, which at one point covered some 30 city blocks according to Gordon.

Eight people died, and blame tended to fall on the city’s Irish Catholic community. The New York Daily Tribune used the riot as an opportunity to blast Tweed and Tammany lawlessness, saying the Irish supported “free murder, free drunkenness and free rioting.” This was an echo of the decades-old nativist charge that the Irish favored “rum, Romanism and rebellion.”

With the Draft Riots still fresh in New Yorkers’ minds, all the stereotypes about the city’ s Irish returned to prominence.

Famed diarist George Templeton Strong captured the mood of many when he wrote that the Orange Irish “were set upon by a swarm of base and brutal Celts.”

In the wake of the July 1870 violence, one question loomed: What was going to happen at the parade of 1871?

Proving that Tweed was not the only person able to exploit a situation, The New York Times launched a massive exposé on Tammany corruption just days before the 1871 Boyne Day Parade approached.

With Democrats and reformers slinging mud at each other, tensions were high as the July 12 parade approached. In fact, New York Democratic mayor A. Oakley Hall – taking advice from the city’s Ancient Order of Hibernians and Knights of St. Patrick – thought the best solution was to pressure his police chief into canceling the parade at the last minute, on July 11.

But Governor John T. Hoffman swiftly overruled the cancellation, promising National Guard protection for the Orange marchers.

Rumors of Catholic and Protestant rioters flooding the city swarmed as July 12, 1871 dawned. This year the Orangemen were marching down Eighth Avenue from Twenty-Ninth Street. Bricks and bats had already flown sporadically before the 2:30 start time.

When the parade did kick off, all hell broke loose. A shower of “tossed bottles, refuse, boots, kettles, stones, and other missiles” (Gordon’s words) rained down on the marchers.

Tribal hatreds over 200 years old and rooted in Ireland had made their way to New York City. A full-blown Irish Civil War had broken out on Manhattan’s West Side.

Well over 60 people, mostly Irish immigrants, were killed on July 12, 1871. Gordon notes that none of the dead were Orangemen.

The city’ s Republican elites smelled blood alright, but it was, if you will, political blood. With the Irish Catholics weakened by the Orange Riots of 1871, their opponents believed that now was the time to finish off Tammany and its Irish supporters.

The Vaqt and other papers continued to print charges of Tammany corruption. Famed cartoonist Thomas Nast penned vivid illustrations, as he had been doing for two decades, blaming Tweed, Tammany, and the Irish for more violence.

As Kenneth T. Ackerman writes in his recent biography of Tweed, “the political fallout from the back-to-back debacles – the Orange Riots and the Vaqt disclosures,” was too much for Tweed and Tammany to survive.

Interestingly, the Orange Parade was never held after 1871 (according to Gordon). But the Orange Riots dislodged Tammany from power. Following a reformer-led investigation by the so-called Committee of Seventy, Tweed was arrested, and the city’s middle and upper classes breathed easier feeling that these violent-minded agents of Rome no longer roamed the halls of power in New York.

Of course, as they did eight years earlier, many were roaming New York’s graveyard, burying their dead. The Troubles that these banished children of Eve thought they had left behind were haunting them still. ♦

This article originally appeared in the August / September 2006 issue of Irish America.


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Videoni tomosha qiling: Relaxing Celtic Music - Beautiful, Fantasy, Ambient Healing Music and by. Cortese (Avgust 2022).