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Neuenzer DE -150 - Tarix

Neuenzer DE -150 - Tarix


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Neunzer
(DE-150: 1200 dp; 1. 306 ', 36'7 b., Dr. 8'7 ", s. 21 k., 186-rasm; a. 3 3", 2 40 mm., 8 20 mm) ., 2 ta harakat, 1 dcp. (Hh); cl Edsall)

Neunzer (DE-150) 1943 yil 29-iyulda ishga tushirilgan Konsolidatsiyalangan Chelik Korporatsiyasi tomonidan qurilgan, Orange, Tex. mashinist Neunzerning bevasi, Veymar xonim E. Noyzzer xonim tomonidan homiylik qilingan; va 1943 yil 27 sentyabrda qo'mondon, leytenant Jon E. Grinbeker.

Konvoylar eskortlari karvon xizmatida bo'lgan flot yo'q qiluvchilar o'rnini egallash uchun mo'ljallangan bo'lib, eskort va suv osti kemalariga qarshi vazifalarni bajarishda uzoq millar davomida o'zini oqlagan. U-qayiqlari Ittifoqdoshlarning etkazib berish liniyalarini yo'q qilish bilan tahdid qilayotgan bir paytda, ularning sa'y-harakatlari nemis suv osti kemalari halokatini yengishda katta rol o'ynadi.

Noynzer gavjum bo'lish uchun Galveston, Tex., Keyin Nyu -Orlean, La. 1943 yil oktyabr va noyabr oylarida u Bermud orolining silkinishidan o'tdi. Yangi esminet eskorti keyingi safar Charlstonga tashrif buyurdi, Quonset Point, R.I.ga tashrif buyurdi, 4 hafta davomida Atlantika flotining tadqiqot guruhi bilan ishladi va suv osti kemalariga qarshi yangi uskunalar ishlab chiqdi.

Nyu -Yorkdan Noyzerdan Angliyaga ketadigan katta karvonga qo'shilish uchun Bostondan bir guruh harbiy transportni kuzatib borgandan so'ng, 1944 yil 1 -yanvarda TF 62 -ga qo'shilib, Norfolkga jo'nadi. Bu guruh bilan u Gibraltarda 8 kun bo'lib, O'rta er dengiziga katta konvoyni kuzatib qo'ydi. uyga suzib ketishdan oldin.

Uyga sayohatda u beshta italyan suv osti kemasini o'qitish uchun Bermudaga olib borgan. Bu safar davomida Noynzer qiruvchi eskort uchun noyob bo'lgan operatsiyani amalga oshirdi. U dengizda ikkita italiyalik yonilg'iga yonilg'i quydi, 12000 gallon yoqilg'ini o't o'chirgich va 200 metrli o't o'chirish shlangidan suv osti kemasiga quydi.

O'rta er dengiziga karvonlarni kuzatib boradigan yana ikkita sayohatdan so'ng, Neunzer TF 62-dan ajralib chiqib, Guadalcanal (CVE 60) eskort samolyotlarini ovchi-qotillar guruhiga qo'shildi. Caseo Bay, Meyn va Bermudadagi mashg'ulotlardan so'ng, ishchi guruh O'rta Atlantikadagi suv osti kemalari uchun ikkita qidiruv patrulini o'tkazdi va Bermudada yonilg'i quydi. Bu patrullarning hech biri suv osti kemalarini topa olmadi va Noynzer avgust oxirida Nyu -Yorkka qaytdi.

Oktyabr oyida guruh yana dengizga chiqdi va bu safar Shimoliy Atlantikada suv osti kemalarini qidirdi. Suv osti kemalari topilmagan bo'lsa -da, kuch kuchli bo'rondan o'tib, ba'zi kemalarga zarar etkazdi. Patrul nihoyat buzildi; Vazifa guruhi noyabr oyining boshida uyga qaytishdan oldin Azor orollari Ponta -Delgada yonilg'i quydi.

Suv osti kemalariga qarshi guruh 1 -dekabr kuni Norfolkdan Bermudada, Jeksonvill, Fla shtati, 5 hafta davomida talaba uchuvchilarni o'qitgan. Guruh 1945 yilning yanvar oyi oxirida, Kubaning Guantanamo ko'rfaziga, 2 haftalik mashg'ulotlarga yo'l oldi; keyin Noynzer qisqa ta'mirlash uchun Nyu -Yorkka qaytdi.

Mart oyining boshida mashg'ulotlarga Kubaga qaytganidan so'ng, esminet eskorti 3 hafta davomida Mayamiga u erdagi Harbiy -dengiz o'quv markazi talabalari uchun o'quv kemasi sifatida bordi.

Ammo endi nemislar sho'ng'in bilan jihozlangan yangi yordamchilarini Atlantika okeani bo'ylab sharqiy qirg'oqqa hujum qilish uchun jo'natishdi. Noynzer kutilmaganda 8 -aprel, yarim tunda Nyufaundlendga 6 soatdan keyin ishga kirishish to'g'risida xabar oldi. Yoqilg'i quyish va Argentinada oziq-ovqat etkazib berishdan so'ng, u 19-kuni jo'nab ketdi va okean o'rtalarida uchrashdi, bir nechta tashuvchi vazifalar guruhlaridan biri Atlantika okeani bo'ylab, Sankt-Jon, Nyufaundlend va Azor orollari o'rtasida, snorkellarni tuzoqqa tushirish uchun to'r sifatida.

Frederik C. Devis (DE-136) 24-aprelda U-646 bilan samolyotni o'rnatdi va hujumni davom ettirdi, suv osti kemasi qattiq o'q otib, DEni parchalab tashladi va uni hayotdan judo qildi.

Sakkizta esminets eskortlari darhol harakatga qo'shilishdi. Neunzer va Xayter (DE 212) tintuv o'tkazdilar, Pill $ bury (DE-133) atrofni aylanib chiqishdi va Flaherti (DE-135) tirik qolganlarni olib ketishdi. Flaherti bir soatdan kam vaqt ichida zarba berdi va Pillsbury hujumga o'tdi. U-qayiq 600 futga chiqdi. Varian (DE-798), Janssen (DE-396) va Xosab Xabbard (DE-211) boshqa hujumni boshlaganda, Kontset 1045 yildan 1201 yilgacha yo'qoldi.

Neunzer, boshqa DEning bir nechta hujumlaridan so'ng, jangga kirdi, Chatelain (DE 149) boshqarganida, Varian va Xabbard bilan dahshatli hujum uyushtirdi. Taxminan 1600 yilda Konta yana bir marta yo'qoldi va Chatelain va Nunzerga skautlik chizig'iga qaytish buyurildi.

Chiziq kengaytirildi va kemalar suv osti kemasining qochib ketishining oldini olishga qaror qilib, hududni aylana boshladi. Varian eontsetni yana 1731 yilda yaratdi va Flaherti hujumga buyurildi. U 1810 yilga qarata o'q uzdi. To'rt daqiqadan so'ng mayda mayda suv yuzasiga chiqa boshladi. Flaherti 1828 yilda yana bir kirpi-cho'chqa hujumini amalga oshirdi va 1838 yilda U-qayiq yuzasini sindirdi.

Qatordagi har bir kema o'qqa tuta boshladi. 1844 yilda o'n yarim soatdan ko'proq hujumlardan so'ng, U-546 oxirgi sho'ng'in uchun pastga tushdi. Uning ekipajining 33 nafari, shu jumladan kapitan ham asirga olindi.

V-E kunidan so'ng, Noynzer Nyu-Yorkka 2 tunda qaytdi va 25 mayda Ikkinchi Jahon Urushining so'nggi Atlantika karvonini Nyu-Yorkdan Angliyaning Sautgemptoniga kuzatib borish uchun jo'nab ketdi. U karvonsiz qaytib keldi va 15 iyundan 6 iyulgacha Nyu -York portida qoldi.

Iyul oyida kema Meyn shtatining Caseo ko'rfazida mashg'ulot o'tkazdi va Melvil shtatidagi Torpedo motorli qayiqlarni o'qitish markazining nishoni bo'lib xizmat qildi, 1 avgustda u Nyu-Londonga, Konn., Guadalcanal topshirig'iga binoan Germaniya suv osti kemasi U-505ni kuzatib borish uchun suzib ketdi. 1944 yil iyun oyida guruh. Sub 1945 yil oxirigacha Sharqiy qirg'oq va Ko'rfaz bo'ylab urush obligatsiyalarini sotish uchun namoyish etilgan.

Atlantika okeani sohilidagi operatsiyalardan so'ng, Noynzer 1947 yil yanvarda ishdan bo'shatildi va Atlantika qo'riqxonasi flotiga kirdi. 1970 yilgacha u Filadelfiyada tug'ilgan.

Neunzer Ikkinchi Jahon Urushida xizmat qilish uchun bitta jang yulduzini oldi.


USS Neunzer (DE-150)

USS Neunzer (DE-150) Ikkinchi Jahon urushi paytida AQSh dengiz floti uchun qurilgan Edsall sinfidagi esminets eskorti edi. U Atlantika okeanida xizmat qilgan va dengiz floti kemalari va karvonlarining suv osti kemalari va havo hujumidan esminets eskortini himoya qilgan.

U 1942 yil 2 -iyulda Aleut orollari kampaniyasi paytida halok bo'lgan va o'limidan so'ng "Havo medali" bilan taqdirlangan mashinist Veymar Edmund Noynzer sharafiga nomlangan. U 1943 yil 29 -yanvarda Texas shtatining Konsolidatsiyalangan po'lat korporatsiyasi tomonidan qurilgan, 1943 yil 1 -iyunda ishga tushirilgan. Mashinist Neunzer va 1943 yil 27 sentyabrda qo'mondon, leytenant Jon E. Grinbeker.

Konvoylar eskortlari karvon xizmatida bo'lgan flot yo'q qiluvchilar o'rnini egallash uchun mo'ljallangan bo'lib, ular eskort va suv osti kemalariga qarshi vazifalarni bajarishda uzoq millarni bosib o'tishga muvaffaq bo'lishdi. U-qayiqlari Ittifoqdoshlarning etkazib berish liniyalarini kesish bilan tahdid qilayotgan bir paytda, ularning sa'y-harakatlari nemis suv osti kemalari halokatini yengishda katta rol o'ynadi.


USS Weeden (DE-797) a edi Bakli-Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari dengiz flotida sinf qiruvchi eskort. U Pearl -Harborga hujum paytida o'ldirilgan, praporshchik Karl A. Vidan (1916 va#82111941) nomi bilan atalgan.

USS Ira Jefferi (DE-63/APD-44), a Bakli-Qo'shma Shtatlar Harbiy-dengiz kuchlarining esmin eskorti, Yaponiya Gavayi orollariga hujum paytida jangovar kema bortida xizmat paytida halok bo'lgan, praporshik Ira Vayl Jefferi (1918-1941) sharafiga nomlangan. Kaliforniya .

USS Uilyam T. Pauell (DE/DER-213), a BakliQo'shma Shtatlar dengiz flotining sinfiy esminets eskorti, og'ir qurolli USS kreyserida halok bo'lgan Gunnerning turmush o'rtog'i Uilyam T. Pauell (1918-1942) sharafiga nomlangan.San-Fransisko 1942 yil 12 -noyabrda Gvadalkanal yaqinida.

USS Skott (DE-214), a BakliQo'shma Shtatlar Harbiy -dengiz kuchlarining eskort eskorti, 1941 yil 7 -dekabrda Yaponiyaning Pearl -Harborga hujum paytida, jangovar kema bortida xizmat paytida halok bo'lgan, birinchi darajali mashinist Mate Robert R. Skott sharafiga nomlangan (1915 va#82111941). USS  Kaliforniya . Qahramonligi uchun vafotidan keyin "Shon -sharaf" medali bilan taqdirlangan.

USS Quyosh (DE-221), a Bakli1941 yil 7 -dekabrda Yaponiyaning Pearl -Harborga uyushtirgan hujumi chog'ida halok bo'lgan Boatswainning birinchi darajali turmush o'rtog'i Adolfo Solar (1900 va#82111941) sharafiga AQSh Harbiy -dengiz kuchlari sinf esminetsi eskorti berildi.

USS Spangenberg (DE/DER-223), a BakliQo'shma Shtatlar harbiy-dengiz kuchlarining sinf esminetsi eskorti, og'ir kreyserda xizmat qilayotganda, Guadalcanal dengiz jangida olgan jarohatlari natijasida vafot etgan Gunnerning turmush o'rtog'i Kennet J. Spangenberg (1922-1942) sharafiga nomlangan. San-Fransisko  (CA-38). U vafotidan keyin Dengiz Xoch ordeni bilan taqdirlangan.

USS Aleksandr J. Lyuk (DE/DER-577), a Bakli1942 yil 6 -avgustda Tulagiga qilingan hujum paytida halok bo'lgan serjant Aleksandr Jyuk (1916 va#82111942) sharafiga AQSh Harbiy -dengiz kuchlari sinf esminetsining eskorti berildi. U o'limidan so'ng Kumush Yulduz bilan taqdirlandi.

USS Mayor (DE-796) a edi BakliIkkinchi Jahon Urushining ikkinchi qismida AQSh harbiy -dengiz kuchlari tomonidan sotib olingan esmin eskorti. U Atlantika okeanida ham, keyin Tinch okeanida ham ittifoqchi kemalarni himoya qilib, eskort kemasi sifatida xizmat qilgan. Yaponiya bilan urush tugagach, Mayor Yaponiya Tokio ko'rfazidagi to'shagidan taslim bo'lganiga guvoh bo'ldi.

USS Roche (DE-197) a edi To'p1944 yildan 1945 yilgacha AQSh Harbiy -dengiz flotida xizmat ko'rsatgan sinf qiruvchi eskort. U 1945 yil sentyabr oyining oxirida minaga urilgan. Uni ta'mirlash iqtisodiy bo'lmaganligi sababli, 1946 yil mart oyida uni skutt qilishgan.

USS Andres (DE-45) edi EvartsIkkinchi Jahon urushi paytida Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari dengiz floti uchun qurilgan sinf esminetsi. Atlantika jangi paytida fashistlar Germaniyasining Kriegsmarine qayiqlari va qiruvchi samolyotlaridan karvon va boshqa kemalarni himoya qilish uchun Shimoliy Atlantika okeanining xavfli suvlariga jo'natildi. Andres eskort va suv osti kemalariga qarshi operatsiyalarni amalga oshirdi.

USS Smartt (DE-257) edi EvartsIkkinchi Jahon urushi paytida Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari dengiz flotining sinf esminetsi. U nemis suv osti kemalari va qiruvchi samolyotlardan karvon va boshqa kemalarni himoya qilish uchun Shimoliy Atlantika okeanining xavfli suvlariga yuborilgan. U jang maydonlarida eskort va suv osti kemalariga qarshi operatsiyalarni amalga oshirdi.

USS Amik (DE-168) a edi To'pIkkinchi Jahon urushi paytida Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari dengiz floti uchun qurilgan sinf esminetsi. U Atlantika okeanida, keyin Tinch okeanida xizmat qilgan va dengiz floti kemalari va karvonlariga suv osti va havo hujumlariga qarshi eskort xizmati ko'rsatgan.

USS Straub (DE-181) a edi To'p1943 yildan 1947 yilgacha AQSh Harbiy -dengiz flotida xizmat ko'rsatgan sinf qiruvchi eskort. U 1974 yilda hurdaga sotilgan.

USS Garfild Tomas (DE-193) a edi To'pIkkinchi Jahon urushi paytida Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari dengiz floti uchun qurilgan sinf esminetsi. U Atlantika okeani va Tinch okeanida xizmat qilgan va dengiz floti kemalari va karvonlariga suv osti va havo hujumlariga qarshi eskort xizmati ko'rsatgan.

USS Sturtevant (DE-239) 1943 yildan 1946 yilgacha va 1951 yildan 1960 yilgacha AQSh dengiz flotida xizmat qilgan Edsall sinf esminets eskorti edi.

USS Tomich (DE-242) 1943 yildan 1946 yilgacha AQSh dengiz flotida xizmat qilgan Edsall sinfidagi esminets eskorti edi.

USS Stanton (DE-247) edi EdsallIkkinchi jahon urushi paytida AQSh dengiz floti uchun qurilgan sinf esminetsi. U Tinch okeanining Atlantika okeanida xizmat qilgan va dengiz floti kemalari va karvonlarining suv osti kemalari va havo hujumidan esminets eskortini himoya qilgan.

USS Cockrill (DE-398) edi Edsall1943 yildan 1946 yilgacha AQSh Harbiy -dengiz flotida eskortin -sinf esminetsi. O'nlab yillar zaxirada bo'lganidan so'ng, u 1974 yil noyabr oyida nishonga olindi.

USS Neunzer (DE-150) 1943 yildan 1947 yilgacha AQSh Harbiy-dengiz flotida xizmat qilgan Edsall sinfidagi esminets eskorti edi. Bir necha o'n yillik zaxirada bo'lganidan so'ng, u 1973 yilda hurdaga sotilgan.

USS Variant (DE-798) a edi Bakli-Qo'shma Shtatlar Harbiy -dengiz kuchlari sinf esminetsi.


Neuenzer DE -150 - Tarix

Qat'iy aytganda, FAA nazarida, barcha Cessna 150 va 152 samolyotlari bir xil samolyotdan olingan va asosan bir xil samolyotdir. Cessna 27 yillik tarixida samolyotga ko'plab o'zgarishlar kiritdi va boshqa samolyot ishlab chiqaruvchilari singari, ular ishlab chiqarishning ko'p yillariga turli xil model belgilarini berishdi.

Afsuski, Cessna seriya raqamlari yoki model belgilarining mantiqiy rivojlanishidan foydalanmadi. Hujjatlarsiz model yillari va seriya raqamlarini moslashtirish qiyin. Bu haqda ko'proq ma'lumot olish uchun Cessna Production Trivia -ga qarang.

Har bir model yili samolyotlarda o'zgarishlar ro'y berardi, lekin ularning ko'pchiligi kosmetik edi. Biz model farqlarini uchta toifaga bo'lishimiz mumkin: belgi o'zgarishi, kosmetik o'zgarishlar va dizayn o'zgarishi.

FAA "Yil" vs Cessna "Yil"

Ishni boshlashdan oldin, Cessna 150 -ning "yil" belgisida farq bo'lishi mumkin. FAA samolyot ishlab chiqarilgan yili sifatida barcha hujjatlar va qoidalar uchun samolyotning "yilini" belgilaydi. Boshqa tomondan, Cessna sizning sevimli mashinangiz kabi "model yili" dan foydalangan. Masalan, agar samolyot 1973 yil noyabr oyida konveyerdan chiqib ketgan bo'lsa, FAA bu "73" deb aytadi, lekin Sessnaning nazarida "74".

Belgilanishdagi o'zgarishlar

Samolyotning 27 yillik ishlab chiqarish tarixi davomida 31 xil model belgisi bo'lgan.

Birinchi model oddiygina Cessna 150 deb nomlangan. Bu model 1959 yildagi birinchi samolyotdan 1960 yilgacha. 1961 yil model yilidan boshlab har yili '61 150A, '62 150B, '63 150C, '64 harflari qo'shilgan. 150D, '65 150E, '66 150F, '67 150G va '68 150H.

1969 yilda Cessna xatni o'tkazib yubordi, "150I" yo'q, 1969 yildagi samolyot - 150J. Ular 1970 yilda 150K bilan davom etdilar, keyin 1971-1974 yillarda 150L va 1975-1977 yillarda 150L ishlatdilar.

1970 yilda Cessna 150 Aerobatni taqdim etdi va bu modellarni etakchi "A" bilan belgilab qo'ydi, qolganlari har bir modelning A150K, A150L, ​​A150M.

1966 yildan boshlab Cessna Frantsiyada yig'ish va ishlab chiqarishni boshladi, aksariyat hollarda bu samolyotlar AQShda bo'lgani kabi edi, lekin frantsuz modellari "F", F150F, F150G, F150H, F150J, F150K, F150L, ​​F150M. . Frantsuz aerobatlari FA150 va model maktubi deb nomlangan. Frantsiyaga xos bo'lgan bitta model bu FRA150L va FRA150M deb nomlangan 130 HP Rolls Royce/Continental bilan jihozlangan Aerobat edi. Ro'yxat Fransiyada ishlab chiqarilgan, lekin Argentinada yig'ilgan 1972-1973 yillardagi ikkita model bilan to'ldirilgan (jami 47 ta samolyot). Ular A-150L va A-A150L deb nomlangan.

Cessna 152-ni taqdim etganda, ular yil sayin modellarni qayta belgilashni to'xtatdilar. 152 -yillarning 8 model yili uchun atigi 4 ta belgi mavjud (1978 - 1985). Ular Aerobat uchun 152, A152, Frantsiyada ishlab chiqarilgan samolyotlar uchun F152 va FA152.

Kosmetik o'zgarishlar

Samolyotlarning bo'yash sxemalari va ichki qismlari har yili o'zgartirildi. Avtomobil ishlab chiqaruvchilari singari, Cessna standart va lyuks modellarni, hatto maxsus nashrlarni ham taklif qildi. Yangilangan modellar "Komutarlar" deb nomlangan va 152 -lar 152II -lar deb nomlangan. Parvozni targ'ib qiluvchi maxsus nashrlar taklif qilindi, ular orasida "Discover Flying" modeli (1970 -yillarda Xovard Jonsonning ranglari ishlatilgani uchun HoJo nomi bilan mashhur) va 1977 yilgi "TakeOff" vatanparvarlik mavzusidagi modellar bor edi. Frantsiyada qurilgan yoki eksport qilinadigan samolyotlarning bo'yoq sxemasi ham har xil edi. Hamma aytganidek, 60 dan ortiq turli xil bo'yoq sxemalari. Cessna 150-152 klubi bir necha yildirki, original ranglar, maketlar va modellar tanlovi haqida ma'lumot to'playdi. Oxir -oqibat, bu erda veb -saytda bo'yoq sxemasi chizmalarining to'liq to'plami bo'ladi.

Dizayndagi o'zgarishlar

Har yili model bo'yicha o'nlab individual dizayn o'zgarishlari bo'lgan bo'lsa -da, ba'zilari operatsion, boshqalari kosmetik, (a'zolar yildan -yilga o'zgarib turadigan aniq ro'yxatni ko'rishlari mumkin.) Vizual dizayndagi birdaniga aniqlanadigan uchta o'zgarish bor edi.


Hisobot berishning shafqatsiz biznesi

Ushbu html maqolasi optik belgilarni aniqlash orqali tuzatilmagan matnli fayldan tayyorlangan. 1940 yilgacha barcha matnlar tuzatilgan, lekin 1940 yildan hozirgi kungacha ko'pchilik hali tuzatilmagan. Skanerlarning artefaktlari xatolar, kontekstdan tashqari izohlar va yon panellar va boshqa nomuvofiqliklardir. Har bir matnli faylning yonida maqolaning PDF formatida joylashtirilgan bo'lib, u mazkur sonda ko'rsatilgandek tarkibni to'g'ri va to'liq etkazadi. Tuzatilmagan matnli fayllar bizning saytimizda va qidiruv tizimlarida bizning a'zolarimiz, tadqiqotchilar jamoasi va ommaviy axborot vositalari uchun tarkibni qidirish imkoniyatini yaxshilash uchun kiritilgan. Biz hozir butun kollektsiya uchun toza matnli fayllarni taqdim etish ustida ishlayapmiz.

"O'tgan bir kecha, 30 ming tonnaga yaqin kemalar qorong'ilikda bir -biriga hujum qilishdi. Ular uchrashganda, 2000 tonna kema va 176 kishi dengiz tubida uzoq joyda yotardi.

"Endi javobgarlikning shafqatsiz biznesi keladi. U erda bo'lganlar, qolganlardan qolganlar, bu qanday sodir bo'lganligi va kimning xatosi tufayli sodir bo'lganiga javob berishlari kerak.

". . Dengizda hatto mamlakatning an'analaridan ham qadimiyroq an'analar mavjud. . . . An'anaga ko'ra, mas'uliyat bilan hokimiyat ketadi va ikkalasi ham javobgarlikka tortiladi.

«Bu javobgarlik niyat uchun emas, amal uchun bn 1. Kema kapitani, 1 -chi davlat kapitani singari, boshqa odamlarga qaraganda sharaf, imtiyoz va ishonchga ega. Lekin u noto'g'ri yo'lni belgilasin, "erga tegib tursin, kemasiga falokat keltirsin yoki o'z odamlariga $" va nima bo'lsa ham, u qochib qutula olmaydi ".

qisman 1952 yil 26-aprelga o'tar kechasi USS Wasp (CV-18) va USS Hobson (DMS-26) to'qnashuvidan keyin The Wall Street Journal jurnalida nashr etilgan mashhur va qayta nashr etilgan tahririyatni o'qiydi. Jurnal muharriri Vermont C. Royster, o'zi Ikkinchi Jahon urushi esminetsining eskorti. Harbiy-dengiz floti an'anaviy hisob-kitoblarni amalga oshirish vositasi bo'lib, tahririyat bu sudni harbiy sudga aylantiradi. Gobson masalasida tergov olib borilgan, ammo uning sudyasi 176-yillardan biri bo'lmagan.

Samolyot tashuvchisining yo'liga tushib qolish kichikroq kemaga halokatli ta'sir ko'rsatishi mumkin, chunki bu fotosuratlar yaqqol ko'rsatib turibdi. Yuqorida-1975 yilda USS Jon F. Kennedi bilan to'qnashuvdan keyin USS Belknap (CG-26). USS Frank E. Evans (DD-754) 1969 yilda Avstraliyaning Melburn tashuvchisi tomonidan ikkiga bo'lingan.

Manevrli samolyot tashuvchisi va uning qo'riqchi kemasi o'rtasidagi to'qnashuvning eng ommabop misoli 1975 yil 22-noyabr kuni kechqurun USS Belknap (CG-26) USS Jon F. Kennedi (CV- 67). Ekipajning 8 a'zosi halok bo'ldi, 48 kishi jarohat oldi. Bunday holda, umumiy harbiy sudlar Belknap kemasining kapitani va ofitserini ta'qib qilishdi, lekin ko'pchilik g'alati natijalar deb hisoblashdi. Hech kim uning professional tengdoshlaridan iborat umumiy harbiy sudga kelmagan. Har bir kishi, qonuniy huquqiga muvofiq, faqat harbiy sudyaning oldida sud qilindi. To'qnashuvdan oldin muqarrar bo'lgan daqiqalarga qadar Belknapning palatasida film tomosha qilayotgan qo'mondon masalasida, u kemani tegishli malakali qo'lda qoldirib ketganmi, degan savolga chek qo'yildi. kuzatuvchilar to'plami. U harbiy sudya tomonidan prokuratura hatto birinchi ishni ochmaganligini aniqlaganida aybsiz deb topildi. Hukmdor ofitser aybdor deb topildi, lekin harbiy sudyaning umumiy harbiy sud tomonidan chiqarilgan hukmning o'zi etarli va munosib jazo bo'lganligi to'g'risida hech qanday jazo tayinlanmadi.

Bu hayratlanarli sud qarorlari, tabiiyki, ko'plab eski va eski dengiz itlari orasida juda ko'p miqdordagi yonishlarni keltirib chiqardi. Dengiz floti, xuddi shunday vaziyatda, o'z kemalarida dengizda mas'ul bo'lganlar uchun professional javobgarlikni ta'minlash uchun maxfiy sud sifatida yashirishga urinmaydi, deb taxmin qilish mumkin.

Harbiy sudning sof kasb-hunarni egallash vositasi sifatida mos ravishda yo'q bo'lib ketishi, kamdan-kam hollarda, qasddan yoki beparvolik bilan sodir bo'lgan holatlar bundan mustasno-1951 yilda H nl shakli almashtirilishi bilan mol go'shti nazarda tutilgan bo'lishi mumkin. Harbiy adliya kodeksi (UCMJ) dengiz floti hukumati uchun maqbul maqolalar uchun. Ikkinchi Jahon Urushining pasayishi, intizomiy vakolatlarning suiiste'mol qilinishi, harbiy sudlarning xulosalari to'g'risida asossiz buyruq berish va xizmatlarning o'zaro munosabati UCMJning qabul qilinishiga olib keldi va uning himoyasini sezilarli darajada oshirdi. ayblanuvchining huquqlari. Oldingi kodeks d | S va ishlash standartlarining saqlanishini ta'minlash va faqat jinoiy xatti -harakatlarning oldini olish va jazolash maqsadida ishlab chiqilgan. Yangi UCMJ jinoiy harakatlarga katta e'tibor beradi. Keyingi qarorlar va sud talqinlari bu xususiyatni shunchalik kuchaytiradiki, bugungi kunda prokuratura va harbiy okrug federal okrug sudi o'rtasidagi farq deyarli yo'q, yillar davomida umumiy harbiy sudning yuridik xodimi asta-sekin katta va katta nazoratni o'z zimmasiga oldi. protsess bo'yicha. Hozirgi vaqtda umumiy harbiy sud a'zolarining vazifasi hakamlar hay'ati vazifasidir. Bundan tashqari, harbiy sudda ayblanuvchi federal okrug sudlari tomonidan berilgan huquqlardan ko'proq foydalanadi. U faqat harbiy sudya tomonidan sud muhokamasi huquqiga ega, federal sudlarda prokurorlik bilan kelishuv cheklanmagan. Bu huquqni USS Frank E. Evans (DD-754) qo'mondoni ham shu 1969 yilda Avstraliyaning Melburn samolyot tashuvchisi bilan to'qnashuvidan keyin amalga oshirgani muhim ahamiyatga ega. U aybsiz deb topildi va xizmat vazifalarini bajarmaslik ayblovlari bilan tanbeh oldi. Bir martalik sud qarorini tanlashning uzoq davom etadigan donoligi martaba nuqtai nazaridan shubhali bo'lsa-da, bunday holatlarda ayblanuvchilar sudda ustunlikni taklif qilishlari aniq.

Bularning amaliy natijasi shundan iboratki, jinoiy beparvolik yoki qasddan noto'g'ri xatti-harakatlar bundan mustasno, harbiy sudlar endi dengiz floti kemalari va ularning ekipajlari xavfsizligi uchun mas'ul bo'lgan yaxshi niyatli odamlarni hukm qilishda xatolarga yo'l qo'ymaydi. Bu Eelknap kapitani sudida ko'rsatildi. Harbiy-dengiz floti nizomining buzilishi, qo'mondonning qo'mondonligi xavfsizligi va samaradorligi uchun mas'ul bo'lganligi, harbiy sudya tomonidan ko'rib chiqilgan qoidabuzarlik faqat ko'rsatma bo'lib xizmat qilgani uchun ishdan bo'shatildi. sanktsiyalar.

Bu yondashuvni qo'llab -quvvatlash jinoyat niyatining kontseptsiyasidir. Bunday niyat, aybdor deb topilishidan oldin, bizning jinoyat adliya tizimimizda amalda yoki taxmin bilan bo'lishi kerak. Jinoiy beparvolik holatida, beparvolik darajasi zaruriy jinoiy niyatni ta'minlagan deb hisoblanadi. Bu, g'azablangan tomon fuqarolik ishlari orqali, odatda, beparvolik darajasidan farq qiladi. Ko'p hollarda farq unchalik katta emas, lekin harbiy adliya yagona kodeksining amaldagi qo'llanilishida bu hech qachon ahamiyatli emas.

Har doim ham shunday bo'lmagan. Harbiy-dengiz kuchlarining tinchlik davridagi dahshatli falokatida, 1923 yil 8 sentyabrda Kaliforniya shtati, Point Arguello yaqinidagi Che qoyalariga etakchi guruhi o'zining o'n to'rt qiruvchisining ettitasini olib keldi- u "o'z vazifasini bajarishda" samarasizlikda "aybdor deb topildi. Dengiz flotining kemalariga suv osti kemalarida yurishga beparvolik bilan ruxsat berish. Birinchi darajali ayblov, professional ayblovlar bilan bog'liq bo'lib, "aybdor" himoyachi so'zini o'z ichiga oladi, bu sud ayblovlari isbotlanmaguncha jiddiy samarasizlik talabini bildiradi. Harbiy adliya yagona kodeksidan kelib chiqqan holda, bu jinoyat dengiz floti hukumati uchun "qoyalar yoki sayozlar" kabi maqolalarning rang -barang tili bilan birlashtirilgan.

Point-Arguello ofati bilan bog'liq boshqa harbiy sudlar ham bor edi va ulardan ikkitasi eski tizimning yangisida bo'lmagan xususiyatini ko'rsatadi. Bu oqlanish kontseptsiyasi, kasbiy xulq -atvorni tartibga solish va professional ishlash standartlarini saqlashning har qanday tartib -qoidalarida muhim vosita. Etti qiruvchi halok bo'lgan 11 ofitserdan, ikkita diviziya qo'mondoni va oltita qo'mondon aybsiz deb topildi. Biroq, ayblovlarni oqlashda sezilarli farq bor edi. Olti qo'mondon oddiygina "oqlandi". Ikki bo'linma qo'mondoni "to'liq va sharafli oqlandi". Bu farqning ma'nosi shundan iboratki, qo'mondonlarga qo'yilgan ayblovlar shubhasiz isbotlanmagan bo'lsa -da, bo'linma qo'mondonlariga qo'yilgan ayblovlar nafaqat oqilona shubha bilan isbotlanmagan, balki ularning ayblovlarga nisbatan harakatlari sud tomonidan aniqlangan. aybsiz bo'lish. Bu ikki ofitserni oqlash edi. Bu mamlakatdagi jinoyat kodekslari, jumladan, harbiy adliya yagona kodeksi, oqlanishni nazarda tutmaydi. Texnik qonuniy sabablarga ko'ra ayblovlar bekor qilinishidan tashqari, oqlanish faqat shubhasiz oqlanmaydi. Bunday oqlovdan boshqa hech narsa xulosa qilish mumkin emas. Hatto fuqarolik ishlari bo'yicha javobgarlik uchun etarli bo'lgan dalillarning ustunligi ham jinoyat ishlarida isbotlashning yanada qat'iy standartlariga javob bermaydi. Gunohsiz ayblanuvchi, fuqaro yoki harbiy bo'lsada, oqlanishga loyiqdir, lekin na federal, na davlat jinoyat kodekslari, na yagona harbiy adliya kodeksi unga bera olmaydi.

Point Arguello ishi bo'yicha ayblanmagan barcha sakkizta xulosalar Harbiy -dengiz kuchlari kotibi tomonidan bosh hakam -advokatning tavsiyanomasi bilan tasdiqlanmagan. Bu natijalar bilan ma'nosiz kelishmovchilik edi. Ammo muhim jihati shundaki, Vashingtonga hukmlar yoqmagan bo'lsa -da, sakkiztasi professional tengdoshlar guruhi tomonidan aybsiz deb topildi, ulardan ikkitasi to'liq oqlandi. Bu ofitserlarning keyingi martabasi umumiy harbiy sud qarorini bekor qildi. Albatta, ozodlik boshqa yo'llar bilan bo'lishi mumkin edi. Tergov yoki tergov sudi oqlanishni tavsiya qilishi mumkin, lekin faqat tavsiya qilishi mumkin. Agar chaqiruv organi rozi bo'lmasa, u baribir intizomiy choralar ko'rishi yoki sud ishini qo'zg'atishi mumkin. Harbiy-dengiz kuchlari hukumati to'g'risidagi maqolalar bo'yicha harbiy sud yakuniy ravishda oqlanishi mumkin.

Kafedrada norozilik ifodasi

Belknap holatlari shuni ko'rsatadiki, gen:

sodir bo'layotgan narsalarga berilgan. Bu haqiqatan ham

jiddiy buzilish holatlarida va standartlarni unchalik jiddiy bo'lmagan buzilishlar uchun javobgarlikka tortish mumkin- misollar, uning ekipajiga g'ayratli kapitan yoki hatto yelkanda o'ynaydigan gozali raqqosning asossiz talablari bo'lishi mumkin. suv osti kemasi. Rasmiy intizom sohasida, tanbeh berish jazosi, shubhasiz, harbiy sudga to'g'ri kelmaydigan eng kuchli harakatdir. Ma'muriy sanktsiyalar bilan birgalikda chiqarilganda, bu, albatta,

Point Arguello ishi bunday holatlarda g'ayrioddiy emas edi va ehtimol harbiy dengiz sudlari uchun mavjud bo'lgan juda tor doiradagi sanksiyalarni aks ettirishi mumkin, hatto dengiz floti hukumati uchun eski maqolalarda ham. 1950 yilda Missuri shtatining USS (BB-63) samolyotini ishga tushirish natijasida sodir bo'lgan harbiy sudlar ish olib borilayotganda, chaqiruv organi oldingi 30 yil mobaynida Harbiy-dengiz flotida sodir bo'lgan har bir asosiy ishni ko'rib chiqdi. Deyarli barcha bunday holatlarda, Harbiy -dengiz floti boshqarmasi tomonidan berilgan jazolar etarli emas deb hisoblanar edi, garchi bu tasdiqlarning hech biri adolatli hukm qanday bo'lishi haqida ko'rsatma bermagan. Odatda, ular Harbiy -dengiz flotining ro'yxatidagi raqamlarni yo'qotishni o'z ichiga olgandir, lekin bu aniq jazo emas. Reytingning pasayishi mavjud edi, lekin kamdan -kam ishlatilgan va u sinfdagi raqamlarning yo'qolishi kabi kamchilikka duch kelgan. Xizmatdan bo'shatish ruxsat etilgan sanktsiya bo'lsa-da, pensiya olish huquqiga ega bo'lgan ofitser uchun maosh va imtiyozlarni yo'qotish og'ir bo'lar edi. Ehtimol, agar zudlik bilan majburiy ravishda nafaqaga chiqish yoki ishdan bo'shatish nafaqasi bilan ajratish imkoni bo'lsa, bu jazolar ba'zi hollarda tayinlanishi mumkin edi. Missuri misolida, kapitan, operatsion ofitser va navigator aybdor deb topildi va raqamlarni yo'qotishga hukm qilindi.

Dengiz kuchlari hukumati uchun eski maqolalarning kamchiliklari qanday bo'lishidan qat'i nazar, ular hali ham professional xatolarni bartaraf etishning amaliy usullarini taqdim etishdi.

Milliy gt tar y adolat yagona kodeksiga binoan, harbiy sud endi bunday maqsadda xizmat ko'rsatadigan avtotransport vositasini boshqa taklif qilmaydi, faqat irodasizlik yoki beparvolik hollari bundan mustasno. Shuni yodda tutish kerakki, hali ham turli xil kichikroq sanktsiyalar mavjud, ularning ba'zilari yagona kodeksga kiradi, ba'zilari ma'muriy. Muhim savol - bu toraytirilgan diapazon etarli bo'ladimi? Agar yo'q bo'lsa, harbiy sudga o'rinbosar topilishi kerak.

Bu savolga qanday javob berishidan qat'i nazar, hali ham mavjud bo'lgan sanktsiyalarning samaradorligi kamaytirilmaydi. Eng past darajada - bu kasbiy obro'sining yo'qolishi va professional hurmatning yo'qolishi.

ba'zan shaxsan halokatli, bu sanktsiyadan ko'ra ko'proq "ongli ravishda cheklash". Keyingi - zobitning jismoniy tayyorgarligi to'g'risidagi port faylida to'plangan ko'rsatkichlar yozuvi. Bu oxir -oqibat harakatning buzilishiga olib kelishi va faol vazifadan erta ajralishiga olib kelishi mumkin, lekin uning ta'siri odatda hodisadan o'z vaqtida ajratiladi. Bundan tashqari, haddan tashqari* ko'tarilish imkoniyati past bo'lgan davrlarda, tanlovning muvaffaqiyatsizligi beg'ubor yozuvlarga ega bo'lganlarga, shuningdek, qoniqarsiz yoki noqulay hisobotlarga ega bo'lganlarga ta'sir qiladi- Biroq, ma'muriy jazo choralari mavjud. buyruqdan xulosa chiqarishdir. Ta'kidlash joizki, inkor etilmaydigan samarali harakatlar, u deyarli har doim boshqa ko'plab nosozliklarga qarshi kurashish uchun hamroh bo'ladi.

yomon ob -havoda langar tashlab, sudrab yurish, mayda to'qnashuvlar va turli ichki qurbonlar kabi kema bilan sodir bo'lishi mumkin bo'lgan hodisalar.

Ammo agar kapitan o'z kemasi uchun mutlaq mas'uliyatni o'z zimmasiga olishi kerak bo'lsa, katta hodisalarga olib keladigan samarasizlik holatlarida, bu kichikroq sanktsiyalar doirasi etarli emas. Umumiy harbiy sudning o'rnini bosuvchi topilishi kerak. Birinchidan, barcha boshqa choralar, unchalik jiddiy bo'lmagan natijalarga olib keladigan hukm xatolarida aybdor bo'lgan ofitserlarga nisbatan qo'llanilishi mumkin. Ko'rinib turibdiki, kemasi jiddiy shikastlangan yoki yo'qolgan, kema vaqtincha ishdan chiqqan yoki nisbatan kichik to'qnashuvga uchragan qo'mondonga nisbatan muomalada unchalik farq yo'q. Balki, qiziqmagan professional tengdoshlar guruhining jamoaviy yashash joyini yo'qotishi muhim ahamiyatga ega. Although a letter of censure can be appealed °ne level, it is still essentially the action of a single senior in the chain of command. By the same token, exoneration by such a senior will have less impact r han that by such a panel.

In the most serious cases the reaction outside the service must also be considered. It is questionable Whether the public will accept what is primarily an administrative disposition in cases involving substan­ t ial loss of life or the loss of a major unit of the fleet. Removal from command and issuance of a letter of r eprimand may be as devastating to the individual Concerned as anything else that might conceivably be done to him, but the import of such actions is not Understood by the public and is often perceived as a slap on the wrist.” Finally, where there is pressure for more drastic action, the Navy will probably be 'Ocreasingly hesitant to resort to the court-martial, in v iew of the increasing emphasis being given to the concept of criminality in the evolution of the law applicable to court-martial proceedings. The Navy should properly be reluctant to stigmatize as a crimi­nal an officer of the deck who was doing his level best to stay out of the way of a maneuvering aircraft carrier while attempting to perform the evolution in a manner consistent with what he understood to be the desires of his commanding officer. In this con­nection it should be noted that among the charges recommended by the investigating command to be brought against the Belknap’s officer of the deck was that of manslaughter. Fortunately, this charge was not included among those actually preferred.

An adequate substitute for the now practically un­available court-martial in cases of errors in profes­sional judgment need not have all the powers of such a court. It would not need the power to fine or im­prison, and it certainly should not be deemed to have the power to impose criminal sanctions. It should, however, be empowered to exonerate and to impose sanctions with finality, subject to mitigation through appeal. Such appeal should extend to court review in the case of the most severe sanctions. The powers of such a tribunal should include the imposition of sev­eral levels of censure such as, possibly, a letter of caution, letter of admonition, and letter of rep­rimand—and extend in the most serious cases to the loss of the privilege of continuing in the profession. Separation from active duty, with or without sever­ance pay, should certainly be included among the ac­tions permitted. Dismissal of a retirement-eligible officer, while not entirely indefensible, is perhaps too drastic a power to give an administrative body. Less­er disqualifications should include revocation of formal designation of qualification in a warfare spe­cialty or for command at sea.

None of the various techniques currently available to the Navy, administrative or judicial, can fulfill the requirements outlined above. A regular officer’s right to tenure on the active list of the Navy is closely prescribed by statute, and therefore legislative authority would have to be obtained to establish any administrative body empowered to remove such an officer from active duty. It is certain that any ap­proach which smacked of an attempted return to the general court-martial as it existed under the Articles for the Government of the Navy would never be ac­ceptable to the Congress. However, there are other precedents, still in good standing, which have not only been established by legislative authority but have also been found constitutionally acceptable to the courts. Probably the professional licensing pro­cess, including revocation authority, as it exists under the regulation of various federal and state agencies, most closely parallels the administrative powers needed by the Navy as its chief method for the enforcement of professional standards through the use of sanctions. The Coast Guard regulates the licensing of merchant marine personnel. In cases of casualties involving merchant shipping, a Coast Guard board investigates, fixes blame, and can ini­tiate action to suspend or revoke licenses.

At the state level, a similar function is provided for in various professional fields. All, or virtually all, states regulate the practice of professions within their respective borders by prescribing licensing require­ments, establishing administrative bodies to super­vise the licensing process, and by providing for the policing of licensed practitioners. Typically, an ap­pointed board made up of members of the profession involved is responsible for the execution of both the licensing and policing functions, controlling those who would practice that profession within the boun­daries of the state. The governing statute may pro­vide, either generally or in detail, those standards the breach of which can lead to suspension or revocation of licenses. Procedures may include the right to a hearing, to be represented by counsel, and ultimate appeal to the courts. Highlighting the contrast be­tween the administrative licensing procedure and the stricter constitutional requirements pertaining to a criminal statute, the list of professional derelictions may include “other unprofessional conduct.” The key similarities between this proposal and the instrument the Navy once had, are in the general charges of “culpable inefficiency” and “conduct unbecoming,” and the fact that these professionals must account to a body of their peers.

There also exists a useful precedent closer at hand. The Army and the Air Force have possessed in recent years statutory authority to convene a hierarchy of boards to determine whether an officer shall be re­quired to show cause for his retention on active duty. This can come about either because his performance of duty has fallen below standards required or be­cause of moral dereliction, professional dereliction, or because his retention is clearly not consistent with the interests of national security. In the development of a uniform officer personnel act beginning in I960, a concept still awaiting enactment under the title o Defense Officer Personnel Management Act, this au­thority would have been extended to the Secretary o the Navy. While this provision would not fit the needs of the Navy for a board empowered to act with the required broad range of options following its in­vestigation of a specific incident, it does include the parallel of “professional dereliction” and has the value of relatively recent (1950s) congressional ap­proval .

The foregoing examples in no way represent an exhaustive search of all the possible precedents. Such a thorough study should, of course, be a preliminary to the actual task of formulating a legislative propo­sal. What these few examples do make clear is that there are in existence comparable systems which p r0 ' vide for portions of what is needed and which have proved acceptable to the legislative bodies which enacted them and to the courts which reviewed then operation. It should not be difficult to adapt a distil­lation of these approaches to the needs of the Navy-

Whatever the precise details of such a system f° r assigning responsibility and enforcing professional accountability in specific cases, its essential elements are clear. Judgment should be by a panel of p r0 ' fessional peers, enabled to act with finality, except for mitigation. The maximum sanctions available should be stern, including dismissal from the service- Finally, and just as important as the power to con­demn, it must have the power to exonerate, to “fully and honorably acquit.”

A graduate of the U. S. Naval Academy with c ^ e Class of 1940, Captain Greenbacker’s first assignment C was t0 tbe CSS Yorktown (CV-5), in which he serve

until her loss at the Battle of Midway. During his sub sequent career, his commands have included the sub marine chaser SC

1472, the USS Neunzer (DE-150), USS Lloyd E. Acne (DE-356), the USSCotry (DD-81?)- the USS Fremont (APA-44), Destroyer Division 262, and Destroy er Squadron Six. Ashore, he served on the staff of the Military Sea Trans portation Service, two tours in the Bureau of Naval Personnel and as Operations and Readiness Officer on the staff of CinCLantFIt. He at tended the Naval War College and has an M. A. degree in Internationa Relations from George Washington University. He received his Bachel 0 of Laws and Master of Laws degrees from Georgetown University- bf retired from active duty in 1969 and is currently engaged in the practR of law in Halifax, Virginia.


Execution 150 Years Ago Spurs Calls for Pardon

MANKATO, Minn. — On Dec. 26, 1862, thirty-eight doomed Dakota Indians wailed and danced atop the gallows, waiting for the trapdoors to drop beneath them. The square scaffold, built here to accommodate the largest mass execution in United States history, swayed under their weight.

“It seemed that the purpose of the singing and dancing was only to sustain each other in their last ordeal,” a witness observed. “As the last moment rapidly approached, they each called out their name and shouted in their native language: ‘I’m here! I’m here!’ ”

Thirty-seven of the men were among the “most ferocious” followers of the Dakota leader Little Crow, according to the federal government. They stood accused of killing approximately 490 settlers, including women and children, in raids along the Minnesota frontier.

But one man, historians say, did not belong there. A captured Dakota named We-Chank-Wash-ta-don-pee, often called Chaska, had had his sentence commuted by President Abraham Lincoln days earlier. Yet on the day after Christmas 1862, Chaska died with the others.

It was a case of wrongful execution, Gary C. Anderson, a history professor at the University of Oklahoma and Little Crow biographer, said last week in an interview. “These soldiers just grabbed the wrong guy,” he said.

Although the story of the mass execution in Mankato is well-known locally, scholars say the case of Chaska — spared by Lincoln, then wrongfully executed — has been long overlooked by the federal government and all but forgotten even by the Dakota.

Now, an effort to keep the story alive is taking root on campuses and even on Capitol Hill as the 150th anniversary of the execution, in 2012, approaches. Commemorative events will include symposiums, museum exhibits, monument re-dedications, book publications and an original symphony and choral production.

“It’s time to talk about it and time for people to know about it,” said Gwen Westerman, a professor of English at Minnesota State University at Mankato and a member of the Dakota who is planning to investigate Chaska’s case and the cultural context of the conflict with a class. She says she is hoping her students can “put together some more pieces of the puzzle.”

“Because there is a historical record” for Chaska’s commutation, Ms. Westerman said, “that’s a good place to start.”

A move to award Chaska (pronounced chas-KAY) a posthumous pardon has drawn some initial support. Before his defeat in November, Representative James L. Oberstar, Democrat of Minnesota, said a federal pardon would be “a grand gesture and one I think our Congressional delegation should support.”

“A wrong should be righted,” he added.

Senator Al Franken, a Minnesota Democrat who sits on the Committee on Indian Affairs, issued a statement last week signaling that he might move the issue forward.

“Senator Franken recognizes that this is a tragic period in history,” said his press secretary, Ed Shelleby. “The senator will continue to look into this incident in the next Congress.”

Tension between the Dakota, historically called the Sioux, and the influx of settlers had been mounting for years before the Civil War, which further strained United States resources, disrupting food and supplies promised to the Dakota in a series of broken peace treaties. One local trader, Andrew Myrick, said of the Indians’ plight, “If they are hungry, let them eat grass.”

Enraged and starving, the tribe attacked and plundered the new state’s settlements. Of the 400-plus Dakota and “mixed blood” men detained by Brig. Gen. Henry Hastings Sibley, 303 were sentenced by a military court to death. But Lincoln found a lack of evidence at most of the tribunals, and he reduced the number of the condemned to 38.

Rasm

We-Chank-Wash-ta-don-pee’s case was No. 3 and not listed in the execution order handwritten by Lincoln, but his fate may have been the result of mistaken identity. The man he died for was No. 121, identified by Lincoln as Chaskey-don or Chaskey-etay, who had been condemned for murdering a pregnant woman.

But historians say something far more complex may have been responsible for Chaska’s death: rumor. During the raids, Chaska took a white woman, Sarah Wakefield, and her children prisoner — not an uncommon occurrence during the Dakota War.

What was uncommon, however, was Wakefield’s defense of her captor at his military tribunal. Chaska defended her and her children, she said, and kept them from certain death and abuse at the hands of his fellow tribesmen. “If it had not been for Chaska,” Wakefield said, “my bones would now be bleaching on the prairie, and my children with Little Crow.”

One prison chaplain wrote to her after the hanging: “Dear Madam: In regard to the mistake by which Chaska was hung instead of another, I doubt whether I can satisfactorily explain it.”

Wakefield firmly believed that Chaska was executed on purpose, in retaliation for her testimony and in reaction to rumors that she and Chaska were lovers. General Sibley, who appointed the tribunal that convicted Chaska, privately referred to him as Wakefield’s “dusky paramour.”

Wakefield denied any sexual relationship in the booklet she wrote the year after his death, titled “Six Weeks in the Sioux Teepees.” She wrote, “I loved not the man, but his kindly acts."

Some details of the conflict have been willfully buried or forgotten, by both sides of the war. The Dakota conflict came in 1862, which historians have described as Lincoln’s “darkest year” during the Civil War. It was the year the president lost his 11-year-old son, Willie, to typhoid fever. Thousands died on the battlefields at the Battle of Bull Run and at Fredericksburg, as Lincoln fought with his own generals. In large part, the narrative of mass execution in Mankato was lost in the United States’ struggle to preserve the union.

Lincoln himself was distressed at the speed of the military tribunals that condemned 303 men, and his decision to commute most of the sentences was politically dangerous. But he said, “I could not afford to hang men for votes.” The 265 Dakota Indians Lincoln spared from the gallows were either fully pardoned or died in prison.

Modern Mankato, once a prairie outpost, is now a city of 37,000, where a modest downtown struggles for survival, competing against outlying strip malls and chain stores.

The only reminders that 38 Indians died here is a Dakota warrior statue and plaque outside the local library. The location of the actual scaffold is now called Reconciliation Park.

Glenn Wasicunna, a Dakota language teacher and husband of Ms. Westerman, said that for decades, his people would not even drive through Mankato during the day. The place carried too many memories, too much cultural trauma, he said.

“These were our family,” Ms. Westerman added. “These were people my great-grandparents knew. They have a direct effect on who we are.”

Each year on Dec. 26, the annual Mankato memorial run acknowledges those who died in the mass execution. But Wayne Wells, a Dakota language teacher on the nearby Prairie Island reservation, said there would be a range of response to a pardon just for Chaska. Many Dakota, he said, “consider all of them to be innocent martyrs — people who stood up and died for us.”

However, Leonard Wabasha, a local Dakota leader, said a federal pardon for Chaska would “shine a light.”

“It would cause people to read and research into it a little deeper,” Mr. Wabasha said. “It would be a step in the right direction.”


Tarkibi

It's amazing, what lengths pro-military types on Wikipedia will go to deny past crimes of Western imperialism. Even 'small' ones, like here. The firebombing of german and japanese cites -- and the atomic warcrime, of course -- etc., are something else again entirely, huh? Still -- someone had to just come out and say it finally, in this article, if for no other reason but that it is incontrovertible fact. Shunga qaramay hali ham attempt to justify it.

We're still not quite out of the Dark Ages yet, are we.

I think this article remains a tad distant from any 'final' state of objectivity.

Pazouzou (talk) 01:04, 7 September 2009 (UTC)

None of the references I consulted labeled the treatment of the German POWs 'torture' the strongest wording is that it was a "singular atrocity", and that's been included in the article. Intererstingly enough, the historian who used this term (Philip K. Lundeberg) was actually a survivor of the ship which the submarine sank. Nick-D (talk) 06:56, 7 September 2009 (UTC)

I felt that the language describing the treatment of prisoners was weaselly. They were tortured.Keith-264 (talk) 20:05, 8 November 2009 (UTC)

If you can find a source which calls it 'torture' then by all means change the wording. I tend to agree, but am constrained by what the sources I've been able to find say. Nick-D (talk) 21:28, 8 November 2009 (UTC) I agree. I think the use of euphemisms is a reflection of the time the action took place. Morrison, for example, states that the crew would not talk until they "enjoyed a little "hospitality" in the Marine Corps brig". --4wajzkd02 (talk) 22:19, 8 November 2009 (UTC) Western imperialism? You do realize Germany is considered part of the "West", yes? These were all Western powers fighting each other, not noble little brown people of bon sauvage mythology. — Preceding unsigned comment added by 207.67.11.162 (talk) 19:31, 19 July 2012 (UTC) Your point? Xyl 54 (talk) 22:40, 19 July 2012 (UTC)

It seems the article of this ship USS Varian (DE-798) claims it disabled and forced the U-boat to surface.--Operation Teardrop (talk) 05:52, 8 September 2009 (UTC) It seems that five destroyers engaged the U-boat at the same time, Varian, USS Pillsbury (DE-133), USS Chatelain (DE-149), USS Neunzer (DE-150) and USS Flaherty (DE-135), the combat being described in this article, but. not one reference!--Operation Teardrop (talk) 06:33, 8 September 2009 (UTC) Ok, that entire combat description was lifted from here [1] --Operation Teardrop (talk) 06:35, 8 September 2009 (UTC)

The Background section says the information came from the interrogation of a spy named Oscar Mantel. The Operation Elster page says those spies, Gimpel and Colepaugh, gave this information. Was Mantel one of these people, or was he a different captive giving the same story. Anybody know? Xyl 54 (talk) 23:21, 4 April 2011 (UTC)

I believe this is wrong. See Actions of 5/6 May 1945 and U-853. I believe the above statement should be amended to mention that these subs were the last two sunk in US waters. It is not clear which was the last one sunk as the events happened at about the same time, and nobody knows which shot sank U-853 during the lenthy attack it was subjected to. Jehochman Talk 04:53, 8 May 2013 (UTC)

There has been some mention of carriers and destroyers in the article, which I've corrected. Escort carriers (CVE) are much smaller than the ships usually called carriers, fleet carriers and destroyer escorts (DE) are smaller and slower than (fleet) destroyers (the Royal Navy classified them as frigates rather than any sort of destroyer). Cheap, expendable, ships produced in huge quantities. Pol098 (talk) 08:39, 12 May 2013 (UTC)

I have just modified one external link on Operation Teardrop. Iltimos, mening tahririmni ko'rib chiqing. Agar sizda biron bir savol bo'lsa yoki havola yoki sahifaga umuman e'tibor bermaslik uchun bot kerak bo'lsa, qo'shimcha ma'lumot olish uchun ushbu oddiy FAQ -ga tashrif buyuring. Men quyidagi o'zgarishlarni kiritdim:

O'zgartirishlarimni ko'rib chiqishni tugatgandan so'ng, siz URL -lar bilan bog'liq muammolarni tuzatish uchun quyidagi andozadagi ko'rsatmalarga amal qilishingiz mumkin.

2018 yil fevral oyidan boshlab "Tashqi havolalar o'zgartirildi" munozara sahifalari bo'limlari endi yaratilmaydi va kuzatilmaydi InternetArxivBot . Quyidagi arxiv vositasi ko'rsatmalari yordamida muntazam tekshirishdan tashqari, ushbu munozarali sahifadagi bildirishnomalarga nisbatan alohida harakat talab qilinmaydi. Tahrirlovchilar munozaralar sahifalarini tozalashni xohlasalar, "Tashqi havolalar o'zgartirilgan" munozaralar bo'limlarini o'chirish huquqiga ega, lekin tizimli ravishda olib tashlashdan oldin RFC-ni ko'ring. Bu xabar shablon orqali dinamik ravishda yangilanadi <> (oxirgi yangilanish: 2018 yil 15 -iyul).


Precautions

Before taking irbesartan, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: liver disease, severe loss of body water and minerals (dehydration).

This drug may make you dizzy. Alcohol or marijuana (cannabis) can make you more dizzy. Do not drive, use machinery, or do anything that needs alertness until you can do it safely. Limit alcoholic beverages. Talk to your doctor if you are using marijuana (cannabis).

This medication may increase your potassium levels. Before using potassium supplements or salt substitutes that contain potassium, consult your doctor or pharmacist.

Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).

This medication is not recommended for use during pregnancy due to the risk for harm to an unborn baby. Consult your doctor for more details. (See also Warning section.)

It is unknown if this drug passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.

Consult your pharmacist or physician.


How We Juneteenth

Gov. Andrew Cuomo of New York signed an executive order on Wednesday making Juneteenth a holiday for state employees the same goes for tech companies like Twitter, and even where I work, at The New York Times. This year, Juneteenth, a holiday that celebrates the arrival of the news of emancipation from slavery, seems to be a bigger deal across the nation.

But there’s a conversation I’ve been having with my friends: Is celebrating this holiday enough to begin to fix all that’s so very broken? And, one tick further, is the national embrace of what has been known as the African-American Independence Day a dangerous idea? Some people wonder — if we sip on our traditional red drinks as we socially distance on screens and porches — will we be lulled into feeling more free than we really are?

Saidiya Hartman, the author of “Wayward Lives, Beautiful Experiments” and a 2019 MacArthur “genius” grant winner whose work explores the “afterlife of slavery in modern American society,” said: “How to live a free life, how one can live, is the pressing question for black folks in the wake of slavery’s formal end.” Ms. Hartman said that imagining a freer life and a more just society has been the purpose of generations of black people since the days of Reconstruction.

“Recently, I heard Angela Davis talk about the radical imagination,” Ms. Hartman said. “And a fundamental requirement is believing that the world you want to come into existence can happen. I think that that is how black folks have engaged with and invested in and articulated freedom, as an ideal and as an everyday practice.”

I couldn’t agree more. As someone who has celebrated Juneteenth for a long time, I think we need it now — not in lieu of the freedom, justice and equality we are still fighting for — but in addition, because we have been fighting for so very long.

The elemental sermon embedded into the history and lore of Juneteenth has always been one of hope. The gifts of the holiday are the moments of connection, renewal and joy for a people who have had to endure so much, for so long.

To me, Juneteenth matters because it says: Keep going, the future you want is coming. — Veronica Chambers

“Words of Emancipation didn’t arrive until the middle of June so they called it Juneteenth. So that was it, the night of Juneteenth celebration, his mind went on. The celebration of a gaudy illusion. " — Ralph Ellison, “Juneteenth”


Neuenzer DE-150 - History

Hart Island

For over 150 years, it has been the New York City Department of Correction&rsquos solemn duty to manage burials on Hart Island. The Island serves as the City&rsquos public cemetery and is the final resting place of over one million individuals. The NYC Department of Correction is committed to ensuring that the public has access to the island and has several services available to help the individuals find and visit their loved ones on Hart Island.

To contact the Department about Hart Island, please call the Hart Island Information Line at (718) 546-0911 or [email protected] This line is staffed by a dedicated member of the Office of Constituent and Grievance Services Monday through Friday, 9 a.m. &ndash 5 p.m. If you call outside of these hours, please leave a message and your call will be returned the following business day. All emails will receive a response within 24 to 48 hours, absent any extenuating circumstances.

Information on Hart Island

Visiting Hart Island

The Department of Correction welcomes the public to visit Hart Island, pay their respects, and maintain vital connections to those that have passed away. The island can be accessed by scheduling either a public gazebo visit or a private gravesite visit. Visits to Hart Island are provided solely by the Department of Correction and are free of charge to visitors.

Gravesite visits are reserved for those with close personal ties to a decedent, including family members, chosen family members, close friends, and partners. Gravesite visits are intended to provide an opportunity for loved ones to spend peaceful time at the final resting place of the decedent. Gazebo visits can be accessed by the general public, as well as family and friends of a decedent.

Type of Visits

For individuals wishing to visit the final resting place of a loved one, the Department offers gravesite visits to Hart Island twice a month, on weekends. A visitor who requests a gravesite visit is permitted to be accompanied by up to four (4) additional guests. Anyone wishing to visit a gravesite with more than four (4) additional guests should contact the Hart Island Information Line. The Department will make reasonable efforts to accommodate any such requests.

Gravesite visits are reserved for individuals with close ties to a specific decedent.

The Department offers gazebo visits on the third Thursday of every month at 9 a.m. Reservations for gazebo visits may be scheduled by anyone, regardless of whether they have a loved one interred on the Island. During a gazebo visit, visitors are escorted to a designated location at the gazebo and remain there for the entirety of the visit, with time to reflect on the memories of those buried on the Island. Many of the Island burial sites and monuments can be viewed from the gazebo and there is also a question and answer session with knowledgeable staff who work on the Island.

Scheduling and Preparation

Reservations to Visit Hart Island

Reservations to visit Hart Island may be scheduled by calling (718) 546-0911 via email at [email protected] or by submitting a Visit Request Form online .
All visits must be scheduled at least five (5) business days in advance, but the Department will work to accommodate special requests when possible. If you need more information or assistance with schedule a visit to Hart Island, please contact the Department&rsquos Hart Island Information Line at (718) 546-0911.

Availability for Gazebo Visits

In an effort to limit the spread of COVID-19, the Department is not scheduling gazebo visits at this time.

Availability for Gravesite Visits

Two (2) gravesite visit opportunities are available each scheduled day, one beginning at 9 a.m. and one beginning at 12 p.m. Each gravesite visit lasts approximately two (2) hours and can accommodate up to 10 visitors.

By submitting the visit request form for a gravesite visit, a requestor will affirm a close personal relationship with a decedent. Documentation of a requestor&rsquos relationship to the deceased is not required unless there is a reasonable basis for concluding that no relationship exists between the requestor and the deceased, in which case the Department may require documentation if it has been unable to confirm the relationship through other credible means.

How to Prepare for Your Visit

Prior to visiting, each family member or guest should sign and submit a liability waiver by emailing a signed copy to [email protected], or mailing it to:

NYC Department of Correction
Office of Constituent and Grievance Services
75-20 Astoria Boulevard
East Elmhurst, New York 11370

A visitor may also provide a signed copy in person on the day of visitation, and blank copies of the liability waiver will also be available at the City Island dock on the day of visitation.

What to Expect on the Day of Your Visit

The Department is committed to providing a safe and respectful visit experience and is following all recommended public health guidelines for the City of New York, and requires that visitors do the same.

Upon arrival at the City Island dock, all visitors are required to present valid photo identification and sign the Hart Island Visitor Book. The Department reserves the right to search visitors consistent with its security policy and works diligently to maintain a peaceful and respectful environment during visits to Hart Island.

Department staff and visitors are required to wear appropriate face coverings and maintain safe social distance throughout the visit. If visitors do not have a mask, one will be provided. If a guest refuses to wear a mask, they will not be permitted to participate in a gravesite visit that day.

All visitors will be screened prior to boarding the bus that will transport them onto the ferry. Visitors will review a COVID-19 symptom screening questionnaire and sign an affirmation form stating that they are cleared to proceed with their visit based on their review of the questionnaire. If a visitor answers yes to any of the screening questions, they will not be permitted to participate in a gravesite visit that day.

During your visit, the Department will not ask you to social distance from the person(s) in your visitor group and may not be able to afford visitors in the same group with six feet of distance from each other. We encourage you to visit with member of your household only. The Department will require that each visitor group maintain social distance from the next closest visitor group.

All vehicles used for transportation have social distancing cues to note appropriate distance, a filtration system, and will be sanitized between each visit. For the safety of staff and visitors, all visitors will be required to board the bus on the City Island dock and remain on the bus for the duration of the ferry trip to Hart Island visitors will also be required to board the bus to depart from Hart Island and remain on the bus for the duration of the ferry trip to return to the City Island dock.
When visiting Hart Island, please consider any inclement weather conditions, especially during the summer and winter seasons, and dress appropriately. The island is accessed by a brief ferry ride from a dock on City Island, and all transportation on Hart Island is provided by the Department. Uniformed Correction Officers will escort all groups and individuals to their designated visit sites, but will maintain a respectful distance in order to allow for a peaceful visit.

Visit Availability and Limitations

Visits will be scheduled for the requested date unless accommodation for a request is not feasible due to inclement weather, no availability on the date requested because maximum capacity has been reached, and any other factors beyond the Department&rsquos control. In such cases, the Department will make reasonable efforts to reschedule the visit for the next date requested.

If space is unavailable on the preferred visit day, the Department will contact the individual who submitted the request within three (3) business days of a request for a visit to modify the request or seek to reschedule the request. In the event that demand for visits exceeds capacity, visits for family members, chosen family members, and partners will be prioritized. Any other visitor whose visit needs to be rescheduled in order to afford a visit opportunity for a family member, chosen family member, or partner will receive at least three (3) business days notice.

If a deceased person&rsquos specific gravesite is either unidentifiable or inaccessible for reasons that cannot be remedied before the date of the visit, the requestor will be notified in advance of the visit and may be asked to reschedule. Alternatively, the requestor is permitted to visit an alternate gravesite or other location reasonably proximate to the requested gravesite.

Directions and Transportation

The ferry to Hart Island departs from a dock in City Island located at the east end of Fordham Street.

There is no parking on the City Island dock and parking near the dock is extremely limited. All visitors are strongly encouraged to take public transportation or carpool if possible. The Bx29 bus stops at the intersection City Island Ave and Fordham Street, which is a ten (10) minute walk to the dock. All visitors are reminded to follow local parking regulations.

How to Find a Loved One Buried on Hart Island

The Department has created a searchable database of Hart Island burial records dating back to 1977, which enables members of the public to determine if a loved is buried on the island. Records dated before 1977 are preserved by the New York City Municipal Archives, a division of the New York City Department of Records and Information Services. Some records were destroyed in a fire in the 1970s, and location information cannot be determined for these interments. The searchable database is available for public access to search for individuals by name, age, birth date, date of death, or by the assigned Medical Examiner number. The Medical Examiner number may be obtained through the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner of New York City.

Please click the following link to access the Hart Island searchable database to determine if your loved one has been interred on Hart Island. If you know the plot number of your loved one, you can locate them on the Island by referencing a Map of Hart Island burial locations (Hart Island Map 1, Hart Island Map 2).

If you need more information about an individual record or assistance locating a record, please call the Hart Island Information Line at (718) 546-0911 or email [email protected] The Department has redacted personally identifying information from records of fetal remains in order to protect the personal privacy of family members. Any family member seeking information on fetal remains that may have been buried on Hart Island should call the Hart Island Information Line.

Disinterment

Upon confirming that a loved one is buried on Hart Island, families may request a disinterment and reburial elsewhere, such as in a private cemetery. The Department does not charge for locating and disinterring remains of the deceased.

To arrange for relocation and reburial of your loved one, you must contact a licensed funeral director, who will charge a fee for services. The funeral director will help with obtaining a disinterment permit from the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene&rsquos Office of Vital Records. Once a permit is granted, the funeral director must mail the following documents to the Department of Correction:

  1. The original Disinterment Permit
  2. A formal request for disinterment on letterhead from a licensed funeral home.

The address to mail these two (2) documents is:

NYC Department of Correction
Facility Maintenance and Repair Division
75-20 Astoria Boulevard
Elmhurst, NY 11370

The Department of Correction will schedule the disinterment and coordinate with the funeral home for transfer of the remains. For more information, please contact the Office of Constituent and Grievance Services via the Hart Island information Line by calling (718) 546-0911 or by email at [email protected]

Burial assistance is available to help pay for funeral expenses/burials/cremations of eligible low-income New Yorkers through the HRA&rsquos Office of Burial Services. A burial allowance application can be made for funeral costs related to the disinterment and reburial of a decent buried on Hart Island. To learn more about burial assistance, visit HRA&rsquos Office of Burial Services website, email [email protected], or call (929) 252-7731 during regular business hours. If you call outside of regular business hours, please leave a message and your call will be returned the next business day. You may also visit the Office of Burial Services in person on Wednesdays between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. da:

HRA Office of Burial Services
33-28 Northern Blvd., 3rd Floor
Long Island City, NY 11101

Frequently Asked Questions

Q: Who is buried on Hart Island?

Individuals are buried on Hart Island because their identity is unknown at the time of their death and a next of kin could not be located to arrange for burial services, because the individual&rsquos family could not afford burial costs, or because the individual&rsquos family preferred that their loved one be buried on Hart Island. The internment location of each individual is recorded and maintained by the Department.

Q: Can I get help paying for a burial or cremation of a loved one who passed away ?

Ha. Burial assistance is available to help pay for funeral expenses/burials/cremations of eligible low-income New Yorkers. Applications, along with our documents, will be reviewed by the HRA Office of Burial Services to see if eligibility criteria for a burial allowance are met. To learn more about burial assistance and apply for a burial allowance, visit HRA's Office of Burial Services, website, email [email protected], or call (929) 252-7731 during regular business hours. If you call outside of regular business hours, please leave a message and your call will be returned the next business day. You may also visit the Office of Burial Services in person on Wednesdays between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. da:

HRA Office of Burial Services
33-28 Northern Blvd., 3rd Floor
Long Island City, NY 11101

Q: Who are considered chosen family members? Does the Department allow chosen family to visit?

Chosen families are non-biological kinship bonds, whether legally recognized or not, deliberately chosen for the purpose of mutual support and love. Chosen family members have the same access to Hart Island as biological family members.

Q: I am not a relative but would like to visit the gravesite of a close friend or co-worker. Am I eligible for a gravesite visit?

Individuals with close personal ties to a specific decedent are eligible for gravesite visits, however, visits for family members, chosen family members, and partners are prioritized. To discuss individual visits, please contact the Hart Island Information Line.

Q: How may visitors sign up to visit Hart Island?

Reservations to visit Hart Island may be scheduled by calling (718) 546-0911, or via email at [email protected] , or by submitting a Visit Request Form online .

Q: How many people can visit Hart Island during a visitation period?

The Department works to accommodate each request submitted for a visit to Hart Island. In order to allow for safe social distancing, a maximum of 10 visitors can be accommodated for each gravesite visitation period.

Q: Can I take personal items on a gravesite visit?

Visitors are permitted to leave the following mementos at gravesites: flowers without vases, small stuffed animals, photographs, prayer cards, small flags, and blankets. The Department may require visitors to surrender electronic devices, which will be safeguarded and returned to visitors at the conclusion of the visit. When requesting a visit, requestors may seek permission to bring other mementos, which will be considered on a case-by-case basis.

Q: Can I take pictures while I&rsquom on Hart Island?

Film and photography while on Hart Island are prohibited without the express permission of the NYC Department of Correction. The Department offers two (2) Media Day visits to the Island per year for members of the media. For more information about Media Day visits, please contact the Department&rsquos Office of Public Information at [email protected]

Q: I&rsquom having trouble determining whether my loved one is buried on Hart Island, who can I contact for help?

You can contact the Hart Island Information Line by calling (718) 546-0911 or emailing [email protected]

Q: What happens if my preferred visit day is unavailable?

Visits to Hart Island are scheduled on a first-come-first-served basis. When a visitation period reaches capacity, a waitlist is created for that visitation period. As scheduled visitors notify the Department of a cancellation, the Department reaches out to visitors on the waitlist to notify them that a scheduled visit has become available on their preferred day and add them to the schedule accordingly. Alternately, the Department will offer to schedule the visitors on a later date.

Q: Does the Department charge a fee for visits to Hart Island?

All visits to Hart Island are free of charge and are authorized solely and entirely by the Department. The Department does not work with third-party vendors or outside organizations to schedule or provide visits to Hart Island. All visits to Hart Island should be scheduled directly with the Department.

Q: What is the Department doing to reduce the spread of COVID-19 during visits?

The safety of our staff and visitors is the Department&rsquos top priority and several policies have been put in place to ensure visits are safe and respectful. In order to facilitate safe social distancing, each visit is limited to a maximum of 10 guests. Prior to departing on the visit, all guests are required undergo a COVID-19 screening by answering several questions related to COVID-19 symptoms. All staff and guests are required to wear a face covering and maintain safe social distance for the duration of the visit, and transportation vehicles will have social distancing cues and will be sanitized between each visit. If you have any questions or concerns related to the health and safety measures in place for gravesite visits, please reach out to the Hart Island Information Line by calling (718) 546-0911 or emailing [email protected] .

For the Media

Twice a year, accredited members of the media may attend a two-hour tour of Hart Island. The tour can accommodate approximately five media outlets, with no more than two people per outlet. Ekskursiya ishtirokchilari birinchi navbatda belgilanadi va quyidagi shakllarni oldindan to'ldirishlari shart:



Izohlar:

  1. Flaviu

    Yangilik yo `q :(

  2. Siraj-Al-Leil

    Xayrli kun! I do not see the terms of use of the information. Is it possible to copy the text you write to your site if you link to this page?

  3. Darrick

    Ha, men sizni tushunaman. Bu erda nimadir bor va menimcha, bu juda ajoyib g'oya. Men siz bilan to'liq qo'shilaman.

  4. Vince

    Kechirasiz, lekin menimcha, siz adashyapsiz. Ishonchim komil. Men buni muhokama qilishni taklif qilaman.

  5. Hennessy

    Without variants....

  6. Philip

    Sizning iborangiz shunchaki ajoyib



Xabar yozing