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20 -asr boshlarida dengiz aloqasi

20 -asr boshlarida dengiz aloqasi


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Antarktidaga kashfiyot ekspeditsiyasi paytida (1901-1904), yordam kemalari ekspeditsiyani topishi uchun, Cape Crozierda oldindan kelishilgan xabar punkti o'rnatildi. Bu aniq xabar nima edi? Bayroq semafor nuqtasi? Ekspeditsiya guruhi yordam kemalariga yozma xabarlar qoldirgan kulbami?


Odatiy usul - kulbadan ko'ra katta toshlardan korniş qurish va uning ichiga suv o'tkazmaydigan idishlarga yozma xabarlar qo'yish edi. Bu Antarktidaga kulba qurish uchun materiallarni tashishni talab qilmaydi va bo'ronlar uchib ketishi mumkin. Manba: Kanada Arktikasiga Franklin ekspeditsiyasi amaliyoti.

Bayroq semafor punkti boshqarilishi kerak edi va bu ekspeditsiya uchun zarur bo'lgan ishchi kuchi va ta'minotini sezilarli darajada oshiradi.


20 -asr boshlari va Birinchi jahon urushi fotosuratlari

Asr boshidan so'ng, zamonaviy jangovar kema o'zining oxirgi shaklini oldi. Dengiz qurollari poygasi avj olgani sari, imperiya davlatlari o'z tashqi siyosatini amalga oshirish qudrati va qobiliyatini anglatuvchi katta flotlarni ishlab chiqardi. Aytishga hojat yo'q, bu flotlarni saqlash uchun katta miqdordagi mamlakat va rsquo boyligi kerak edi. Kuchli qurollanish poygasining eng yorqin namunasi 1906 yilda ishga tushirilgan HMS Dreadnought edi. Bu Britaniyaning jangovar kemasi, oldingi jangovar kemalarda odatdagidek, 4 ta, 10 ta katta qurol bilan jihozlangan edi. Kattaroq va uzoq masofali qurollarga bo'lgan urg'u, 1905 yildagi Tsushima jangiga javob bo'ldi, u erda yapon floti 15000 yardgacha o'q otishi mumkin bo'lgan qurol va masofadan topuvchilardan foydalanganligi sababli rus flotini mag'lub etdi. Dengiz urushi jangovar kemalarda ustunlik qildi, bu muvaffaqiyat flot va qurolsiz ko'z bilan ko'rish uchun juda to'g'ri bo'lmagan to'g'ri koordinatalarni urish qobiliyatiga bog'liq edi. HMS Dreadnought -dan so'ng, har bir boshqa kema ushbu kemaning ishga tushirilishi bilan eskirgan edi. Birinchi jahon urushiga kelib, yirik harbiy -dengiz flotlari "ldquodreadnought" va "rdquo" tipidagi kemalarning katta flotlari bilan faxrlanishdi. Birinchi jahon urushi jangovar kemaning rivojlanishini davom ettirdi, ammo samolyotlar jangovar kema uchun jiddiy xavf tug'dirdi. Samolyot tashuvchilar 1 -jahon urushidan olingan saboqlardan kelib chiqqan. Birinchi jahon urushidan o'n yillar o'tib, oxir -oqibat bu yangi turdagi kema jangovar kemani eng kuchli kema turi sifatida tutilishiga olib keldi. Birinchi jahon urushi yirik davlatlarni (Qo'shma Shtatlardan tashqari) qattiq tanazzulga uchragan iqtisodiyotini qoldirdi va natijada kema qurilishi Birinchi jahon urushidan oldingi kabi bo'lmagan.


Dengizchilik an'anasi

Amerika inqilobining boshida paydo bo'lgan yangi qit'a floti o'z ildizlarini mustamlakachilikning birinchi Amerikasida oldi. 13 koloniyaga inglizlarning ilk ko'chmanchilari ham quruqlikdagidek dengizga jalb qilingan. Dengiz asosiy transport vositasi edi va mustamlakachilar o'z hayotlarini ta'minlash uchun dengizga qaradilar, bu dengiz dushmanlari uchun to'siq va o'z vatanlariga dengiz yo'li. Kemasozlik va yog'och biznesi kolonial Amerikaning asosiy sanoatini tashkil etib, mahalliy va ichki dengiz ehtiyojlarini qondirdi. Amerikaning eng yirik shaharlari - Boston, Nyu -York, Filadelfiya, Baltimor - barchasi Atlantika dengiz portlari bo'lib, ular professional dengizchilarni va kemasozlik uchun zarur ingredientlarni ishlab chiqardi: omborlar, temir yo'llar, qayiq quruvchilarning shiyponlari, yelkanli uylar va sanoq uylari. Sohil bo'ylab va tepada, yangi kemalar deyarli har kuni zaxiralarni pastga tushirishdi.


Vaziyat: Hozir muloqotni o'rganish

Xalqaro, milliy va mintaqaviy aloqa tashkilotlari

Turli xil professional tashkilotlar muloqotni o'rganishni istaganlarni tashkil qilish, olimlar uchun hozirgi tadqiqotlar haqida ma'lumot berish uchun konferentsiyalar tashkil etish va bizning intizomimizdagi so'nggi tadqiqotlarni yorituvchi ilmiy jurnallarni nashr etishga bag'ishlangan. Bu tashkilotlar nima qilayotgani haqida ko'proq bilish uchun siz ularning veb -saytlariga kirishingiz mumkin.

Xalqaro Aloqa Assotsiatsiyasi (ICA) birinchi marta 1940 -yillarda turli nutq bo'limlari tomonidan Aloqani o'rganish milliy jamiyati (NSSC) sifatida tashkil etilgan. 1950 yilga kelib NSSC ICAga aylandi va uning maqsadi butun dunyo bo'ylab odamlar muloqotini o'rganishga qiziqqan olimlar va mutaxassislarni birlashtirish edi. ICA hozirda 3400 dan ortiq a'zolarga ega, ularning uchdan ikki qismi butun dunyodagi ta'lim muassasalarida o'qituvchi va tadqiqotchi bo'lib ishlaydi. Xalqaro aloqa
Uyushma (ICA) http://www.icahdq.org

Kompyuter texnologiyalaridan foydalangan holda o'z a'zolarini tartibga soladigan nisbatan yangi tashkilot - Amerika aloqa assotsiatsiyasi (ACA). ACA 1993 yilda tashkil etilgan va aslida Shimoliy, Markaziy va Janubiy Amerikada, shuningdek, Karib havzasida muloqotni o'rganishga bag'ishlangan tadqiqotchilar, o'qituvchilar va mutaxassislarni o'z ichiga olgan virtual professional uyushma sifatida mavjud. Amerika aloqa assotsiatsiyasi (ACA)
http://www.americancomm.org

Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlarining aloqa bilan shug'ullanadigan eng yirik tashkiloti - Milliy aloqa assotsiatsiyasi (NCA). NCA dunyodagi har qanday aloqa tashkilotining eng katta a'zoligiga ega. Hozirda AQSh va 20 dan ortiq xorijiy davlatlardan taxminan 7100 a'zolari bor. NCA "o'z a'zolari tomonidan intellektual va ijtimoiy ahamiyatga ega bo'lgan mavzularda olib boriladigan tadqiqotlar, o'qitish va xizmatlarni yaxshilashga" bag'ishlangan ilmiy jamiyatdir (www.natcom.org). Milliy aloqa assotsiatsiyasi (NCA)
http://www.natcom.org.

Bundan tashqari, kichikroq mintaqaviy tashkilotlar ham bor: Sharqiy aloqa uyushmasi (ECA) http://www.jmu.edu/orgs/eca, Janubiy shtatlar aloqa assotsiatsiyasi (SSCA) http://ssca.net, Markaziy shtatlar aloqa assotsiatsiyasi (CSCA) ) http://www.csca-net.org va G'arbiy Shtatlar Aloqa Assotsiatsiyasi (WSCA) http://www.westcomm.org.

Aloqa bo'yicha olimlar Aloqa bo'limlarini tashkil qilar ekan, ular o'zlarini sohaning manfaatlarini aks ettiruvchi uyushmalarga birlashdilar. Aloqa bo'yicha professionallarning birinchi tashkiloti 1892 yilda tashkil etilgan Evokutistlar Milliy Assotsiatsiyasi edi (Rarig & amp Greaves 490), 1910 yilda Sharqiy notiqlik konferentsiyasi bo'lib o'tdi. Bir yil ichida oltmishdan ortiq o'rta maktab nutqi o'qituvchilari konferentsiyada qatnashdilar. Svartmor (Smit 423). Bizning hozirgi Milliy Aloqa Assotsiatsiyasi 1914 yilda Milliy notiqlik o'qituvchilarining milliy assotsiatsiyasi sifatida boshlangan va 1970 yilda Nutq bilan muloqot uyushmasiga aylangan. 1997 yilgacha a'zolari uni hozirgi nomiga o'zgartirish uchun ovoz berishgan. Dastlabki asoschilarning ishi natijasida hozirda bir qator tashkilotlar muloqotni o'rganishga qiziquvchilarni birlashtirishga bag'ishlangan.

2400 yillik o'qish turli yo'nalishlarda o'tgandan so'ng, 20 -asrning boshlari aloqa o'qituvchilarining muloqotni o'rganishni rasmiy ravishda tashkil etish va institutlashtirish istagini ko'rsatdi. Bu tashkilotlar aloqa bo'limlari kollej kampuslarida qanday ko'rinishini va qanday ishlashini, Aloqa o'quv dasturini va Aloqa professori uchun eng yangi o'qitish strategiyasini aniqlashda katta rol o'ynadi. Bugungi kunda sizning kampusingizdagi Aloqa bo'limini yaxshiroq tushunish uchun, keling, 20 -asrda muloqotni o'rganishni shakllantirgan ba'zi muhim voqealar va odamlarni ko'rib chiqaylik.


20 -asr boshlarida dengiz kuchlari

Haqiqatan ham, OTLda nima bo'lgan bo'lsa, qo'rqinchli fikrlar Buyuk flotda to'planib, Germaniyaga qarshi maydonga tushdi, RN esa chet elda faqat bayroqni ko'rsatish uchun BCni yuborib, Von Spining ortidan quvish uchun yubordi. Uzoq Sharq otryadi.

Markaziy kuchlarning hech bir floti urush davomida Evropa suvlari tashqarisida zirhli kreyserdan kattaroq narsani joylashtirmagan.

Naraik

Safronet

Haqiqatan ham, OTLda nima bo'lgan bo'lsa, qo'rqinchli fikrlar Buyuk flotda to'planib, Germaniyaga qarshi maydonga tushdi, RN esa chet elda faqat bayroqni ko'rsatish uchun BCni yuborib, Von Spining ortidan quvish uchun yubordi. Uzoq Sharq otryadi.

Markaziy kuchlarning hech bir floti urush davomida Evropa suvlari tashqarisida zirhli kreyserdan kattaroq narsani joylashtirmagan.

Aniq. Albatta, nemis admirallari o'z asbob -uskunalarini hisobga olgan holda, rejalarini ahmoqlar deb aytishmagan, chunki ular bir vaqtning o'zida Buyuk flotning faqat bir qismi bilan RNni batafsil yengib chiqish va umid qilib, uni yo'q qilish, keyin esa yo'q qilish edi. davom eting.

Afsuski, HSF uchun, inglizlar nima qilayotganlarini juda yaxshi bilishar edi va hech qachon nemislarga bu shartlar bilan jang qilishmagan. Vaqti -vaqti bilan nemislar deyarli xohlagan jangini qilishgan, lekin bu hech qachon sodir bo'lmagan.

Safronet

Aniq. Albatta, nemis admirallari o'z asbob -uskunalarini hisobga olgan holda, rejalarini ahmoqlar deb aytishmagan, chunki ular bir vaqtning o'zida Buyuk flotning faqat bir qismi bilan RNni batafsil yengib chiqish va umid qilib, uni yo'q qilish, keyin esa yo'q qilish edi. davom eting.

Afsuski, HSF uchun, inglizlar nima qilayotganlarini juda yaxshi bilishar edi va hech qachon nemislarga bu shartlar bilan jang qilishmagan. Vaqti -vaqti bilan nemislar deyarli xohlagan jangini qilishgan, lekin bu hech qachon sodir bo'lmagan.

Mookie

1910 yilgacha - bu zanglagan qobiqlarning eskirgan to'plami. Masalan, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_I_naval_ships_of_the_Ottoman_Empire ga qarang.

1910 yildan keyin ham bu aniq uchinchi darajali kuch: ikkita sobiq nemis oldindan o'ylashi, ular o'ylab topgan monitor, oldindan o'ylangan, bir nechta himoyalangan kreyserlar va engil kemalarning odatdagidek parchalanishiga tengdir. minerayerlar kontingenti.

Naraik

Safronet

Alvido

1) Shved dengiz flotini unutmang. Shvetsiya, o'z sohilini himoya qilish va Boltiq bo'yida ishlash uchun dengiz flotiga ega bo'lishga qaratilgan boshqa falsafaga amal qildi. Shunday qilib, ular qirg'oq mudofaasi uchun ajoyib jangovar kemalar qurdilar - siz & quot; qirg'oq mudofaasi & quot; tonnaj uchun eng yaxshi mavjud bo'lgan kemani eshitganingizda, ikkinchi darajali jangovar kemani o'ylamang.

2) Germaniya jangovar kemalari Shimoliy dengiz tashqarisida bejiz emas. Ular bazalardan uncha uzoq bo'lmagan joyda ishlash uchun mo'ljallangan. Shunday qilib, O'rta er dengizidagi Geben samarali birlik edi.

3) Agar siz 1914 yilda birinchi jahon urushini boshlamagan bo'lsangiz, unda Rossiyaga alohida e'tibor berishingiz kerak, uning qo'rquvlari yaqin bir necha yil ichida ijobiy portlaydi - nafaqat 4 gangut, 4 borodino va 4 in. Qora dengiz, lekin Qora dengiz floti uchun 16 ta qurolli kemalar uchun rejalar allaqachon tasdiqlangan.

Alvido

Oldindan o'ylangan fikrlarning ikkitasi sobiq nemis edi va Marmara mudofaa kemalari sifatida juda samarali edi.

Ular, shuningdek, Italiya-Usmonli urushi paytida O'rta er dengizi bo'ylab sayohatlari bilan mashhur bo'lgan ikkita samarali yengil kreyserga ega edi.

Alvido

Shu paytgacha Britaniya targ'iboti jangovar kreyserlarini ajoyib o'yin ko'rsatdi va Folklend bunga bardosh berganday tuyuldi. Shunday qilib, sovuq nuri bilan biz & quot; Oh, ular faqat jangovar kreyserlar edi & quot; deyishimiz mumkin, lekin o'sha paytda & quot; Muqaddas Fuck biz 3 ingliz jangovar kemasini cho'ktirdik! & Quot;

Alvido

Aniq. Albatta, nemis admirallari o'z asbob -uskunalarini hisobga olgan holda, rejalarini ahmoqlar deb aytishmagan, chunki ular bir vaqtning o'zida Buyuk flotning faqat bir qismi bilan RNni batafsil yengib chiqish va umid qilib, uni maydalash, keyin esa yo'q qilish edi. davom eting.

Afsuski, HSF uchun, inglizlar nima qilayotganlarini juda yaxshi bilishar edi va hech qachon nemislarga bu shartlar bilan jang qilishmagan. Vaqti -vaqti bilan nemislar deyarli xohlagan jangini qilishgan, lekin bu hech qachon sodir bo'lmagan.

Ingenohl 1914 yil oxirida eng yaxshi imkoniyatga ega edi, lekin o'z navbatida, oltin imkoniyat inglizlarning tuzog'i ekanidan qo'rqdi.

Gartist

Malumot uchun, ww1 (va 2) uchun Janes jangovar kemalari mavjud, ularni ebaydan 20-30 dollar evaziga sotib olishingiz mumkin va har tomonlama.

Konvey jangovar kemalari yanada foydali bo'lishi mumkin (1860 - 1905, 1905 - 1922, 22 - 46), chunki ular ko'proq vaqt oralig'ini beradi va Buyuk Britaniyada har biri 20-30 funtga ketadi.

Sizning joylashuvingiz Texas shtatida aytiladi, agar siz Korpus Kristi yaqinida bo'lsangiz, SPID -dagi yarim narxli kitob do'koni ilgari dengiz masalalari bo'yicha nomutanosib kutubxonaga ega edi.

Naval-history.net saytidan tashqari onlayn

Navveps. Bu sizga qurol turini, balki uni jihozlagan sinf nomini ham beradi. Agar siz Google sinfining nomini, odatda, wiki -sahifaga havola qilsa, Google -da bir xil turdagi oldingi va keyingi sinflar ro'yxatini tekshirishingiz mumkin.

Safronet

Shu paytgacha Britaniya targ'iboti jangovar kreyserlarini ajoyib o'yin ko'rsatdi va Folklend bunga bardosh berganday tuyuldi. Shunday qilib, sovuq nuri bilan biz & quot; Oh, ular faqat jangchilar edi & quot; deyishimiz mumkin, lekin o'sha paytda & quot; Muqaddas Fuck biz 3 ingliz jangovar kemasini cho'ktirdik! & Quot;


Futurizm (1909-1914)

Kosmosda uzluksizlikning noyob shakllari Umberto Boccioni tomonidan, 1913 yil

Futurizm 20 -asr boshlarida Milanda shoir Filippo Tommaso Marinetti tomonidan asos solingan. Oldingilar singari, futurizm mavhumlik va noan'anaviy vakillikni ta'kidlagan. U tezlikni, visserallikni, yoshlikni va zamonaviylikni qadrladi va Italiyani o'zining og'ir tarixidan ozod qilishning bir shakli sifatida harakat qildi. Italiyada tashkil etilgan bo'lsa -da, uning ta'siri boshqa Evropa mamlakatlariga ham tarqaldi.

Taniqli rassomlar: Umberto Boccioni, Giacomo Balla, Carlo Carrà, Gino Severini


Malumot ishlari va so'rovnomalar

Bu mavzuning kengligi va murakkabligi tufayli, avvalo, ilmiy so'rovdan boshlash kerak. Muammoli ravishda, ba'zi mavzularda qamrov kam. Woods 1974 va Bridge and Pegg 2001 tarixiy nuqtai nazardan muhim boshlang'ich nuqtalarni taklif qiladi, Beauchamp 2001 esa ko'proq texnologik nuqtai nazarni beradi. Harfild 1989 bizga hayvonlarning joyini muloqotchi sifatida ko'rib chiqishni eslatadi, bu rol yaqin vaqtgacha o'ynagan. Headrick 2000 harbiy yoki strategik aloqalardagi o'zgarishlarni kontekstga qo'yadi, bu ularning to'liq oqibatlarini tushunish uchun zarurdir. Scheips 1980 ko'plab shaxsiy asarlarni bir joyga to'plagan va ularni Vuds 1974 va Bridj va Pegg 2001 bilan birgalikda ishlatish kerak. Sterling 2008 - bu ma'lumotnomalar juda og'ir bo'lsa -da. AQSh armiyasi tarixi uchun Raines 1996 tengsiz va u bilan maslahatlashish kerak.

Beauchamp, Ken. Telegraf tarixi: uning texnologiyasi va qo'llanilishi. London: Elektr muhandislari instituti, 2001.

Asosan 19-asr va 20-asr boshlariga oid hikoya so'rovi, 1945 yildan keyingi davrni o'z ichiga olgan epilogi. Muhandislik nuqtai nazaridan yozilgan, u asosan ingliz-markaziydir. Tarixiy nuqtai nazardan o'zaro tekshirish uchun foydalidir.

Ko'prik, Mourin va Jon Pegg, tahr. Qurolga chaqiruv: Qrim urushidan to hozirgi kungacha bo'lgan harbiy aloqa tarixi. Tavistok, Buyuk Britaniya: Fokus, 2001.

Asosan Britaniya nuqtai nazaridan qilingan ish, 19-asr o'rtalaridan boshlab foydali so'rovnoma beradi. Unda Britaniya fuqarolik pochta bo'limining harbiy xizmatining qimmatli muhokamasi mavjud.

Harfild, Alan, tahr. To'ng'izdan kaptarga: Harbiy aloqalarda hayvonlarning tasvirlangan hikoyasi. Chippenxem, Buyuk Britaniya: Pikton, 1989 yil.

Eslatib o'tamiz, hayvonlar uzoq vaqtdan beri harbiy aloqalarda asosiy rol o'ynagan.

Bosh, Daniel. Axborot asrga kirganda: aql -idrok davrida bilim texnologiyalari, 1700-1850. Nyu -York: Oksford universiteti matbuoti, 2000.

Ma'lumotni yig'ish, saqlash, almashish va tarqatish usullarini o'rganish. 19-asr boshidagi pochta va telegraf tizimlari bo'yicha keng qamrovli so'rov bo'limi alohida ahamiyatga ega.

Raines, Rebekka R. Xabarni olish: AQSh armiyasi signalizatsiya korpusining tarixi. Vashington, DC: Harbiy tarix markazi, 1996.

Fuqarolik urushidan 1990 -yillarning boshigacha Signal korpusining tanqidiy tekshiruvi. Bu davrda AQSh armiyasi bilan bog'liq har qanday ishning boshlanish nuqtasi.

Scheips, Pol J., tahrir. Harbiy signallar aloqasi. 2 jild. Nyu -York: Arno, 1980 yil.

Bu signal manbalari tarixidagi muhim maqolalar, insholar va tanlanmalarning asosiy antologiyasi, bu erda bitta qulay joyda qayta chop etilgan.

Sterling, Kristofer. Harbiy aloqalar: Qadim zamonlardan XXI asrgacha. Santa Barbara, Kaliforniya: ABC-Clio, 2008.

Alfavit tartibida va keyingi o'qish bo'yicha takliflar bilan, bu qo'llanmada asosiy mavzular va shaxslar haqida qisqacha tushuntirish berilgan. Boshlash uchun foydali joy.

Vuds, Devid L. Taktik aloqa texnikasi tarixi. Nyu -York: Arno, 1974 yil.

Dastlab 1965 yilda Martin-Marietta korporatsiyasi tomonidan nashr etilgan ushbu taktik aloqalar so'rovi qadimgi davrdan 1960 yillargacha davom etadi. Bu so'rovnoma va boshlash uchun muhim joy sifatida noyobdir, lekin unda hujjatlar yo'q.

Obunasiz foydalanuvchilar ushbu sahifadagi to'liq tarkibni ko'ra olmaydi. Iltimos, obuna bo'ling yoki tizimga kiring.


Tailand dengiz kuchlarining rivojlanishi - XX asr boshlari

Tailand harbiy -dengiz kuchlarining rivojlanishi doimiy edi. Qirol Rama V davrida, bu flot admirali H.R.H tomonidan qirol Rama Vga taqdim etilgan rivojlanish sxemasida ko'rinib turganidek, uzoq muddatli loyihaga aylandi. Shahzoda Paribatra, o'sha paytdagi Harbiy-dengiz kuchlari boshqarmasining bosh shtabi, 1905 yil. Sxema 16 yil ichida bir nechta harbiy kemalarni qurish edi.

Qirol Rama VI davrida [r. 1910-1925], dengiz kuchlarining tuzilishini birinchi bo'lib admiral X.R.H. Shahzoda Abhakara, admiral H.R.H. Shahzoda Singxavikrom va vitse -admiral Phraya Maha Yotha. Harbiy -dengiz kuchlari bo'limi 1910 yilda qirol Rama VIga ushbu loyihani taqdim etdi, u 15 yil ichida Siam qirollik dengiz flotining rivojlanishi haqida batafsil ma'lumot berdi. Jarayon besh bosqichga bo'lingan.

Ushbu loyiha bo'yicha harbiy kemalarni qurish moliyaviy jihatdan cheklangan edi. Shuning uchun, bir vaqtning o'zida faqat bitta yoki ikkita harbiy kema qurildi, bir yoki ikkita qurishdan oldin katta bo'shliqni qoldirdi. Har bir harbiy kema oldingi turlardan unchalik farq qilmasdi. Qurolli qayiqlar, esminetslar, torpedo qayiqlari, minayerlar va suv osti kemalari kerakli turlar edi. 1911 yilda Sua Xamronsin va 4 -sonli Torpedo qayig'i qurildi. 1913 yilda 900 tonnalik HTMS Rattanakosin Angliyada qurilgan va 1925 yilda qurib bitkazilgan. Kechikish Birinchi jahon urushining boshlanishi tufayli yuzaga kelgan. Qirollik boshqa muhim kemalarini sotib olgan:

  1. HTMS Phra Ruang - Angliyada qurilgan va 1920 yil 11 oktyabrda foydalanishga topshirilgan 1,046_tonlik qiruvchi. Bu sotib olish loyihasini moliyalashtirish uchun qirol Rama VI, qirol oilasining boshqa a'zolari, hukumat amaldorlari va oddiy odamlar bilan xayriya qilgan. Admiral H.R.H. Shahzoda Abhakara kemani sotib olish uchun Evropaga bordi va uni Tailandga olib keldi. Bu birinchi marta Tailand fuqarosi bunday uzoq masofadagi kemaga buyruq berdi. Bundan tashqari, bu birinchi marta harbiy kemani sotib olish uchun jamoat pulini xayriya qildi.
  2. HTMS Sua Xamronsin-375 tonnalik qiruvchi, Yaponiyaning Kobe shahridagi Kawazaki Dockyard zavodida qurilgan va 1912 yil 18 iyunda foydalanishga topshirilgan. Leytenant qo'mondon Luang Pradiyat Navayut bu kemani Yaponiyadan Tailandga qaytarishga buyruq bergan. Bu birinchi marta ekipajning barcha a'zolari Taylar edi.
  3. Royal Maha Chakri Barge (2 -barja) - hajmi 2 249 tonna bo'lgan yaxta, Yaponiyaning Kobe shahridagi Kavazaki Dockyard -da qurilgan va 1918 yil 4 -fevralda foydalanishga topshirilgan. 1929 -yilda qirol Rama VII bu barjada Yava shahriga borgan.
  4. HTMS Chaophraya - bu 762 tonna sig'imga ega bo'lgan Qirollik dengiz flotidan sotib olingan tayoq. U 1923 yil 8 -mayda foydalanishga topshirilgan. Dastlab, bu shoh Qirollik Harbiy -dengiz kuchlarining Birinchi Minor urushida ishlatilgan mineraylovchisi edi.

1926 yilda vitse -admiral Phra) i Rachawangsan, Qirollik Siam dengiz floti shtab boshlig'i, dengiz floti vaziriga "Siyam dengiz flotini tashkil etish to'g'risidagi memorandum" nomli dengiz kuchlari haqidagi loyihani taqdim etdi. U dengiz kuchlarini ikkita flotga ajratdi:

    Sohil mudofaasi diviziyasi "1000-2000 tonnalik to'rtta qurolli qayiq, uchta esminets, to'rtta torpedo qayig'i, o'nta quruqlikdagi patrul mashinasi, ikkita mina qidiruvchi va bir qator mineraylovchilar va minalardan iborat.

Bu loyiha keyinchalik harbiy kemalarni sotib olish bo'yicha ko'rsatma bo'ldi. 1929 yilda HTMS Sukhothai qurolli qayig'i HTMS Rattanakosin bilan bir xil dizaynda qurilgan. 2 -chi quruqlikdagi patrul kemasi deb nomlangan bitta quruqlikdagi patrul kemasi Dengiz kemasozlik zavodida qurilgan va yana 3, 4 va 5 -sonli qirg'oq patrullari Angliyada qurilgan.


Vaqt yurishi - XX asr tarixi

Men bu TLga ko'p marotaba izoh bermaganman, lekin bu erda juda yaxshi ish qilyapsan, deb aytishimga to'g'ri keldi, kareliyalik. Siz qilganingizni ko'rish mumkin ko'p Buning uchun olib borilgan tadqiqotlar va uning hikoyaga keltirgan chuqurligi juda ta'sirli. Bu, ehtimol, tarixiy stipendiya nuqtai nazaridan, forumdagi eng yaxshi TL. Shuning uchun men ikkilanib qoldim Vaqt marti Turtledove uchun ham.

Hikoyaning haqiqiy burilishlari haqida ko'proq izoh bermoqchiman, lekin ularning ba'zilari boshimdan shunchalik balandki, men o'z fikrlarimni samarali izohlash uchun avval o'zim tadqiqot qilishim kerak bo'lardi. Balki yozda, ishdagi ortda qolishlar tartibga solinganida, men ma'lumotnoma to'plami bilan o'tiraman va bu erda nima qilganingizni ko'rish uchun bir oz o'ylab TL orqali o'taman.

Villi hech qachon umidsizlikka tushmaydi, to'g'rimi?

Germaniya 20 -asrning boshlarida Evropaning qo'pol va xoin suvlari bilan muzokaralar olib borishga buyuk ayyorlik, o'zini tutish va qat'iyatli imperatorga muhtoj bo'lgan paytda - Germaniya uning o'rniga Vilgelm II ni oldi.

Tyr Anazasi

Buyuk knyaz Pol II.

Villi hech qachon umidsizlikka tushmaydi, to'g'rimi?

Germaniya 20 -asrning boshlarida Evropaning qo'pol va xoin suvlari bilan muzokaralar olib borishga buyuk ayyorlik, o'zini tutish va qat'iyatli imperatorga muhtoj bo'lgan paytda - Germaniya uning o'rniga Vilgelm II ni oldi.

Kareliyalik

Men bu TLni mahalliy universitet kutubxonasining & quot; yangi tarix kitoblari & quot; javonidan deyarli bir qancha tegishli jildlarni ko'zdan kechirish va skanerlash uchun shaxsiy bahona sifatida ishlatganman. Ikki yil oldin bo'lib o'tgan Buyuk Urushning yuz yilligi munosabati bilan, ular so'nggi tadqiqotlar bilan to'la, ular o'qish uchun juda yoqimli va tushunarli bo'lib, ular haqida o'ylash va yozish uchun juda ko'p oziq -ovqat bilan ta'minlangan.

Heh, bu juda yaxshi bo'lardi. Agar siz manba ma'lumotlarini o'qish ro'yxatini xohlasangiz, menga xabar bering.

Villi hech qachon umidsizlikka tushmaydi, to'g'rimi?

Germaniya 20 -asrning boshlarida Evropaning qo'pol va xoin suvlari bilan muzokaralar olib borishga buyuk hiyla -nayrang, vazminlik va qat'iyat imperatoriga muhtoj bo'lgan paytda - Germaniya uning o'rniga Vilgelm II ni oldi.

O'zini siz sanab o'tgan fazilatlarning timsoli deb hisoblaydigan va boshqalari bug 'va vintlardek harakatlanadigan, lekin hech qanday rul yoki balonsiz jangovar kema bilan solishtiradigan odam. uni ipdan mahkam ushlamang, u tasodifiy tomonga uchib ketishi mumkin edi. Albatta, u tarixshunos yozuvchilar uchun ajoyib manbadir. Va uning barcha xatolari uchun men odamga hamdardlik bildirishga yordam berolmayman - xuddi Nikolay II singari, Vilgelm II - noto'g'ri joyda, noto'g'ri vaqtda.

Kareliyalik

Germaniya-Shvetsiya diplomatik aloqalarining so'nggi to'plamida muhokama qilingan mavzular Norvegiyaning ajralib chiqishi Evropaning barqarorligiga tahdid solishi mumkin bo'lgan tahdid haqida ko'proq tashvishlanishni aks ettirdi. 1905 yil iyun oyining boshida Shvetsiya-Norvegiya valiahd shahzodasi Gustaf Germaniya valiahd shahzodasining to'yiga qatnashish uchun Berlinga kelganida, u kantsler Eulenburgdan, agar Rossiya Norvegiyaga aralashsa, Kayzer ham harbiy choralar ko'radimi, deb so'ragan edi. Reyx kansleri unga "noaniq" javob berdiu Germaniya bu savolda Kayzerning xohish -irodasini bajaradi deb o'ylardi.& quot; Butun inqiroz haqli ravishda Evropaning eng bilimdon monarxlari deb atalgan hurmatli qari Oskar II ning sog'lig'iga katta ta'sir ko'rsatdi. U bir qator ilmiy muassasalarda faxriy vrach edi, u o'z sohasining ikki tilidan tashqari, ravon gapiradigan lotin, italyan va boshqa tillarni bilar edi. U estetika, tarix, falsafa va matematikani o'rgangan, Gyote va boshqalarning asarlarini shved tiliga tarjima qilgan va o'z asarlari, jumladan kundaliklar, xotiralar va ma'ruzalar yozgan. Vilgelm II ga hamdardlik bildirgan va Germaniyaning qudrati bilan solishtirganda o'z saltanatining ojiz ahvolidan juda xavotirli bo'lsa -da, u portlovchi nemis imperatorini shaxsan hurmat qilmagan. Ammo 13-14 iyul kunlari Boltiq bo'yidagi kichik Gevle porti tashqarisida Oskar II va Shvetsiya valiahd shahzodasi bilan navbatdagi uchrashuvida Vilgelm II jiddiy va hurmatli harakat qilish uchun qo'lidan kelganini qildi.

U Eulenburgning maslahatiga quloq solganday tuyuldi va u o'z kantsleri bilan kelishilgan siyosat yo'nalishini qirol Oskar II va uning o'g'liga ehtiyotkorlik bilan topshirdi. Vilgelm II qo'llab -quvvatlash niyatida emasligini aniq ko'rsatdiba'zi shved sarguzashtlari& quot; Inqirozni hal qilish imkon qadar tezroq amalga oshirilishi kerak va Bernadottes Norvegiyaning sekundogenital taklifini qabul qilishi kerak. Agar Bernadotning Norvegiya taxtiga nomzodligi noma'lum bo'lsa, shvedlar Daniya shahzodasi Valdemar nomzodini rasman qo'llab -quvvatlashi kerak. Shvetsiyalik ish uchun yagona imtiyoz shvedlar xohlagancha Norvegiya mustaqilligini tan olmaslikka va'da berish edi. Gävle uchrashuvi qirollik yaxtasining har yili Skandinaviya yozgi sayohati doirasida o'tkaziladi. Xohentsollern, dastlab "yangi Tanjer" deb nomlangan, chunki Vilgelm II yana bir bor xalqaro inqiroz sahnasida paydo bo'lib, ommaviy axborot vositalarining e'tiborini o'g'irlab, Evropa orqali diplomatlar va davlat arboblarini tartibsiz Germaniya imperatorining haqiqiy niyatlariga shubha bilan qaragan. Sariq matbuot Vilgelm II ni yaxshi ko'rar edi va tez orada Germaniya imperatori Prussiya shahzodasi Eitel Fridrixni Norvegiyaning yangi qiroli etib saylash g'oyasini ilgari surmoqchi bo'lganligi haqida mish -mishlar tarqaldi. Darhaqiqat, bu hikoyalarda haqiqat bor edi, chunki valiahd shahzoda Gustaf va qirol Oskar II faqat Viladm II ni ishontirishga muvaffaq bo'lishdi, shved Bernadot uyidan a'zo tanlash hozircha deyarli imkonsiz edi. , nemis shahzodasi haqida hech narsa demang. Buning evaziga Vilgelm II Daniya shahzodasi Charlz va uning rafiqasi nomzodi g'oyasini ochiqchasiga rad etdi. "Norvegiya taxtida ingliz malikasining bo'lishi"Degan ma'noni anglatadi"Norvegiyaning Angliyaga vassalatsiyasi"Va bundan buyon Buyuk Britaniya foyda ko'rishini ta'minlaydi"tijorat ustunligiNorvegiyada Charlz saylanishi kerak.

Aslida, Vilgelm II voqealar rivojidan o'z quvonchini yashira olmadi. Xudo qoldirgan Shimoldagi inqiroz tufayli hech qachon jahon hokimiyatiga o'tish ehtimoli hozirgidan ko'ra yaqinroq ko'rinmagan edi! Endi u faqat "amakivachchasi Nikki" ni o'z rejasini bajarishga ishontirishi kerak edi va ko'p yillar davomida puxta o'ylangan rejalar va rejalardan so'ng hamma narsa o'z joyiga tushadi! Vilgelm II Danzig, Reval, Visbaden va Darmshtadtdagi oldingi qirollik uchrashuvlarida so'nggi uch yil davomida doimiy ravishda o'z amakivachchasini Evropadan voz kechishga undagan va buning o'rniga Manchjuriya va Koreyani qo'shib olishga, Hindiston, Afg'oniston va inglizlarga tahdid qilishga intilgan. Fors. Bu yillar davomida u Nikolay II ga Sharqqa nazar tashlashni aytdi, unga Xudo bergan rol xristian olamini himoya qilish va Osiyo chegaralaridagi oq irqni "Sariq xavf" butparastlaridan himoya qilish ekanligini aytdi va podshoh haqli ravishda chaqirishi kerak edi. Vilgelm "Tinch okeani admirali", "Atlantika admirali" rolini o'ynaydi. Ular birgalikda ajoyib ishlarni qiladilar. Ular birgalikda yangi Muqaddas Ittifoq tuzish uchun Evropa qit'asining beshta Buyuk davlatining, shu jumladan dushman va istamas Frantsiyaning katta koalitsiyasini tuzadilar.Atlantikadan esayotgan demokratik shamolga qarshi.Uning ingliz tilida yozilgan, ikkala monarx ham yaxshi biladigan bomba telegrammalari uzoq vaqt davomida butun Rossiya podshosini bunday kelishuvning afzalliklari to'g'risida ishontirishga harakat qilgan:

Kichik davlatlar, Gollandiya, Belgiya, Daniya, Shvetsiya, Norvegiya, bu yangi katta tortishish markaziga, kichikroq jismlarning kattaroq jismlarni jalb qilishining tabiiy qonunlariga ko'ra, jalb qilinadi. Ular kuchlar orbitasida aylanadilar, Ikki tomonlama ittifoq uchlik ittifoqi bilan birlashib, beshlik ittifoqini beradi, barcha itoatsiz qo'shnilarni tartibda ushlab turishga va hatto kuch bilan tinchlik o'rnatishga qodir.

Vilgelm II uchun bunday nutq uning toj kiyganidan beri orzu qilgan orzusini amalga oshirish istagini ifodalaydi, u Eulenburgga "uning Evropa siyosatining asosiy printsipi tinch ma'noda etakchilik bo'ladi - bu Napoleon ustunligi."Erishish uchun"uning hayotidagi eng katta to'ntarish"Germaniya gegemonligini o'rnatish uchun Evropa ittifoqining mavjud tizimini o'chirish uchun, Vilgelm II o'zining shaxsiy diplomatiyasini Nikolay IIga nisbatan Bolqonga yo'naltirilgan yangi chet ellik bilan kelishuvga erishish orqali Rossiyani Germaniya siyosatining orbitasiga olib chiqish uchun ishlatgan. siyosat. Vilgelm II rejalariga ko'ra, bu Frantsiyani to'rga tortish, tepish va qichqirishga olib keladi va butun qit'ada nemis-rus-frantsuz kombinatsiyasini o'rnatadi. Yoki bu ikki tomonlama ittifoqning parchalanishiga va Frantsiyaning yana izolyatsiyasiga olib keladi. Parij bo'ysunishni xohlaydimi yoki qarshilik ko'rsatishda davom etadimi, katta farq bo'lmaydi, chunki har ikki holatda ham Germaniyaning mavqei mustahkamlanib, u diplomatik muvaffaqiyat obro'siga sazovor bo'ladi. Uzoq muddatli maqsadga erishishning ikkinchi usuli, chet elda diplomatik g'alabalarga intilish edi, bu kuch siyosati bilan qo'llab-quvvatlandi va dunyoda muhim kelishuvlarni Germaniya bilan maslahatlashmasdan amalga oshirish mumkin emasligini e'lon qildi. Tashqi siyosat maqsadiga erishish yo'lida Vilgelm II g'ayrioddiy qiziqish va murakkablik bilan harakat qildi va oxirgi besh yil ichida Kayzer nemislarni orkestr bilan band edi. Weltpolitik jahon bosqichida Venesueladan Xitoygacha. Bu yil hech qanday farq qilmadi, chunki Tanjersda ommaviy nutq so'zlaganidan va Frantsiyada ichki siyosiy inqirozni keltirib chiqarganidan so'ng, Vilgelm hozircha shimoliy masalalarga e'tibor qaratib, quyoshli Boltiq yoziga ko'chib o'tdi. Xohentsollern.

Dengiz diplomatiyasining bunday stuntslari ilgari uning savdo belgisi bo'lgan. Bir yil oldin, 1904 yil 25 -iyunda, Uilyam II o'zining "Bertie tog'asi", Buyuk Britaniya va Irlandiya qiroli Edvard VIIni Germaniya flotining faxriy admirali sifatida Germaniya flotini qayta ko'rib chiqish uchun kutib oldi:
Bu dunyo flotlari orasidagi eng yangi ijod va buyuk imperator tomonidan qayta tiklangan Germaniya imperiyasining dengiz qudratining ifodasidir. Destined for the protection of its trade and its territories, it also serves, like the German army, to maintain peace which the German Empire together with Europe has maintained for over thirty years. Everyone knows, too, Your Majesty’s words and work, that Your Majesty’s whole effort is also directed towards this goal - toward the maintenance of peace. As I have steadily set my whole strength to reach this goal, may God give success to our efforts.” Edward VII, normally gloomy and reclusive because of his still painful injuries sustained at the assassination attempt in Belgium had shown a flash of his younger days as a gentlemanly socialite, and had charmed the German press and court circles, making a generally excellent impression on the press and people of Germany. But while this visit was the first positive twist in the badly strained personal relations between Wilhelm II and his uncle in a long time, they did little to change the foreign policy goals of the German Emperor. During the whole previous year Wilhelm II had also active towards Russia, constantly sending Nicholas II new telegrams and letters and seeking to court his favor and show the goodwill of Germany by smaller gestures, such as re-establishing the pre-1890s era system of mutual re-nomination of military plenipotentiaries for both courts. And the Czar, who had privately called his cousin "stark raving mad" after their first meeting and felt isolated and stressed by the internal turmoil of Russia and the lack of a male heir, had gradually grown fond of "cousin Willy", stating in early 1905 to count Witte who was sent to Berlin to negotiate the Russo-German trade agreement that the Czar considered his relationship with Wilhelm II as a “loyal friendship which I trust beyond anything.”

Wilhelm II felt that his ability to sway his cousin would hand him - and through him the German Empire - the keys to the domination of European continent. Confident of his (in essence quite correct) political estimation that Russia and Germany had common ground towards the situation of the Baltic Sea and the crisis in Scandinavia, he hoped to win them over for good. In this sense Wilhelm II was merely one among the many actors in the stage of European top-level diplomacy of summer 1905 with his feeling that one should never waste a good crisis. He decided to use the crisis in Norway as a chance to show his willingness to work together with the Russian leadership, if necessary against British interests, should it suit them to do so.

A week later he casually telegraphed to Nicholas II from Stockholm:

Kung Zog

Very nice last updates! I will comment more in detail when more info is laid bare.

Thanks also for the throwback to the Ottoman regicide. I had forgotten that these events where more or less parallel.

Karelian

Wilhelm II felt that his prospects of achieving a deal with Nicholas II were rather good despite the unexpected setback caused by assassination of Sultan Abdülhamid II. After scoring what seemed like a major diplomatic success at Morocco through instigating the domestic policy crisis in France, and thus indirectly forcing the resignation of M. Delcassé on June 6th, the German Kaiser had contributed to the French acceptance by Combes, two days later, of the principle that Moroccan affairs should be settled by bilateral negotiations of the interested Powers later that year. After leaving Morocco behind and considering the matter settled, Wilhelm II had once again looked East. The search for a suitable new ruler for Norway raised vital questions which ought to be settled with the Czar in person. At the same time Wilhelm II hoped to gain a chance to promote his own geopolitical vision to his cousin.

For the part of Russian leadership, Minister Witte who had visited Berlin a year ago to negotiate a new Russo-German trade agreement of 1904[1] had long desired to see closer relations between the three great Continental Powers. For him, France represented the epitome of European wealth just as Germany held the supreme military power. By allying herself with both, Russia could benefit by the financial resources of Paris and the strength of Berlin. Also supposing that the Kaiser had in mind a defensive alliance into which Russia, France and Germany would enter voluntarily and as equals, Witte had pointed out that that since its success depended on securing the adhesion of France, Paris should not longer be exasperated with issues such as the Moroccan situation. Wilhelm II was happy to agree. He had personally always regarded Morocco as insignificant region that could well fall to French sphere of interest for all he cared, and had originally raised the issue to an international minor crisis to advance his personal diplomatic goals and to placate the chauvinistic German press - and because he had been guided to act in a bellicose manner by Holstein, who had convinced Eulenburg that Germany had to constantly show strength in pursuit of her interests in the international arena because of her vulnerable geopolitical position.

So When Witte dutifully relayed the ideas of a new continental coalition to the Czar after he had returned to St. Petersburg, Nicholas II had ingenuously accepted the idea with the naïve assumption that France was naturally to be included to the treaty as an equal partner. He telegraphed to his cousin:

When he finally met with Nicholas II at Björkö on 23rd of July and the formal niceties were over and done with, Wilhelm II was glad to notice that the Russian monarch seemed to have accepted his last-minute lie and accepted his insistence to keep Paris in the dark about the true their meeting, at least for the time being. He thus lost no opportunity to exploit the tense atmosphere in the Baltic, and begun to exploit the knowledge obtained during the ostensibly secret negotiations with Oscar II and Crown Prince Gustaf for his own ends. No other persons were present at the main part of the royal meeting. The Kaiser began by relating the news which he had picked up from King Oscar of Sweden. He mentioned that King Oscar was totally indifferent towards the question of who should be chosen the new King of Norway the old monarch hadn’t even objected the idea of a republic! At this, Nicholas II threw his hands over his head, exclaiming “That too - that is all we need, as if we did not already have enough republics and monarchies like that in the world, what is to become of the monarchical principle?!” Nicholas II then implored that if King Oscar was not ambitious to put a Swedish prince in Norway, and if the Danish royal family was interested in the matter, Prince Valdemar of Denmark, the youngest brother of the widowed Tsaritsa Maria Feodorovna (Empress Dowager Dagmar) could become a potential candidate: “Valdemar might be sent he has had some experience in life, has an elegant, nice wife (born a Princess of Orleáns), and fine, strapping children?” The Kaiser appeared to agree, but deftly mentioned “private information from Copenhagen” indicating that “the King of England has already given out his approval and consent if his son-in-law were chosen." Nicholas seemed to know nothing about it, and was visibly upset, commenting that his "cousin Charles was completely unsuitable: he had never been anywhere, had no experience, and was insignificant and lazy with Charles, England would stick her fingers into Norway by fair means or foul, and increase her influence, starting intrigues and eventually close off the Skagerrak by occupying Christiansand and so shut us all into the Baltic it would also put paid to his ports on the Murman coast in the North! Valdemar would be much better!"

The two Danish princes had little idea that their respective candidacies to the throne of Norway would become a point of contest in European Great Power politics.

Wilhelm II continued his ploy by confessing that Gävle King Oscar II in the course of a conversation had let slip the remark that of course there was nothing to prevent Germany occupying Bergen, and in response to the objection that England might have something to say about that, Wilhelm II boasted to Nicholas II that he had went on to say, "Yes, then they would probably seize Christiansand!" Nicholas II was visibly very worried by the idea of Norway being divided up in such a manner in a direct confrontation of European Powers over the issue of Norwegian succession, and of Britain possibly establishing a firm foothold there, commenting that. & quotthe dangers for Russia of a blockade of the Kattegat are of course obvious." Wilhelm II continued to carefully manipulate his cousin by fluidly moving the topic of the conversation to Britain. It very soon appeared to Wilhelm II that the Czar seemed to truly feel deep personal resentment towards the island nation. He called Edward VII "the greatest mischief- maker and the most dangerous and deceptive intriguer in the world." Having fed him this line of thought for years, Wilhelm II was happy to agree with the notion, adding that "I especially had had to suffer from his intrigues in recent years. He has a passion for plotting against every power, of making a little agreements" whereupon the Tsar interrupted, striking the table with his fist: "Well, I can only say he shall not get one from me, and never in my life against Germany or you, my word of honor upon it!'

Then the question of Denmark was discussed at length. The Czar asked what measures they could take to assist King Christian and guarantee his position in his country, so that they themselves could be certain in case of war of maintaining the defense of the Baltic north of the Belts. Wilhelm II explained to the Czar that in case of war and impending attack on the Baltic from a foreign Power, the Danes expected, "their inability and helplessness to uphold even the shadow of neutrality against invasion being evident", that Russia and Germany would immediately take up steps to safeguard their interests by laying hands on Denmark and occupying it during the war, as this would at the same time guarantee the territory and future existence of the dynasty and country:"Sensible men in society as well as in Governmental circles are on their own account, little by little, coming to the conclusion, that in the case of war between us both and a foreign Power, the latter attacking our Baltic shores, Denmark would be unable to uphold her neutrality, falling an easy prey to the foreigner. He would create Denmark his base of operations, and thereby draw her on his side as his unwilling ally. This she would have pay for - eventually, by loss of independence after the war, as we would never allow her to suffer such a fate again. As we would not countenance such a development of things, and never allow the door of the Baltic to fall into the hands of an enemy, in case of an outbreak of war, these men are resigned to expect a joint occupation from us, which however would guarantee their territory to remain undiminished and their independence to remain untouched. As this is precisely what we want the Danes to think, and as they are already on the road to it, I thought “let well alone”, and said nothing they are slowly ripening to the fruit we wish and in time to come it will fall into our laps."

Thus, having arranged amicably between themselves for the fate of this small nation, and through this the virtual exclusion of the hostile Royal Navy from the Baltic in a case of war, the Kaiser then came to the really important matter. He presented the draft of the new treaty to Nicholas II:

But in the end the influence of the Russian leading ministers on their Czar turned out to be greater than that of the ‘responsible’ Reich Chancellor Eulenburg on the supposedly constitutional German Kaiser. Unwilling to admit that all of his work had been in vain and that the era of royal diplomacy was drawing to an end, Wilhelm II sought in vain to find a new common cause with Nicholas II on the matter of Norwegian succession - only to be frustrated again less than a week later, when the Nordic crisis took a sudden and violent turn to the worse.[3]

1: As Wilhelm II is willing to win Russia over and Russia is not burdened by a war against Japan as in OTL, the TTL version of the Norderney trade agreement is a lot more generous to Russia, granting Russia both the OTL access to Berlin loan markets, and (much to the dismay of the Prussian Junkers estate owners) with much lower duties to rye and wheat than in OTL as well. This leads to all kinds of agricultural butterflies, but on the long term the main effects are further adjustments of German agricultural sector with more pig-raising in nortwestern Germany, as cheap export grain from the ports of Bremen and Hamburg turns these activities into profitable business. This will in turn affect the domestic political relations within the German Empire. Without the OTL policy of determined tariff protection and artificial maintenance of German grain sector, the German agricultural sector does not turn the Catholic peasant population of the south into allies of the Protestant east-Elbean Junkers, as the peasant economy at large becomes much more supportive towards low-tariff agricultural policy.

2: The OTL amendment Wilhelm II personally made to the draft, limiting the treaty to Europe, was approved by Eulenburg in TTL. The TTL III. Article is also different, as the treaty is to become effective immediately instead of the OTL reference to the end of the Russo-Japanese War.

Karelian

When the crisis of 1905 begun, the Royal Norwegian Navy was a small, young and forward-looking naval force.

Between 1895 and 1905 the determined drive for naval re-armament had increased the total strength of Norwegian naval forces from a modest coastal defense force of four older ironclad monitors, three unarmored gun vessels, twelve gunboats, sixteen small gunboats and a flotilla of twenty-seven torpedo boats by inclusion of four new armored ships, ten torpedo boats of the 1st class, twelve of 2nd class with a new torpedo division flotilla leader to support them. The Navy was thus stronger than it had ever been, and the decisions and debates of strategy that had led to this point had already divided the small force into two competing groups. These matters were most personal, as the Norwegian naval officer corps itself was still a small, closed group of people - by 1900 the fleet had had only 116 active duty officers (with an additional sixty in reserve) and 700 petty officers and seamen. The debates had culminated to a slow-burning and bitter personal feud between the commanding admiral, vice admiral Christian Sparre and his chief of staff, Rear Admiral Jacob Børresen. Considering these two characters, their shared history and the situation of Norway in summer 1905, a confrontation between them would have been extremely hard to avoid even in better situations, let alone in a crisis like this. The two naval officers were in many ways good representatives of the two polar opposites of Norwegian society at large.

Børresen was a royalist right-wing conservative. Originally he had been a firm supporter of the union with Sweden, and had merely wanted, like most Norwegian right-wing politicians, a greater degree of equality between the two countries. Børresen also had a good and close relationship with King Oscar II. In 1903 he had accompanied the King, together with Prince Carl and Princess Ingeborg, on a voyage to Lyngen in northern Norway. During the journey, he had been captivated by Princess Ingeborg. When the Swedish government presented the "Bernadotte offer" that the Norwegian crown could go to a prince of the house Bernadotte, Børresen secretly wrote to his personal diary that he sincerely hoped that Princess Ingeborg could become the new Queen of Norway. Sparre was a Liberal and and steadfast left-wing Republican, and a dogged opponent of the union with Sweden. During the crisis he supported the hard line that sought to break with Sweden as soon as possible. For a radicals like Sparre, Børresen and the Norwegian conservative politicians in general were to be held in utter contempt because of their close historical contacts to the Swedish elite. Børresen had even served in the Swedish Navy as a squadron commander just a few years ago, and had advocated closer cooperation between the two countries' navies - something that infuriated Sparre as a treason of the Norwegian cause. The two men were thus very different in their political views, and had for long held one another in contempt because of that. Their natures were also like night and day. Børresen was an outgoing and charismatic leader, a womanizer and held the great Norwegian naval hero Tordenskiold as his personal idol, writing several articles about him and wishing to be able to one day mimic the deeds of his great paragon. Sparre was withdrawn, sullen and nervous, methodical and formal. Børresen had a reputation as an impulsive commander. He had eagerly adopted the views of Mahan, and wanted to attack, seek out the enemy's main force and destroy it in a decisive battle. Sparre was cautious, and believed that the inferior force should always avoid decisive battles and maintain a deterring fleet-in-being approach.

This difference in their view of the proper use of naval power also included their views on the role of coastal defense. For Sparre the coastal fortifications and especially coastal artillery were the primarily defense, the shield that the the Norwegian fleet would have to use as a basis for sudden attacks on the enemy landings, and a protective umbrella that they should never abandon. Børresen felt that it would be utter folly to disperse the Navy along the coast to the defense of the main ports. Freed from this purely defensive role they should instead be concentrated to a single mobile squadron, backed by a screen of torpedo boats, which could then be concentrated against invaders as a united and effective offensive force. Børresen already had a reputation as a skillfull tactician - his tactical schemes for combat squadrons had been studied all across Europe, and the Swedish navy had also adopted them for their use during the Baltic training cruises of summer 1903 - a fact which made Sparre doubt the true loyalties of Børresen.

And on top of it all the circumstances surrounding the appointment of Sparre to the position of commanding admiral had had everything to do with the political inclinations of the two men - a fact that had made Børresen feel especially slighted. With no official naval doctrine or tactical regulations for naval operations and no general plans, except for a general mobilization plan that was based on the premise of fighting together with the Swedish navy against a common enemy, the two men both tried to assert their authority over the Norwegian fleet. The disagreement about the fact how the heavy units of the fleet should be allocated in the event of war with Sweden was a central issue in the feud. Sparre wanted to keep the main force of the fleet in readiness at the naval base of Melsomvik, and avoid winding it into a decisive battle against a numerically superior enemy. Børresen wanted to exploit what he perceived as the better seaworthiness, higher speed and greater shooting skills of the Norwegian fleet, and seek out the enemy's main strength in the open sea in order to defeat it in a single decisive battle. As a compromise, the four coastal defense armored cruisers, torpedo boats of 1st class and torpedo leader "Valkyrie" had formed the Skagerrakeskadren, the strongest fleet the Norwegian Navy had ever been able amass together, and this force had been concentrated to the naval base of Melsomvik to protect the approaches to Kristiania under the command of Børresen.

In exchange of this concession, Sparre had strictly ordered that Børresen should sail out from Melsomvik and attack the enemy only once the hostile warships had penetrated into the Kristianiafjord, and that he should by all means do not be cut off from the base in Melsomvik and its hoard of ammunition, water and coal. Børresen believed that under this tactical approach he would be forced to operate in narrow waters which limited his maneuverability on the way out to meet the Swedish fleet, which would be in the open sea and have the freedom to maneuver. Børresen wanted a completely opposite engagement situation, where he had the freedom to maneuver while the Swedes were restricted by narrow waters. In his view such a situation would arise if he were on Breidangen north of Bastøy while the Swedes were on their way up the fjord between Bastøy and Østfoldlandet. From here he could just sail southwards and threaten Gothenburg, forcing the Swedes back to defend the city. Thus would Børresen get the chance to intercept them out in the open sea. With the slightly higher speed and greater seaworthiness of the Norwegian Panserskips he hoped that by using his tactical system he could surprise the Swedes, breaking the ranks of the Swedish squadron, and then defeat the Swedish ships with long-distance gunfire one by one. His concern was that during exercises with the Swedish squadron at autumn 1903 the Swedes had incorporated his formation system to their own fleet as well, and, could now use his own tactics against him. While the plan Børresen advocated was extremely risky, it was based on a firm analysis of the relative strengths and disadvantages of the potential adversary.

The Swedish Kustflottan gathered to Gothenburg consisted of a total of eight coastal defense armored cruisers, four torpedo cruisers, two destroyers, 24 torpedo boats and a submarine (based on the US Holland-class boat). On paper this force was clearly stronger than the Norwegian fleet. But the Swedish armored ships were designed for operations in the Baltic Sea, and were therefore not as seaworthy as their Norwegian counterparts. Only four of them had as much top speed as the Norwegian ships, and the Norwegians had greater range of their main guns, heavier grenade weight and - according to Børresen - shot more accurately than the Swedes.

Sparre was determined to avoid getting into a losing battle with a superior opponent, and thus risking losing the squadron and leaving Kristianiafjord open for enemy invasion. His analysis was based on events of 1814, as in his opinion the military-strategic situation was now very similar than roughly a century ago. Then the Swedes had planned to conduct a naval landing to Kristianiafjord, but in order to be able to do so they had first had to defeat the Norwegian gunboats stationed to the Hvaler Archipelago. Norwegians had withdrew back to Vallø without a fight, but with the Norwegian gunboats still intact, the Swedes were forced to abandon their landing plans. Thus Sparre was convinced that the best method of using the Norwegian fleet was to keep it well-drilled and in high readiness, but out of harms way. Privately Sparre, Defense Minister Olssøn and the rest of the government all feared that allowing Børresen to send the fleet the open sea before a possible outbreak of war was a major security risk, as he could then easily provoke and engage Swedish units without direct orders, thus starting the war the Norwegian government and Sparre himself so strongly wanted to avoid.

The two admirals thus continued their dispute during an intensive series of three-month long training maneuvers. The last weeks of June and early July after Norwegian secession declaration had been filled with intense firing exercises, both with individual ships and tactical shooting in formation. Børresen had decided to open fire at 8000 meters, and he had shared the Panserskips into two groups so that the gun crews could practice in judging exactly that distance against a capital-ship sized target. After almost continuous exercises in all weathers and both during day- and night-time, on 28 July 1905, the Skagerrakeskadren was sailing through Vestfjord near Tønsberg. The flotilla was led by the Norwegian flagship “Eidsvold” with admiral Børresen aboard. In the wake followed other heavy Norwegian capital ships “Norge”, “Tordenskjold"Va"Harald Haarfagre. " Eidsvold and Norge were Panserskips, coastal defense armored cruisers, sister ships built for the Norwegian navy by Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth & Co Ltd in 1899 with a displacement of just over 4,000 tons. The two other Panserskips were also sister ships, and the Tordenskjold and Harald Haarfagre had a displacement of little under 4,000 tons.

As the flotilla was passing the Sundåsen and Haaøen coastal forts at the northern side of Veierland on the way to anchor in Melsomvik, it was a grand sight. Flying the Norwegian flag without the hated "herring salad" union ensign, the fleet was crewed by professional, hard-drilled crews and fully ready for combat with live ammunition on board. And then a disaster struck. The armor protection of both classes of Panserskips had been designed primarily with naval gunfire in mind. Both the Tordenskjold- and Eidsvold-class had identical layout - six inches of Harvey steel armor at the sides, and nine inches at the gun-towers. Neither class had a torpedo belt, nor any particular protection against naval mines. Kommandørkaptein Gade and his crew discovered this the hard way when Tordenskjold suddenly disappeared to a devastating underwater explosion that had devastated the ship, capsizing the vessel in mere minutes with the loss of 228 Norwegian seamen. Many historians would later on remark that the chances of a peaceful solution to the secession crisis sank along the Panserskipet Tordenskjold.[1]


Thursday, June 3, 2021

The Naval War College: An Army Idea?

By John Pentangelo
HRNM Director

No, the U.S. Army did not give birth to the idea of a Naval War College, not exactly. But, a discussion between one of its most famous officers and one of the Navy’s most visionary intellectuals at the close of the American Civil War provided a spark that influenced professional military education forever after.

Established in Newport, Rhode Island in 1884, the Naval War College was the first institution of its kind in the world. It is renowned today for its role in educating naval officers in their chosen profession. The lectures provided by Alfred Thayer Mahan in early years became the basis of his seminal book, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660-1783. The book, published in 1890, was read widely by world leaders and influenced the build-up of major naval powers in the early 20th century. The college continued to do innovative work in the field of war gaming and the development of war plans after the First World War. Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, a 1923 graduate of the college, credited the war gaming program with helping to prepare the Navy’s ultimate victory in the Pacific during the Second World War. Today the college educates military personnel from all over the world, nourishes global partnerships, and offers a Master’s degree in Defense and Strategic Studies. So how did the idea for the Naval War College originate?

General William Tecumseh Sherman, 1865 (Milliy arxivlar)

In 1865, Lieutenant Commander Stephen B. Luce was in command of the gunboat USS Pontiyak with the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron. He was ordered to report to General William Tecumseh Sherman to guard the crossing of Savannah River as Sherman marched north to begin his campaign in the Carolinas. In discussion, Sherman shared his opinion on how to take the city of Charleston. The Navy tried unsuccessfully to take Charleston by bombarding Fort Sumter for three years. Sherman told the naval officer that Charleston would fall into the Union’s hands “like a ripe pear” when he cut its communications. This proved to be true in the next few weeks. Luce recalled: “After hearing General Sherman’s clear exposition of the military situation the scales seemed to fall from my eyes. ‘Here’ I said to myself, ‘is a soldier who knows his business!’ It dawned upon me that there were certain fundamental principles underlying military operations, which it were well to look into principles of general application whether the operations were conducted on land or sea.” [1] The seed was planted.

Lieutenant Commander Stephen B. Luce, c. 1865 (Dengiz tarixi va merosi qo'mondonligi)

Long devoted to education, Luce devoted much of his career to the formal education of naval personnel. Assigned to the Naval Academy during the early years of the Civil War, he revised W.H. Parker’s Instructions for Light Artillery, Afloat and Ashore. He also wrote and published Seamanship, a text for midshipmen. After the war, Luce lamented that naval officers began to specialize increasingly in navigation, hydrography, engineering, or ordnance. He fought against this, insisting to his fellow officers that their profession was war and it was war that they must study. After helping to establish the maritime college in New York (1874), he established the naval apprentice program aboard training ships in the late 1870s and was instrumental in the creation of the Navy’s first shore-based recruit training station at Newport (1883). During this time, he never forgot his meeting with Sherman. The general’s assessment of the military situation and his ability to execute a solution in a non-military way convinced Luce that decision makers required subject matter experts to advise them on military problems. The expertise in the art and science of naval warfare would be best developed through formal education. After years of advocacy, correspondence, research, and thought, Luce became the founding president of the Naval War College, established in 1884. He defined the college as “a place of original research on all questions relating to war and to statesmanship connected with war, or the prevention of war.” [2] The College owes its existence to the visionary leadership, perseverance, and commitment of Rear Admiral Stephen B. Luce. Perhaps it owes its inspiration to General William Tecumseh Sherman.


[1] Stephen Luce, “Naval Administration, III,” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings Vol. 29 (1903): 820

[2] Stephen B. Luce, An Address Delivered at the United States Naval War College, The Writings of Stephen B. Luce, eds. John D. Hayes and John B. Hattendorf Naval War College Press Newport, RI, 39-40


Videoni tomosha qiling: Синьо-жовті прапори на Чорному морі. Український флот Ч. 1 (Iyul 2022).


Izohlar:

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