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Vassuk tarixi - tarix

Vassuk tarixi - tarix



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Wassuc

(Ds. 1.175: 1. 225 '; b.45'; dr. 6 '; s. 9 k.; A. 2 11 ")
D. sb .; cl. Kasko)

Wassuc-bitta torli, ikkita vintli monitor-1863 yil iyun oyida Portlendda (Meyn shtati), George W. Lawrence & Co tomonidan qo'yilgan; 1865 yil 25 iyulda ishga tushirilgan; va 1865 yil 28 oktyabrda yakunlandi.

Wassuc Konfederatsiyaning sayoz ko'rfazlari, daryolari va kirish joylarida xizmat ko'rsatishga mo'ljallangan Kasko-klassli monitor edi. Bu harbiy kema zirhli plastinkani sayoz tortish uchun qurbon qildi va ularni jang paytida suvga tushirish uchun mo'ljallangan ballast bo'linmasi bilan jihozlangan edi.

Biroq, 1864 yilning bahorida sinfning birinchi kemalari ishga tushirilganda, Harbiy -dengiz kuchlari ularning joy almashishini hisoblashda jiddiy xatolarga yo'l qo'yilganini aniqladi. Ular deyarli uch dyuymli bortda, hatto minora, qurol va do'konlarsiz ham borligini isbotladilar. Shunday qilib, Harbiy -dengiz kuchlari bo'limi 1864 yil 24 -iyunda Wassuc kemasini 22 dyuym balandlikka ko'tarish to'g'risida buyruq berdi. Yetkazib berilgach, monitor Boston harbiy -dengiz flotiga qo'yildi; va u hech qanday xizmatni ko'rmagan. U 1869 yil 15 -iyunda Stromboli deb o'zgartirildi, lekin 1869 -yil 10 -avgustda Wassuc nomini qayta tikladi. Wassuc 1875 yil 9 -sentabrda hurda uchun sotildi.


USS Wassuc, Meynning Tomaston shahrida qurilgan, 1175 tonnalik kasko -klassli yengil ekranli monitor 1865 yil oktyabr oyida tugatildi. Harbiy -dengiz kuchlariga etkazib berilgach, u Boston Navy Yardiga qo'yildi va hech qanday xizmat ko'rsatilmagan. 1869 yil iyun oyida keng tarqalgan kemalarni qayta nomlash paytida, u USS Stromboli bo'ldi, lekin o'sha yilning avgustida asl nomini oldi. USS Wassuc 1875 yilda hurda uchun sotilgan.

Bu sahifada USS Wassuc bilan bog'liq barcha qarashlar mavjud.

Agar siz bu erda taqdim etilgan raqamli tasvirlarga qaraganda yuqori aniqlikdagi reproduktsiyalarni xohlasangiz, qarang: "Fotosurat nusxalarini qanday olish mumkin".

USS Shawnee (1865-1875)
va
USS Wassuc (1865-1875)

Taxminan 1871-72 yillarda Boston Navy Yardida joylashgan.
USS Miantonomoh (1865-1874) o'ta o'ng tomonda joylashgan.
Asl fotosurat - stereograf juftining chap tomoni.

Lui X.Smausning ruxsati bilan, 1986.

Ushbu tasvirning stereo juftlik versiyasi Photo # NH 100992-A formatida mavjud

Stereo juftlikning onlayn tasviri: 68KB 675x355 piksel

1871-1872 yillarda Massachusets shtatining Charlstaun shahridagi Boston Navy Yardida joylashgan.
Uning yonida USS Shawnee yoki USS Wassuc "engil chizilgan" monitor o'rnatilgan. USS Sabine iskala qarama -qarshi tomonida o'rnatmoqda.

Martin Xolbruk ruxsati bilan, 1977.

1874 yilda Massachusets shtatining Charlstaun shahridagi Boston Navy Yardida bo'linib ketdi.
Qisman chap tomonda USS Shawnee yoki USS Wassuc "yorug'lik chizig'i" monitori ko'rinadi.

Yengil tortish moslamasining qurolli minorasi uchun tortish moslamalari qo'lda yasalgan. Bu chizilgan "Yoritgichlar monitorining bosh inspektori. 79 -varaq" shtampi bilan, 1864 yil 20 fevralda va bosh inspektor Alban C. Stimers tomonidan imzolangan.
E'tibor bering, bu rejada bitta XI dyuymli Dahlgren silliq o'qli qurol (chap qurol) va bitta 150 funtli (8 dyuymli) "Parrott" miltig'i bor.


Glastonberi shajarasi (Xartford okrugida, CT)

QAYD: Glastonberiga tegishli bo'lgan qo'shimcha yozuvlar Xartford okrugi va Konnektikut sahifalarida ham mavjud.

Glastonberi tug'ilgan rekordlari

Glastonberi qabristoni yozuvlari

Muqaddas Xoch qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Eski Bukingem qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Avliyo Jeyms qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Glastonberi aholini ro'yxatga olish yozuvlari

Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari Federal ro'yxatga olish, 1790-1940 oilaviy qidiruv

Glastonberi cherkovi yozuvlari

Glastonberi shahar direktorligi

Glastonberi o'lim rekordlari

Glastonberi tarixi va nasabnomalari

Glastonberi immigratsiya yozuvlari

Glastonberi rekordlari

Glastonberi nikoh rekordlari

Glastonberi ozchiliklar rekordi

Glastonberi gazetalari va obituariyalar

Glastonberi uchun oflayn gazetalar

AQSh gazetalari ma'lumotnomasiga ko'ra, quyidagi gazetalar bosilgan, shuning uchun qog'oz yoki mikrofilm nusxalari bo'lishi mumkin. Oflayn gazetalarni qanday topish haqida ko'proq ma'lumot olish uchun, oflayn gazetalarni joylashtirish haqidagi maqolamizga qarang.

Glastonberi byulleteni. (Glastonberi, Konn.) 1948-1949

Glastonberi fuqarosi. (Glastonberi, Konn.) 1950-Hozirgi

Glastonberi probati rekordlari

Konnektikut shtatining dastlabki rekordlari (1750 yilgacha) Amerika ajdodlari

Konnektikut koloniyasi Maxsus sudining yozuvlari, 1687-1688 (Xartford okrugi) Amerika ajdodlari

Glastonberi maktabi rekordlari

Bu sahifaga qo'shimchalar yoki tuzatishlar bormi? Biz bilan bog'lanish sahifasi orqali takliflaringizni qabul qilamiz


Xartford okrugining CT qabristoni yozuvlari

QAYD: Xartford okrugiga tegishli qo'shimcha yozuvlar Konnektikut qabristoni yozuvlari sahifasida ham mavjud.

Eslatma: Dafn qilingan joylar ko'pincha o'lim yozuvlari va nekrologlarda qayd etiladi.

Xartford okrugi qabristoni yozuvlari

Tog 'qabristonining g'arbiy tomoni milliardlab qabrlar

Avon qabristoni yozuvlari

Avon markazi qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Sidr Bruk qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Evergreen qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Grinvud qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

G'arbiy Avon qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Berlin qabristoni yozuvlari

Bloomfield qabristoni yozuvlari

Sent -Benedikt tog'i qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Eski Vintonberi qabristoni milliard qabr

Jorj R. Uorner yozuvlari, sekston, Bloomfild, 1875-1909 (o'lim va dafnlar) Konnektikut shtati kutubxonasi

Bristol qabristoni yozuvlari

G'arbiy qabriston milliardlab qabrlar

Keng Bruk qabristoni yozuvlari

Avliyo Ketrin qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Avliyo Ketrin qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Vindzorvill qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Burlington qabristoni rekordlari

Kanton qabristoni yozuvlari

Shimoliy Kanton qabristoni milliard qabr

Collinsville qabristoni yozuvlari

Golvari qabristoni milliard qabr

Avliyo Patrik qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Sharqiy Berlin qabristoni yozuvlari

Wilcox qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Sharqiy Granbi qabristoni yozuvlari

Mis tepalik qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Sharqiy Granbi qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Elmvud qabristoni qabristoni NEHGSdan olingan transkripsiyalar

Elmvud qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Sharqiy Xartford qabristoni yozuvlari

Hillside qabristoni milliard qabr

Avliyo Meri qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

East Windsor qabristoni rekordlari

Enfild qabristoni yozuvlari

King Street qabristoni qabristoni NEHGSdan transkripsiyalar

NEHGSdan Tompsonvil qabristoni qabristoni transkripsiyasi

Farmington qabristoni rekordlari

Eski Farmington qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Daryo bo'yidagi qabriston milliardlab qabrlar

Glastonberi qabristoni yozuvlari

Muqaddas Xoch qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Eski Bukingem qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Avliyo Jeyms qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Granby qabristoni yozuvlari

Granbi qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Xartford qabristoni yozuvlari

Qadimgi qabriston milliardlab qabrlar

Ateres Isroil milliard qabrlari

Sidar Hill qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Konnektikut shtati kutubxonasi Sidar Xill qabristoni

Sidar Xill qabristoni (Xartford), Konnektikut shtati kutubxonasi

Old Hartford Burining Ground Konnektikut shtati kutubxonasi

Eski Shimoliy qabristoni milliard qabr

Spring Grove qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Sion Xill qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Xartlend qabristoni yozuvlari

Yozuvlar Lester K.Geyns tomonidan saqlanadi, 1846-1867 yillar Konnektikut shtati kutubxonasi, Xartlend va Sharqiy Xartlend.

Hazardville qabristoni yozuvlari

Kensington qabristoni yozuvlari

Manchester qabristoni rekordlari

Beth Sholom Memorial Parkidagi milliardlab qabrlar

Sharqiy qabriston milliardlab qabrlar

Shimoli -g'arbiy qabriston milliardlab qabrlar

Sent -Bridjit qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Avliyo Jeyms qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Avliyo Jon qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

G'arbiy qabriston milliardlab qabrlar

Marlboro qabristoni yozuvlari

Asr qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Yangi Britaniya qabristoni rekordlari

Beth Alom qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Fairview qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Eski Sent -Meri birinchi katolik qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Rus pravoslav yunon qabristoni milliard qabr

Muqaddas yurak qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Avliyo Meri qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Avliyo Tomas qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Newington qabristoni yozuvlari

G'arbiy o'tloq qabristoni milliard qabr

Shimoliy Kanton qabristoni rekordlari

Shimoliy Granbi qabristoni yozuvlari

Plainville qabristoni yozuvlari

Sharq va G'arbiy qabristonlari qabristonlari NEHGSdan olingan transkripsiyalar

Avliyo Jozef qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Plantsvill qabristoni yozuvlari

Quinnipiac qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Rokki Xill qabristoni yozuvlari

Million qabrlar markazi qabristoni

Rose Hill qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Simsberi qabristoni yozuvlari

Simsberi qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Janubiy Glastonberi qabristoni yozuvlari

Janubiy Vindsor qabristoni yozuvlari

Million qabrlar markazi qabristoni

Yangi Wapping qabristoni milliard qabr

Sautington qabristoni yozuvlari

Avliyo Tomas qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

South End qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Suffild qabristoni yozuvlari

Tariffville qabristoni yozuvlari

Tompsonvil qabristoni yozuvlari

Enfild ko'chasidagi qabriston milliardlab qabrlar

Unionville qabristoni yozuvlari

G'arbiy Xartford qabristoni yozuvlari

G'arbiy Simsberi qabristoni yozuvlari

Bushy Hill qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Vetersfild qabristoni yozuvlari

Emanuel qabristoni milliard qabr

Qishloq qabristoni milliard qabr

Vindsor qabristoni yozuvlari

Palisado qabristoni milliard qabr

Askarlar dala qabristoni milliard qabr

Windsor qabriston yozuvlarini qulflaydi

Grove qabristoni milliardlab qabrlar

Bu saytdan qanday foydalanish kerak video

Konnektikut xaritasi

Xartford okrugi qizil rangda ko'rsatilgan

Tadqiqot bo'yicha maslahat

Qabriston yozuvlari qabr toshlarining tasvirlari yoki transkripsiyalarini yoki qabristonda saqlanadigan boshqa dafn yozuvlarini o'z ichiga olishi mumkin. Oila a'zolari ko'pincha bir -birining yoniga dafn etilgan. Qabristonga dafn qilingan ba'zi odamlarda hozirgi qabr toshi belgisi bo'lmasligi mumkin.


Oxirgi Glastonberi

Bennettning tarixga bo'lgan muhabbati otasi, sobiq Florida Kongress a'zosi edi, uning sevimli mashg'ulotlari tarixiy kitoblar yozish edi - ularning sakkiztasi nashr etilgan. Bennetning otasi oilani ta'tilga olib borar va bolalarga binolar, haykallar, bog'lar va boshqalarning ahamiyati haqida aytib berar edi.

"Biz hech qachon tarixga ega bo'lmagan ta'tilga chiqmaganmiz", dedi Bennet. "U meni arxeologik qazishmalarga ham olib bordi. Bu qiziqarli bo'ldi. U buni qiziqarli qildi."

Bennett tarixiy jamiyat bilan aloqada bo'lgan har bir kishi uchun tarixni o'rganishni qiziqarli qilishga harakat qiladi. Uning aytishicha, jamoatchilik bilan muloqot qilish uni ishida eng baxtli qiladi.

"Bu juda qiziqarli ish", dedi u "Bu shahar juda kuchli shahar va odamlar bunga munosib."


Vassuk tarixi - tarix

Glastenberi Shisha Fabrikasi Kompaniyasi 1812 yilgi urush paytida shisha importi etishmayotgan paytda tashkil etilgan. U 1827 yoki 1833 yilgacha o'z faoliyatini davom ettirgan.

Dastlab tasvirlanganidek, bu "Kolchesterga boradigan yo'ldagi Wassuc" bo'lib, u utilitarian idishlar, yarim va bir funtlik burmalar, siyoh idishlari va "Pitkin" idishlari ishlab chiqargan.

Glastenberi mahsulotlari erkin puflanadigan, naqshli va mog'orlangan yashil shisha bilan mashhur.

Bugungi kunda shisha buyumlardan hech narsa qolmagan. Ammo 1963 yilda, 2 -marshrut qurilishidan oldin, Old Sturbridge qishlog'idan Kennet Uilson bu erda qazish ishlarini olib bordi. Shisha fabrikasining ko'plab bo'laklari qazilgan va Glastonberi tarixiy jamiyati muzeyida, Old Sturbridge qishlog'ida (O.S.V.) va Konnektikut tarixiy jamiyatida namoyish etilgan.

Quyidagi fotosuratlar Glastonberi tarixiy jamiyatida Syuzan Barlou tomonidan olingan. Biz Glastonberiga Konnektikut shishasi muzeyi kollektsiyasiga shlak va shlaklar bergani uchun minnatdormiz.



Tasvirlar va tavsiflar uchun
yaqinda ochilgan krujka
parchalar, iltimos, bu erni bosing.

CT Historical Society veb -saytida shisha bo'laklari rasmlarini ko'rish uchun.

& bull Nusxalash/joylashtirish mezonlari glastenberi oynasi ularning "Tez qidiruv" vositasida
va keyin qidirishni boshlash uchun o'ng o'qni bosing.

& bull "Oddiy qidiruv" natijalari sahifasida "Ob'ektlar" havolasini bosing.

*Veb ustasi haqida eslatma: Imlo haqida: Shisha buyumlar uchun hujjatlar kompaniyaning nomini "Glastenberi shisha fabrikasi kompaniyasi" deb beradi. Glastonberi shahri o'z tarixining turli davrlarida o'z nomini boshqacha yozgan:
> 1693-1780 yillarda shahar Glassenbury deb yozilgan.
> 1780-1870 yillarda shahar Glastenberi deb yozilgan.
> 1870 yildan boshlab shahar Glastonberi deb yozilgan.


Dizaynni qayta ko'rib chiqish [tahrir | manbani tahrirlash]

Garchi asl dizaynlar Kasko-sinf monitorlari Jon Ericsson tomonidan chizilgan, yakuniy versiya 1863 yilda kontr -admiral Samuel F. Du Pontning Fort Sumter bombardimonidan so'ng bosh muhandis Alban C. Stimers tomonidan tuzilgan. Nyu -York, Ericsson va Simersning munosabatlari yomon edi, qurilish va ta'mirlash byurosi boshlig'i Jon Lentall boshqaruv kengashi bilan unchalik aloqasi yo'q edi. Natijada rejalar tasdiqlandi va 20 ta kemaga yangi dizayn jiddiy tekshirilmasdan buyurtma berildi. Bu kemalar qurilishiga 14 million AQSh dollari ajratilgan. Ma'lum bo'lishicha, Stimers o'zining asl rejasiga qo'shilgan qurol -yarog'ni qoplay olmagan va buning natijasida yog'och korpus ramkalari va atigi 3 va 160 dyuymli bort taxtasida ortiqcha stress paydo bo'lgan. Stimers loyiha nazoratidan chiqarildi va zararni bartaraf etish uchun Ericsson chaqirildi. U qurilayotgan monitorlarning korpuslarini dengizga yaroqli qilish uchun 22 va 160 dyuymga ko'tarishga majbur bo'ldi.


Tarkibi

Ishga tushgandan so'ng, USS Wassuc janubga, Virjiniya shtatining Norfolk shahriga etib bordi va shimolga, Vashington harbiy -dengiz hovlisiga suzib ketdi, u erda 4 -iyun kuni keldi. Keyinchalik u 23 -iyun kuni Virjiniya shtatining Yorktaun shahridagi minalar urushi maktabiga ko'chib o'tdi va u erda USS   ni yengillashtirdi. Kormorant   (AM-40), mina tashuvchini kapital ta'mirlashni boshlash uchun ozod qilish. Yorktaun shahrida xizmat paytida, Wassuc Qurol -yarog 'byurosi (BuOrd) homiyligida eksperimental kon ishlarida qatnashgan.

Norfolk Qo'shma Shtatlardagi Virjiniya Hamdo'stligidagi mustaqil shahar. 2010 yildagi aholini ro'yxatga olishda, aholi soni 2017 yilda 242,803 edi, aholisi 244,703 kishini tashkil etdi, bu qo'shni Virjiniya plyajidan keyin Virjiniyaning ikkinchi eng gavjum shahri.

The Vashington Dengiz Yard (WNY) - AQSh harbiy -dengiz kuchlarining Vashington janubi -sharqidagi sobiq kemasozlik va o'q -dorilar zavodi, bu AQSh dengiz flotining eng qadimgi qirg'oq qurilishi.

Yorktaun AQShning Virjiniya shtatining York okrugidagi ro'yxatga olish joyi (CDP). Bu York okrugi okrugining qarorgohi, 1682 yilda Virjiniya mustamlakasida tashkil etilgan sakkizta asl shiralardan biri. Yorktaun aholisi 2010 yildagi aholini ro'yxatga olish bo'yicha 195 edi, 2011 yildagi aholini ro'yxatga olish ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, York okrugining aholisi 66,134 edi.

Bu turni avgust o'rtalarida yakunlab, Wassuc Nyu -York, Bruklindagi dengiz havzasiga ko'chib o'tdi va Yaponiyaning Pearl -Harborga hujumi AQShni Ikkinchi Jahon urushiga olib kirguniga qadar amalga oshirilmadi. 1941 yil Rojdestvodan ikki kun o'tgach, Wassuc Nyu -York shtatining Staten orolidan Tompkinsvillga jo'nab ketdi, Virjiniya shtatining Yorktaun shahriga jo'nab ketdi, bu erda minalar urushi bo'yicha ko'rsatmalar olish va BuOrd homiyligida ishlash uchun.

Yaponiya Sharqiy Osiyodagi orol davlatidir. Tinch okeanida joylashgan, Osiyo qit'asining sharqiy qirg'og'ida joylashgan va shimolda Oxotsk dengizidan Sharqiy Xitoy va janubda Filippin dengizigacha cho'zilgan.

Pearl -Harbor Gonolulu g'arbidagi Gavayi Oaxu orolidagi lagun porti. AQShga 1875 yilgi o'zaro kelishuv imzolanishi bilan Gavayi qirolligidan sotib olinishidan oldin, Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari dengiz floti tashrif buyurgan. Liman va uning atrofidagi ko'p joylar hozirda AQSh dengiz floti chuqurligida joylashgan. suv -dengiz bazasi. Bu, shuningdek, AQShning Tinch okeani flotining bosh qarorgohi. AQSh hukumati birinchi marta 1887 yilda kirish joyidan eksklyuziv foydalanish va kemalarni ta'mirlash va ko'mir stantsiyasini saqlash huquqini qo'lga kiritdi. 1941 yil 7 dekabrda Yaponiya imperiyasi Pearl -Harborga hujumi AQShning bevosita sababchisi bo'ldi. "Ikkinchi jahon urushiga kirish.

The Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari (AQSH), odatda nomi bilan mashhur Qo'shma Shtatlar yoki Amerika, 50 shtat, federal okrug, beshta asosiy o'zini o'zi boshqaradigan hududlar va turli mulklardan tashkil topgan mamlakat. 3.8 va 160 million kvadrat milya, Qo'shma Shtatlar umumiy maydoni bo'yicha dunyodagi uchinchi yoki to'rtinchi yirik mamlakatdir va Evropaning 3,9 va 160 million kvadrat milya qit'asidan bir oz kichikroq. 327 milliondan ortiq aholisi bo'lgan AQSh aholi soni bo'yicha uchinchi o'rinda turadi. Poytaxti - Vashington, aholisi bo'yicha eng katta shahar - Nyu -York. 48 shtat va poytaxt federal okrugi Shimoliy Amerikada Kanada va Meksika o'rtasida tutashgan. Alyaska shtati Shimoliy Amerikaning shimoli -g'arbiy burchagida, sharqda Kanada bilan chegaradosh va g'arbda Rossiyadan Bering bo'g'ozi bo'ylab. Gavayi shtati-Tinch okeanining o'rtasida joylashgan arxipelag. AQSh hududlari Tinch okeani va Karib dengizi bo'ylab tarqalgan, to'qqiz rasmiy vaqt zonasi bo'ylab cho'zilgan. Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlarining juda xilma -xil geografiyasi, iqlimi va yovvoyi tabiati uni dunyoning 17 megadiversli davlatlaridan biriga aylantiradi.

Wassuc Keyingi ikki yilni 5 -dengiz okrugida o'tkazdi, asosan Chesapeake ko'rfazi mintaqasining suvlarini o'tkazdi va vaqti -vaqti bilan shimolga Vashingtondagi Harbiy -dengiz hovligacha va janubgacha Cape Hatterasgacha. U asosan Merilend shtati, Solomons oroli va Virjiniya shtatining Yorktaun shahrida joylashgan Dengiz minalari urushini isbotlash maydonchalarida BuOrd sinov dasturlarida ishlagan. U, shuningdek, ofitserlarga magnit kompaslarni kompensatsiyalash bo'yicha ko'rsatma beradigan o'quv kemasi sifatida ikkita xizmat safarini o'tkazdi. Garchi uning vazifalari asosan eksperimental va sinovlarga asoslangan bo'lsa-da, yozuvlarga ko'ra, kema 1942 yil 22-mayda Hatteras burnidan kichik mina maydonini tashlagan.

The Chesapeake ko'rfazi AQShning Merilend va Virjiniya shtatlaridagi daryo bo'yida joylashgan. Ko'rfaz O'rta Atlantika mintaqasida joylashgan va asosan Atlantika okeanidan Delmarva yarim oroli bilan ajralib turadi va og'zi Genri va Keyp Charlz o'rtasida joylashgan. Shimoliy qismi Merilendda va janubi Virjiniya shtatida, Chesapeake ko'rfazi bu ikkala shtat va boshqa shtatlarning ekologiyasi va iqtisodiyoti uchun juda muhim xususiyatdir. 150 dan ortiq yirik daryolar va daryolar ko'rfazning 64,299 kvadrat milya (166,534 va 160km 2) drenaj havzasiga quyiladi, u oltita shtat va Vashington shtatining bir qismini qamrab oladi.

Cape Hatteras Shimoliy Karolina shtatining ingichka, singan orollari bo'lib, ular AQSh materikidan uzoqda Atlantika okeaniga, so'ng materik tomon qaytib, tashqi banklar va materik o'rtasida bir qator himoyalangan orollar hosil qiladi. Ming yillar davomida bu to'siq orollari shamol va dengiz hujumlaridan omon qolgan. Plyaj, qumtepalar, botqoqliklar va dengiz o'rmonlarining uzun uchastkalari shamol va to'lqinlar topografiyani shakllantiradigan noyob muhitni yaratadi. Tashqi banklarning katta maydoni milliy bog'ning bir qismi bo'lib, Cape Hatteras milliy dengiz qirg'og'i deb ataladi. Bu, shuningdek, sharqiy-janubi-sharqdan 563 dengiz milya uzoqlikda joylashgan Bermudagi AQSh materigidagi eng yaqin quruqlikdir.

1944 yilga kelib, Wassuc AQSh dengiz floti inventarizatsiyasidagi yagona qirg'oq minerajchisi edi. AQSh armiyasi qirg'oqlarni mudofaa qilish uchun asosiy javobgarlikni o'z zimmasiga oldi va suv osti kemalari va samolyotlari dushman qirg'oqlariga mina jangini o'tkazish qobiliyatini isbotladilar. Shunga qaramay, Wassuc uzluksiz jang maydonlarining diqqat markazidan uzoqda, o'zining muhim, ammo muhim tajriba va sinov ishlarini davom ettirdi. U Ikkinchi Jahon urushi oxirigacha Provincetown, Massachusets va Key -Meydan (Nyu -Jersi shtati) Nyu -York va Norfolk, Virjiniya, shuningdek Solomons oroligacha bo'lgan qirg'oq bo'ylab tartibini davom ettirdi.

Viloyat shahri AQShning Massachusets shtati, Barnstable okrugidagi Keyp -Kodning chekkasida joylashgan Yangi Angliya shahri. Sohil bo'yidagi kurort shaharcha, yil bo'yi 3000 ga yaqin aholiga ega, Provinstaunda yozgi aholi soni 60 mingga etadi. Ko'pincha "deb nomlanganP-shaharcha"yoki"Shaharcha", shahar o'zining plyajlari, porti, rassomlari, sayyohlik sanoati va LGBTQ hamjamiyati uchun dam olish joyi maqomi bilan mashhur.

Cape May Nyu -Jersi shtati, Keyp Mey okrugidagi Keyp Mey yarim orolining janubiy chekkasida joylashgan shahar, bu erda Delaver ko'rfazi Atlantika okeani bilan uchrashadi. Mamlakatning eng qadimgi kurort joylaridan biri Okean -Siti metropolitenining statistik hududiga kiradi. 2010 yilgi Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlarining aholini ro'yxatga olish ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, shaharda yil davomida 3,607 kishi yashagan, bu 2000 yilgi aholini ro'yxatga olishda hisoblangan 4,034dan 427 (-10,6%) ga kamayishini aks ettirgan, bu esa o'z navbatida 634 (-13,6%) ga kamaygan. 1990 yildagi aholini ro'yxatga olishda hisoblangan 4668 dan. Yozda Keyp -May aholisi 40-50 mingga yaqin sayyohlar bilan kengayadi. Butun Keyp -May shahri Viktoriya davridagi binolarning kontsentratsiyasi tufayli milliy tarixiy yodgorlik bo'lgan Keyp -May tarixiy tumani deb nomlangan.


Meyn tarixi onlayn

O'zining katta iqtisodiy salohiyati va istiqbolli siyosiy kelajagidan xabardor bo'lgan o'z-o'zini anglaydigan davlat, davlatchilik kampaniyasidan o'zining siyosiy va ijtimoiy institutlarini takomillashtirish g'oyalari keng doirasi bilan chiqdi. Bu islohotlarning kuchayishi Meynning dastlabki siyosiy tashkilotlarini birlashtirgan zaif koalitsiyalarni parchalab tashladi.

Shtat Uilyam Kingni o'zining birinchi gubernatori etib sayladi, lekin qonun chiqaruvchi hokimiyat uning obro'sini oshirish dasturini amalga oshira olmagach, u 1821 yilda iste'foga chiqdi. Uilyam D. Uilyamson, Benjamin Ames va Albion Parris davlatchilikning birinchi yillarida xizmat qilgan.

Umuman olganda, 1828 yilda Endryu Jeksonning saylanishi eski Demokratik partiyani ajratdi va 1830 -yillardagi kabi Meynda ham yangi Milliy Respublikachilar (Viglar) va Jekson Demokratlari o'rtasidagi shafqatsiz kampaniyalar bilan ajralib turardi.

Meksika bilan urush, Texasning qo'shilishi va Wilmot Proviso kabi muammolar Demokratik partiyani yirtib tashladi, Portlendning Neal Dowi Amerikaning eng mashhur spirtli ichimliklar taqiqlovchisi bo'lishga qaror qilib, o'z Whig hamkasblarini ajratdi.

Boy va siyosiy ambitsiyali yosh yigit, 1846 yilda qonun chiqaruvchi hokimiyat orqali o'z rejasining zaif versiyasini majburlab, spirtli ichimliklarni taqiqlash uchun kuchli kampaniya olib bordi. Dow 1851 yilda Portlend meri etib saylandi va o'sha yili uning mashhur "Meyn qonuni" - taqiq qattiq qo'llab -quvvatlandi. jazolar va ijro etish qoidalari - shtat qonun chiqaruvchi organi tomonidan qabul qilingan.

Downing Meyn qonunini bajarish uchun haddan tashqari salib yurishi tufayli nufuzli dushmanlari bor edi. Fuqarolar 1855 yilda shahar hokimiyatidagi g'alayonni Dow fanatizmiga bog'lashdi va bu voqea uning Portlenddagi siyosiy taqdirini muhrlab qo'ydi. Keyingi qonun chiqaruvchi organlar Meyn qonunini asta -sekin zaiflashtirdilar va Dow o'zining shijoatli xabarini boshqa shtatlar va chet ellarga etkazish orqali tasalli topdi.

Qullikka qarshi harakat bir xil darajada bo'linib ketdi, Demokratik partiyani janubni qo'llab-quvvatlaydigan "Wildcat" va qullikka qarshi "Woolhead" guruhlariga bo'lindi. 1848 yilda Nyu-Yorkning Buffalo shahridagi delegatlar qullikni davlat tomonidan qo'llab-quvvatlashni tugatish, dehqonlarga g'arbiy arzon erlarni berish va Amerika sanoatini himoya qilish uchun yuqori tariflarni belgilashga bag'ishlangan Erkin tuproq partiyasini tuzdilar. Yangi partiya Meyndagi norozi viklar va demokratlarni o'ziga tortdi.

A Whig, Zachary Teylor, 1848 yilda Meyn demokrat Jon W. Dana gubernatori etib saylanganida prezidentlikni qo'lga kiritdi, lekin ko'pchilik ovoz bilan. 1850 yilda, millat Meksikadan olingan hududlarda qullik masalasida bo'linib ketganda, Woolhead demokrat senatori Gannibal Hamlin senatorlik taklifida qullikka qarshi va taqiqlovchi Whigs va Free-Soilersga murojaat qildi.

Ikki yil o'tib, Demokratik qonun chiqaruvchi guruh taqiqlovchi Jon Xabbardni gubernator etib tayinlaganida, Wildcats yig'ilishni to'xtatdi va ikkala fraktsiya ko'pgina tumanlarda o'z nomzodlarini ko'rsatdi.

1854 yilda Nebraska qonuni hududlarda qullik masalasini qayta ochdi va Meynda bu demokratik partiyadagi bo'linishni qaytarib bo'lmaydigan qilib qo'ydi. Woolheads Anson P. Morrillni gubernator sifatida tasdiqladi va Wildcats qisqa muddatli Liberallar partiyasiga intildi. Vigslar ham Meyn qonuniga va qullikka qarshi bo'linishdi va mahalliy bo'lmagan, irlandlarga qarshi bo'lmagan "Hech narsa bilmaydi" partiyasining paydo bo'lishi vaziyatni yanada chalkashtirib yubordi 1854.

Demokratlar, Whigs, Free-Soilers va Know-Nothingsdan foydalangan Morill ko'pchilik ovozni yutib yubordi, lekin ba'zi respublikachilar partiyasi chaqirgan fuzionistik tashkilot qonun chiqaruvchi hokimiyatni egalladi va Morrilni gubernator qilib tanladi, chunki hech bir nomzod g'alaba qozonmagan. ko'pchilik xalq ovozi.

Demokratlar 1855 yilda ikkala uyni ham yutishdi, lekin 1856 yilda respublikachilar o'z tashkilotlarini takomillashtirdilar va qonun chiqaruvchi hokimiyatda katta g'alabaga erishdilar, bu ovoz shtatning siyosiy manzarasini butunlay o'zgartirganidan dalolat beradi. Respublikachilar partiyasi Meyn siyosiy hayotini 1954 yilda Edmund S. Muski saylangunga qadar deyarli uzluksiz boshqarish uchun qullik va ichkilikbozlik qo'zg'olonidan chiqdi.

Meyn Vashingtonni boshqaradi

1860 yilda Meyn respublikachi Isroil Uashbernni gubernator sifatida qo'llab -quvvatladi. Respublikachilar Skowheganlik Abner va Stiven Koburn, sobiq gubernatorlar Anson va Avgusta Lot Morill, Frederik va Kale Jeyms Pike, Livermor -Falls va Orononing ettita Uashbern akalari boshchiligida uyushdilar.

Respublikachilikning tayanchi sifatida Meyn Vashingtonda muhim rol o'ynadi, uning eng ko'zga ko'ringan davlat arbobi Gannibal Xamlin edi.

Parij Xill shahridan advokat Hamlin tahrir qildi Oksford Jeffersonian, keyin Xampdenga ko'chib o'tdi va shtat qonun chiqaruvchi organiga Jeksoniyalik demokrat sifatida saylandi. U 1843-1847 yillarda Senatga o'tishdan oldin AQSh uyida ikki muddat ishlagan. 1856 yilda u respublikachilar partiyasiga qo'shildi va 1857 yilda gubernator etib saylandi.

U deyarli Senatga qaytish uchun iste'foga chiqdi va 1860 yilda Linkoln chiptasida vitse -prezidentlikka nomzod sifatida tanlandi. U vitse -prezidentlik lavozimida qolib ketdi va 1864 yilgi Baltimor konferentsiyasida Konfederatsiyaning chegara shtatlariga uvertura Endryu Jonson foydasiga tashlandi. U Senatga qaytdi va urushdan keyin Ispaniyada elchi bo'lib xizmat qildi.

Senator Uilyam Pitt Fessenden, Bowdoin bitiruvchisi va Portlend huquqshunosi, 1854 yilda ikkinchi okrugdan Kongressga, keyin esa Senatga saylangan. U erda Senatning Moliya qo'mitasida ishlagan, u erda 1863 yilda Kongress orqali mamlakatning birinchi daromad solig'i to'g'risidagi qonunni boshqargan. 1864 yilda Salmon Cheyz iste'foga chiqqach, Linkolnning xazina kotibi bo'ldi, u o'tgan yili urushni olib borishga sarflangan katta mablag 'sarfini nazorat qildi.

Fessenden urushdan keyin Senatga qaytdi. Garchi u radikal respublikachilarning Qayta qurish bo'yicha qo'shma qo'mitasi raisi sifatida qatnashgan bo'lsa -da, u 1865 yilda Endryu Jonsonning impichmentiga qarshi hal qiluvchi ovoz berdi, bu unga katta siyosiy qo'llab -quvvatlashga to'g'ri keldi.

Meyn va fuqarolar urushi

Rahbarlar fuqarolar urushida siyosatdan ko'ra ko'proq ishtirok etishdi. 1861 yil aprelda Fort Sumter bombardimon qilinganidan so'ng, gubernator Isroil Uashbern 10 ta ko'ngilli piyoda polki va uchta polk politsiyasini davlat tomonidan qurollanishga chaqirdi.

Meyn shtatining 10 mingga yaqin ko'ngillilari javob berishdi va bir necha haftalik yangi kiyimlarni burg'ilashganidan so'ng, ular oilalarni, fermer xo'jaliklarini va ish o'rinlarini qoldirib, janubga bug'li kemalarda jo'natishdi.

Dastlabki oylarda Meyn o'z kvotalari loyihasini osonlikcha bajarib, 31 ta polk polkini, uchta otliq va og'ir artilleriyani, shuningdek, artilleriya, otishma va tayinlanmagan piyoda askarlari va 6000 dengizchilarini ta'minladi. Urush paytida Ittifoq armiyasi va dengiz flotida taxminan 73000 ta boshliq xizmat qilgan, bu har qanday shimoliy shtat aholisiga nisbatan eng yuqori ko'rsatkichdir.

Ko'pchilik hurmat bilan xizmat qilgan. Masalan, 7 -piyoda askarlari 1862 yil bahorida Uilyamsburg, Garnett fermasi va Oq emanli botqoqlikdagi yarim orol kampaniyasi paytida jasorat bilan jang qilib, general -mayor Jorj B. Makkellanning e'tirofiga sazovor bo'lishdi va umidsiz jang paytida yana mayor Tomas V. Xayd boshchiligida. Antietam 1862 yil sentyabr oyida Piper va Roulette fermalarida. Birinchi Meyn og'ir artilleriyasi Sankt -Peterburgdagi Konfederatsiya mudofaasiga qilingan hujumda, boshqa federal polklarga qaraganda (10 ta emas, 12 ta kompaniya) ko'proq jangovar yo'qotishlarga duch keldi.

Pivo ishlab chiqaruvchisi Joshua L. Chemberlen Meynning urushdagi rolini eng yaxshi ko'rsatib beradi. Bowdoin kolleji bitiruvchisi va Bowdoinda ritorika va zamonaviy tillar professori bo'lganida, Chemberlen 24 ta yirik jangda qatnashdi, olti marotaba yaralandi va 1864 yilda Peterburgda umidsiz ayblovni oldi.

U Gettsburg jangida Kichik Round Topda 20 -Meyn tomonidan olib borilgan mardlikdagi roli bilan yodda qoladi va u Kongressning "Shon -sharaf" medali bilan taqdirlanadi. Gettysburg urushning muhim jangi bo'lib, general Robert E. Li ning Ittifoq hududiga kirib, Filadelfiya, Baltimor va Vashingtonga tushish rejasini to'xtatdi. U erda g'alaba Shimolda tinchlik tuyg'usini rag'batlantiradi va Buyuk Britaniya va Frantsiyani Konfederatsiyani tan olishga ishontiradi, deb umid qildi.

Uch kun davom etgan jangda 150 mingdan ortiq askar jang qildi, natijada 50 ming kishi halok bo'ldi va Gettisburg Shimoliy Amerikadagi eng yirik jangga aylandi. Birinchi kuni Meyn 2 -artilleriyasi va 16 -piyoda qo'shinlari tomonidan o'tkazilgan harakatlar Lining harakatini kechiktirishga yordam berdi, Ittifoq kuchlari esa o'z pozitsiyalarini topdi.

Ikkinchi kuni Li o'z qo'shinlarini Kichik Dumaloq Topning janubiy yonbag'rida, Chemberlenning 20 -Meyn polki joylashgan yonbag'rida manevrda yubordi. Qo'shinlar Konfederatsiyaning tinimsiz hujumini ushlab turishdi va o'q -dorilari tugab qolganda, Chemberlen o'z hisobiga ko'ra, janubiy qo'shinlar ham xuddi shunday holdan toyganini va o'z zaxiralari tugashiga yaqin qolganini payqadi. Umidsiz qimor o'yinida u nayza zaryadini buyurdi.

20 -chi Alabama piyodalarini mag'lub etdi va Konfederatsiyaning qanotli manevrasini to'xtatdi. Keyinchalik Chemberlen brigada generali lavozimiga ko'tarildi va Appomattoxda Konfederativ Armiya taslim bo'lishini tanladi.

Bull Running birinchi jangida 3 -Meyn polkiga qo'mondonlik qilgan Lidli Oliver Otis Xovard ham shunday taniqli edi, shundan so'ng u ham brigada generali lavozimiga ko'tarildi. Xovard yarim orol kampaniyasida qo'lini yo'qotdi va keyinchalik 2 -chi va keyinroq 11 -korpus general -mayor unvoniga sazovor bo'ldi.

Urushdan so'ng, Xovard sobiq qullarni joylashtirish uchun mas'ul bo'lgan Freedman byurosining komissari bo'ldi va u afroamerikaliklarga ko'rsatma beradigan Govard universitetining asoschisi va birinchi prezidenti bo'ldi.

Urush paytida Meynlik bir nechta ayollar o'zlarini hamshira sifatida ajratib ko'rsatishgan, ularning eng mashhuri Hamdenlik Dorthea Dix, allaqachon qamoqxonalarda va jinnixonalarda islohotlar tarafdori sifatida tanilgan. Diks urush paytida hamshiralarning boshlig'i bo'lib xizmat qilgan.

3 -Meyn polkining hamshirasi Emi Bredli Vashingtondagi Askarlar uyini boshqargan, Meynning boshqa ayollari Sanitariya komissiyasini muvofiqlashtirishda yordam bergan. Ba'zi ayollar o'g'illarini yoki erlarini kuzatib yurishgan va ba'zi hollarda o'zlarini jangda qatnashish uchun yashirishgan.

Meynda ayollar uylari va fermer xo'jaliklarini ushlab turishdi, uyushma ko'ngillilarining muhtoj oilalarini boqishdi va kiyintirishdi. Minglab odamlar Askarlarga Yordam Jamiyatiga qo'shilishdi yoki o'z cherkovlari orqali bandaj, to'shak va kiyim tikish bilan shug'ullanishdi. Masalan, Roklendda har kuni 25-50 ayol ko'ylak, tortma, paypoq, sochiq, choyshab, yostiqsimon shomil, bint va sovun, gubkalar, ziravorlar, makkajo'xori, sharob va jele tayyorlash uchun yig'ilishardi. Boshqalar shaharlarda & quotmen & quot ishlarini olib ketishdi yoki qaytgan yaradorlarni boqish uchun uyda qolishdi.

Uydagi fuqarolar urushi

Uyda urush bulutlarning ko'pchiligida bo'lib o'tdi. 1861 yilda Prezident Linkoln Ittifoq armiyasida xizmat qilish uchun 75 ming erkakni so'radi va 1863 yilda federal hukumat 18 yoshdan 45 yoshgacha bo'lgan barcha erkaklarni mahalliy militsiya bo'linmalariga yozilishga chaqiradigan qonun loyihasini chiqardi.

Qatnashuvchilar davlat lotereyasi orqali tanlangan va bu yukni teng taqsimlash uchun Meynning har bir shahriga kvota berilgan. Urush tugashiga yaqin, shaharlar yigitlarni etkazib berishlari tugagach, o'rinbosarlarni yollash uchun pul yig'ishga majbur bo'ldilar.

As in previous wars, Maine's long coastline left the state vulnerable to depredation by privateers. In June 1863 a Confederate privateer disguised as fishing vessel entered Portland Harbor, captured the Caleb Cushing, and sailed out of Casco Bay before being captured.

The federal government began modernizing fortifications in Portland Harbor, at the mouth of the Kennebec, and at the narrows of the Penobscot River, but these projects were finished only after the war ended.

The war opened cleavages that were difficult to close. For 40 years Maine had prospered on shipping southern slave-raised cotton, and in the process citizens developed strong ties with their southern "neighbors." There was a great deal of southern sympathy in Maine, and issues like abolition, the Fugitive Slave Law, states' rights, and southern succession generated thorny debates that divided Maine politically and religiously.

State Democratic papers highlighted Union military reverses, the draft riots in New York and Boston, and the corruption in the Republican administration. Marcellus Emery, editor of the Bangor Democrat, called for a peace convention after Bull Run, and on August 12, 1861 his press was destroyed by a mob in Bangor.

Passage of the federal draft law triggered riots in several New England cities. Maine saw huge peace demonstrations, including a gathering of about 15,000 in Dexter, and along the border draft dodging was widespread Aroostook County's forests became a thoroughfare for "skedaddelers."

In Warren the provost marshal in charge of the draft was subjected to an "egg attack," and a marshal in Washington County was killed for attempting to arrest a draft resister.

Winter Harbor's male citizens left en masse for Canada. Rebel sympathizers threatened to burn Camden, and in Rockport, a U.S. cutter sailed into Goose River Harbor with its decks cleared and guns stripped for action, causing Rockport's copperheads – anti-war Democrats who wanted an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates – to beat a hasty retreat for Canada.

Portland dentists apparently did a thriving business extracting front teeth, since older cartridges required the soldier to bite them before loading. The city's recruitment encampment was located on Mackworth Island to discourage runaways.

The story of one draft-resister suggests the lengths to which some would go to avoid the draft. A newspaper account noted that:

For those who failed to evade the draft, the war was a heavy financial burden. A soldier's wages at the beginning of the war were $13 a month, while a skilled city worker commanded around $30.

This paltry wage was even more burdensome because prices rose steadily between 1861 and 1865, and local governments increased taxes to pay bounties to fill draft quotas. Thus social and economic wounds added to the physical wounds of war. As the war dragged on, the Democratic party split into war and peace factions, further rupturing a party already split by antislavery and liquor prohibition campaigns.

Republican Ascendancy

Maine emerged from the war, however, reasonably united behind the Lincoln administration. Lingering memories of the war served the party that denounced slavery and preserved the Union, as did continuing links to the veterans' Grand Army of the Republic. The trauma of war thus accelerated a trend toward one-party Republican rule in Maine.

As the ruling party in Maine, Republicans forged strong ties to big business. This, along with a fixation on temperance, currency, and tariffs, benefited the party. Republicans were also successful in balancing the needs of Bangor lumber interests and Portland-Lewiston manufacturers, and it hosted a series of extraordinary political leaders at the national level.

The charismatic James G. Blaine was elected to the House of Representatives in 1863, served as speaker between 1869 and 1875, was appointed Secretary of State in 1881, and became a major contender for the presidency in 1876, 1880, and 1884. He was reappointed secretary of state in 1888 and helped to initiate what became America's Good Neighbor Policy toward Central and South America.

Along with Blaine, Portland's Thomas Brackett Reed, speaker of the House of Representatives between 1889 and 1891 and again after 1896, was one of the most powerful political figures in America. Republican leaders like these gave Maine a national prominence no Democrat could hope to match.

The War Economy and Beyond

The Civil War had a dramatic impact on Maine's maritime activities. By the 1850s Maine enjoyed a virtual monopoly in the cotton carrying trade, and the loss of this business due to Union blockades was a serious blow. Bath shipyards completed an average of 23 vessels yearly between 1850 and 1860, but built only nine in 1861.

Like other northern states, Maine suffered from Confederate raiders. Of the 52 vessels sunk by the Alabama, 11 were from Maine. Federal cutters captured several other Maine vessels as they attempted to run the southern blockade.

At one point the Tallahassee appeared among the fishing fleet off Matinic Rock, gathered the crews into one small craft, and set fire to the rest. Island people feared Rebels would land and burn their homes, and Maine towns that depended on ocean lanes for their connection to the outside world found times hard indeed.

These risks caused insurance rates to soar, and as a result, nearly 300,000 tons of capacity were sold, transferred to foreign registry, or otherwise disposed.

In some ways the war brought prosperity for Maine shippers. While foreign trade declined in other northern states during the war, it tripled in Maine due to intensified commercial links with the Canadian provinces. Portland became the fourth busiest harbor in the country. Benefiting from strong connections in Washington, Portland and Bath received contracts for federal gunboats like the Agawam, Pontoosac, Katahdin, and Iosco and even a monitor, the Wassuc.

Still, the general trend in Maine shipping and shipbuilding was downward, accelerating a long-term national trend that saw the percentage of U.S. imports carried in U.S. ships decline from 91 percent in 1800, to 78 percent in 1850, to 25 percent in 1866, to 15 percent in 1906.

The Civil War vexed the shipping industry with rising prices, tight money, and a general decline in cargo shipping, but in fact it simply hastened a long-term trend already evident by the mid 1850s.

Historians are still debating the impact of the Civil War on America's industrial development, but they seem to agree on one point: nationally, the loss of agricultural labor to the war effort, coupled with high prices for produce, encouraged farm mechanization.

Maine farms were not typical however most were geared to regular seasonal absences as males left for lumber camps, the banks fisheries, or the coasting trade. Those left behind – wives, daughters, older men – were accustomed to taking up slack on the farm, and Army volunteers were typically young, unmarried, and transient, or they were second or third sons thus their leaving had less impact on farm routines than one might expect.

Still, the war added to these seasonal burdens the task of farming in peak summer months, and this extra effort, coupled with the loss of non-family farm-hands, might have turned thoughts to labor-saving devices.

The shift to mechanized farming and specialized commercial crops was a daunting prospect that required large capital outlays and mortgages, closer attention to market conditions, and dealings with distant bankers, commercial agents, and suppliers, all of which went against the conservative Maine mentality, and wartime markets might provided incentive for this leap into the unknown.

In 1863, for example, the Portland Packing Company pioneered the process of canning agricultural produce in hermetically sealed containers, largely to meet the wartime demand for nonperishable food.

Within a decade, "corn factories" were appearing in farm centers throughout upland Maine, helping to lever farmers out of their traditional mixed-husbandry strategies. Starch factories in northern Maine provided similar incentives for expanding potato production.

Broader railroad networks, new manufacturing centers, and summer colonies and large hotels on the coast and inland lakes provided markets for dairy and cheese products, vegetables, poultry, blueberries, apples, hay, garden crops, and potatoes.

Urged on by agricultural journals, farm clubs, the Maine Board of Agriculture, the Maine State College, and the Grange, farmers experimented with new livestock breeds, better seeds, imported nitrate fertilizers, and crop rotations. In Aroostook County, Irish immigrants moving up the St. John River interspersed with Acadian farmers and shifted to potato monoculture when railroads reached across the river from New Brunswick in the 1870s, eventually making Maine potatoes a standard for the nation.

The war years also were critical to Maine's emerging industrial base, as new wartime markets combined with the reversals in shipping to shift capital from merchant activities to manufacturing ventures.

The Portland Company, the city's only heavy manufacturing establishment, expanded during the war into locomotives, stationary and marine engines, steam boilers, casings, large-bore cannon, and iron work in response to government war contracts. The Casco Iron Works built the pilothouse for the Monitor.

Portland emerged from the war with a mixed commercial-industrial economy, and other Maine towns, many employing women and young girls, manufactured gunpowder, oakum, tents, sailcloth, pumps, blocks, capstans, sails, tents, carriages, knapsacks, clothing, saddlery, and artificial limbs. Lime production skyrocketed as the construction of fortifications drove up prices.

Here again, the Civil War seemed to accelerate a process already in play. Nationally, manufacturing trended upward dramatically in the 1840s, dipped during the war years, then turned upward again until the Depression of 1893.

Likewise, Maine cotton goods production increased in 1850 and continued apace until 1893 boot and shoe and woolen and worsted production gained modestly from 1820 through 1860, accelerated during the war, and remained on the same upward trajectory until 1890.

Bangor's lumber output dropped in 1861 by about a third, yet in 1863 Bangor was once again a "live city," and between 1866 and 1873 returns from the Penobscot booms remained higher than any single peak season before the war. War brought momentary distortions in long-term trends that lasted until the 1890s.

The Civil War had a dramatic effect on Maine's population. Between 1860 and 1870 Maine was one of only two states in the nation to experience a net loss in population, New Hampshire being the other. In the rural uplands and along the eastern coast, population loss was dramatic and profoundly discouraging to those who stayed behind.

The usual explanation is that during the war Maine soldiers learned of the vast opportunities in the virgin soils and timber in the Midwest and followed Horace Greeley's advice, but here again out-migration was nothing new to Maine.

Bangor's lumbermen had been eyeing western timber since the 1830s, when advertisements first began appearing in the Bangor Whig and Courier enticing loggers to the western lumber districts, and by the Civil War, Bangor lumberman Samuel F. Hersey already had towns named after him in Michigan and Minnesota.

Certainly the financial burdens of the war, the new sense of mobility, the rising taxes, and the declines in shipping and fishing activity encouraged the New England diaspora, but the loss of Maine men and women to industrializing cities of the Northeast and to the deep soils and lofty forests of the Midwest issued from more basic causes.

Set in motion by the 1816 "Year without a Summer," outmigration was accelerated by completion of the Erie Canal in 1825, the discovery of gold in California in 1848, the opening of the Midwest by railroad development in the 1850s, and most of all, by the gradual liberalization of federal land policy culminating in the Homestead Act of 1862.

The war's impact was indeed extraordinary, in psychological and cultural terms, but its economic and demographic significance is more obscure.

The war is a central feature in the Maine experience as it is in many other parts of the country. It gave Maine a legend in Joshua Chamberlain and Little Round Top, a political culture based on waving the bloody shirt, and a generation of soldier-statesmen who wove the valiant Union cause into the fabric of Maine memory.

Maine was, in a variety of ways, at a crossroads in 1865, and the Civil War was part of a remarkable conjuncture of trends and special events that made this mid-century decade crucial for Maine.

How the bloody battles on southern soil fit into this economic, demographic, and cultural picture is not a simple question.


Tarkibi

After commissioning, USS Wassuc proceeded south touched at Norfolk, Virginia and then sailed back northward to the Washington Navy Yard where she arrived on 4 June. She subsequently moved to the Mine Warfare School at Yorktown, Virginia, on 23 June, where she relieved USS Kormorant  (AM-40) , freeing that minesweeper to begin an overhaul. During her service at Yorktown, Wassuc participated in experimental mine work under the aegis of the Bureau of Ordnance (BuOrd).

Completing that tour in mid-August, Wassuc moved to the Marine Basin at Brooklyn, New York, for extensive alterations that were not completed until after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor had plunged the United States into World War II. Two days after Christmas of 1941, Wassuc departed Tompkinsville, Staten Island, New York, bound for Yorktown, Virginia, to receive mine warfare instruction duties and further work under the auspices of BuOrd.

Wassuc spent the next two years operating in the 5th Naval District, primarily plying the waters of the Chesapeake Bay region and occasionally ranging as far north as the Washington Navy Yard and as far south as Cape Hatteras. She operated principally in BuOrd testing programs at the Naval Mine Warfare Proving Grounds at Solomons Island, Maryland, and at Yorktown, Virginia. She also served two tours of duty as a training ship, providing instruction for officers in the compensation of magnetic compasses. Although her duties appear to have been largely experimental and test-oriented, records indicate that the ship laid a small minefield off Cape Hatteras on 22 May 1942.

By 1944, Wassuc was the only coastal minelayer on the U.S. Navy inventory. The U.S. Army held primary responsibility for defensive coastal minelaying, and submarines and aircraft were proving superbly capable of carrying mine warfare to enemy shores. Shunga qaramay, Wassuc continued her undramatic but vital experimental and test work, far from the limelight of the far-flung battlefronts. She continued her coastwise routine, ranging from Provincetown, Massachusetts, and Cape May, New Jersey, to New York and Norfolk, Virginia, as well as Solomons Island, through the end of World War II.