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O'rtacha odamning yordami

O'rtacha odamning yordami


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Garvard san'at muzeylari / Fogg muzeyi | Bush-Reyzinger muzeyi | Artur M. Sakkler muzeyi

Parfiya shimlari nima bo'lishi mumkin. Boshqa Palmiren dafn marosimlari singari, Maloning portreti o'zining jabhasi bilan ajralib turadi, bu tomoshabinni marhumning tasviri bilan bevosita shug'ullanishga undaydi.

Identifikatsiya va yaratish ob'ekt raqami 1998.3 Sarlavha Odam va bolaning dafn marosimi Haykaltaroshlik ish turi haykaltaroshlik sanasi v. Miloddan avvalgi 150 ta joyni yaratish joyi: Qadimgi va Vizantiya dunyosi, Osiyo, Palmira (Suriya) davri Rim imperatorlik davri, O'rta madaniyat Suriyaning doimiy aloqasi https://hvrd.art/o/291586 3 -darajali manzil, 3710 -xona, Shimoliy Arja

Chop etilgan katalog matni: tosh haykallar: Garvard universiteti san'at muzeylarining yunon, rim va etrusk kollektsiyalari, 1990 yil yozilgan
Kichkina bola yigitning yonida, erkakning o'ng yelkasining chap tomonidagi poydevorda turadi. Erkak sochlarini taralgan holda taraydi, Hadrian davrida Rim imperiyasida mashhur bo'lgan (mil. 125-135). Uning chap qo'lining eng kichik barmog'iga tosh qo'yilgan uzuk bor. Uning kostyumi bo'sh chiton ustidan gimnastikadan iborat, birinchisi - qo'li va chap qo'lidan tashqari, hamma o'ng qo'lini yashirgan, faqat rotulus tutgan qo'ldan boshqa. Bola uzun ko'ylak kiyib, beliga o'ralgan, ikki qo'lini yopib qo'ygan. U chap qo'lida meva yoki gul to'plamini ushlab turadi.

Erkakning o'ng tomonidagi yozuvda "Erkak, Maliku o'g'li, Bag'd o'g'li, afsus!

Bola tashlanmagan va sochlari biroz erta Antonin uslubida yig'ilgan bo'lsa, bu odam kostyum va haykaltaroshlik bilan Boston tasviriy san'at muzeyidagi Moquimu yodgorligiga o'xshaydi. Agar yakka haykaltaroshning qo'llari Palmiren dafn marosimida ajratilgan bo'lsa, xuddi Garver universiteti san'at muzeylarida ham, tasviriy san'at muzeyida ham bir xil o'ymakorning ikkita yodgorligi saqlanib qolgan ko'rinadi (Comstock, Vermeule, 1976, 256 -bet, 399 -son). .

Kornelius Vermeule va Emi Brauer

Gandharan san'ati va uning klassik aloqalari, Fogg san'at muzeyi (Kembrij, MA, 1983), no. 6, illus.

Cornelius C. Vermeule III va Emi Brauer, Tosh haykallari: Garvard universiteti san'at muzeylarining yunon, rim va etrusk kollektsiyalari, Garvard universiteti san'at muzeylari (Kembrij, MA, 1990), p. 165, yo'q. 151

Delbert R. Xillers va Eleonora Cussini, Palmiren oromiy matnlari, Jons Xopkins universiteti matbuoti (Baltimor, 1995), s. 315, PAT 2721

Rim galereyasini o'rnatish (uzoq muddatli), Garvard universiteti san'at muzeylari, Kembrij, 16.09.1999 - 20.01.2008

Rangli xudolar: Klassik antik davrning bo'yalgan haykali, Garvard universiteti san'at muzeylari, Kembrij, 22.09.2007 - 20.01.2008

32Q: 3710 Shimoliy Arja, Garvard san'at muzeylari, 16.11.2014 - 01.01.2050

Ayolning dafn marosimi yordami

Ayol va ikki bolaning dafn marosimi

Bu yozuv kuratorlik xodimlari tomonidan ko'rib chiqilgan, ammo to'liq bo'lmasligi mumkin. Bizning yozuvlarimiz tez -tez ko'rib chiqiladi va yaxshilanadi. Qo'shimcha ma'lumot olish uchun Osiyo va O'rta er dengizi san'ati bo'limiga murojaat qiling [email protected]

Garvard san'at muzeylari hisobini yaratish orqali siz Foydalanish shartlari va Maxfiylik siyosatiga rozilik bildirasiz.


Tarkibi

Cheklangan raqamlar ro'yxatining medianasi "o'rta" raqam bo'lib, bu raqamlar kichikdan kattagacha tartibda sanab o'tilgan.

Agar ma'lumotlar to'plamida toq sonli kuzatuvlar bo'lsa, o'rtasi tanlanadi. Masalan, quyidagi etti raqamli ro'yxat,

medianiga ega 6, bu to'rtinchi qiymat.

Bir qator kuzatuvlar to'plami aniq o'rta qiymatga ega emas va medianani odatda ikkita o'rta qiymatning o'rtacha arifmetik qiymati deb ta'riflashadi. [1] [2] Masalan, ma'lumotlar to'plami

ning o'rtacha qiymatiga ega 4.5, ya'ni (4 + 5) / 2 < displaystyle (4 + 5) / 2>. (Texnik nuqtai nazardan, bu medianni to'liq kesilgan o'rta masofa sifatida talqin qiladi). Ushbu konventsiya yordamida medianani quyidagicha aniqlash mumkin (kuzatuvlar soni uchun):

m e d i a n (x) = x n / 2 + x (n / 2) + 1 2 < displaystyle mathrm (x) = < frac <>+x _ <(n/2) +1 >> <2> >>

Umumiy qiymatlarni solishtirish [1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 7, 9]
Turi Tavsif Misol Natija
O'rtacha arifmetik Ma'lumotlar to'plamining qiymatlari yig'indisi qiymatlar soniga bo'linadi: x ¯ = 1 n ∑ i = 1 n x i < displaystyle scriptstyle < bar > = < frac <1>> sum _^x_> (1 + 2 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 7 + 9) / 7 4
O'rtacha Ma'lumotlar to'plamining katta va kichik yarmini ajratuvchi o'rta qiymat 1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 7, 9 3
Rejim Ma'lumotlar to'plamidagi eng keng tarqalgan qiymat 1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 7, 9 2

Rasmiy ta'rif Tahrirlash

Rasmiy ravishda, aholining o'rtacha medianasi - bu aholining yarmidan ko'pi taklif qilingan medianadan kamroq, ko'pi esa yarmidan ko'p bo'lgan qiymatdir. Yuqorida ko'rib turganimizdek, medianlar yagona bo'lmasligi mumkin. Agar har bir to'plamda aholining yarmidan kamrog'i bo'lsa, demak, aholining bir qismi o'ziga xos medianaga teng.

Mediya har qanday tartiblangan (bir o'lchovli) ma'lumotlar uchun yaxshi aniqlangan va har qanday masofa metrikasidan mustaqil. Shunday qilib, mediani raqamli emas, balki sinflarga ham qo'llash mumkin (masalan, o'quvchilar A dan Fgacha baholanganda o'rtacha bahoni ishlab chiqish), garchi natijalar bir xil bo'lsa, natijalar sinflar o'rtasida bo'lishi mumkin.

Boshqa tomondan, geometrik median har qanday o'lchamda aniqlanadi. Tegishli kontseptsiya, unda natija namuna a'zosiga mos kelishga majbur bo'ladi, bu medoid.

Median uchun keng tarqalgan standart belgi yo'q, lekin ba'zi mualliflar o'zgaruvchining medianini ifodalaydi x yoki kabi yoki kabi m1/2 [1] ba'zida M. [3] [4] Bu holatlarning birortasida, median uchun bu yoki boshqa belgilarning qo'llanilishi ular kiritilganda aniq belgilanishi kerak.

Tahrirdan foydalanadi

Medianni haddan tashqari qiymatlarga ahamiyat berilmaganda joylashuv o'lchovi sifatida ishlatish mumkin, chunki, odatda, taqsimot chayqalganligi, haddan tashqari qiymatlar noma'lum yoki tashqi ko'rsatkichlar ishonchsiz, ya'ni o'lchash/transkripsiya xatolari bo'lishi mumkin.

Bu holatda median 2 ga teng (bu rejim kabi) va bu markazning 4-arifmetik o'rtacha qiymatidan yaxshiroq ko'rsatkichi sifatida qaralishi mumkin, bu qiymatlarning hammasidan kattaroqdir. Biroq, o'rtacha keltirilgan taqsimotning o'rtacha "quyruqqa" siljishi haqidagi keng tarqalgan empirik munosabatlar umuman to'g'ri emas. Hech bo'lmaganda, aytish mumkinki, ikkita statistikani bir -biridan "juda uzoq" ajratish mumkin emas, quyida § tenglik bilan bog'liq vositalar va medianalarga tegishli qarang. [5]

Mediana to'plamdagi o'rta ma'lumotlarga asoslanganligi sababli, uni hisoblash uchun ekstremal natijalarning qiymatini bilish shart emas. Masalan, muammoni hal qilish uchun zarur bo'lgan vaqtni o'rganadigan psixologiya testida, agar oz sonli odamlar muammoni hal qila olmagan bo'lsa, medianani hisoblash mumkin. [6]

Medianani tushunish oson va hisoblash oson bo'lgani uchun, o'rtacha ko'rsatkichga yaqinlik o'rtacha, tavsiflovchi statistikada ommabop qisqacha statistikadir. Shu nuqtai nazardan, o'zgaruvchanlik o'lchovi uchun bir nechta tanlov mavjud: diapazon, kvartalararo diapazon, o'rtacha mutlaq og'ish va o'rtacha mutlaq og'ish.

Amaliy maqsadlar uchun joylashuv va dispersiyaning turli o'lchovlari ma'lumotlarning namunasi bo'yicha tegishli populyatsion qiymatlarni qanchalik yaxshi baholash mumkinligi asosida taqqoslanadi. Namuna medianasi yordamida taxmin qilingan median bu borada yaxshi xususiyatlarga ega. Agar ma'lum bir aholi taqsimoti nazarda tutilsa, bu odatda maqbul bo'lmasa -da, uning xususiyatlari har doim o'rtacha darajada yaxshi. Misol uchun, nomzodlar hisoblagichlarining samaradorligini taqqoslash shuni ko'rsatadiki, tanlangan o'rtacha ko'rsatkichlar statistik jihatdan samaraliroq bo'ladi, va faqat qachonki, ma'lumotlar quyuq taqsimot yoki tarqatish aralashmalari ma'lumotlari bilan ifloslanmagan bo'lsa. [ iqtibos kerak ] Shunda ham mediananing minimal dispersiyali o'rtacha ko'rsatkichiga nisbatan 64% samaradorligi bor (katta oddiy namunalar uchun), ya'ni medianing dispersiyasi bo'ladi.

O'rtacha dispersiyadan 50% ko'proq. [7] [8]

Kümülatif taqsimlash funktsiyasi bilan har qanday haqiqiy baholangan ehtimollik taqsimoti uchun F, median har qanday haqiqiy son sifatida aniqlanadi m bu tengsizliklarni qondiradi

Ekvivalent iboralar tasodifiy o'zgaruvchidan foydalanadi X ga muvofiq taqsimlanadi F:

E'tibor bering, bu ta'rif talab qilinmaydi X mutlaqo uzluksiz taqsimotga ega bo'lish (ehtimollik zichligi funktsiyasiga ega) y), yoki alohida talab qilinmaydi. Birinchi holda, tengsizliklar tenglikka ko'tarilishi mumkin: o'rtacha qondiradi

Har qanday ehtimollik taqsimoti yoqilgan R kamida bitta medianaga ega, lekin patologik holatlarda bir nechta median bo'lishi mumkin: agar F intervalda 1/2 doimiydir (shuning uchun y= 0 bo'lsa), u holda bu intervalning har qanday qiymati median bo'ladi.

Maxsus tarqatish vositalarini tahrirlash

Ayrim turdagi taqsimotlarning medianalarini o'z parametrlari bo'yicha osonlikcha hisoblash mumkin, ular hatto ba'zi aniq taqsimotlar uchun ham mavjud, masalan, Koshi taqsimoti:

  • Simmetrik unimodal taqsimot medianasi rejimga to'g'ri keladi.
  • O'rtacha qiymatga ega bo'lgan nosimmetrik taqsimot medianasi m qiymatini ham oladi m.
    • O'rtacha o'rtacha taqsimot medianasi m va dispersiya y 2 - m. Aslida, normal taqsimot uchun o'rtacha = median = tartib.
    • [Intervalida bir xil taqsimlanish medianasi]a, b] bu (a + b) / 2, bu ham o'rtacha.

    Optimallik xususiyatini tahrirlash

    The mutlaq xato degani haqiqiy o'zgaruvchidan v tasodifiy o'zgaruvchiga nisbatan X hisoblanadi

    Agar ehtimollik taqsimoti bo'lsa X Shunday qilib, yuqoridagi kutish mavjud m ning medianasi hisoblanadi X agar va faqat bo'lsa m ga nisbatan o'rtacha mutlaq xatolikni minimallashtiruvchi hisoblanadi X. [11] Xususan, m agar va faqat bo'lsa, namunaviy medianadir m absolyut og'ishlarning arifmetik o'rtacha qiymatini kamaytiradi. [12]

    Umuman olganda, median minimal sifatida belgilanadi

    quyida ko'p o'zgaruvchan medianalar bo'limida muhokama qilinganidek (xususan, fazoviy median).

    Bu optimallashtirishga asoslangan median ta'rifi statistik ma'lumotlarni tahlil qilishda foydalidir, masalan k-vositachilar klasteri.

    Vositalar va medianalar bilan bog'liq tengsizlik Tartibga solish

    Agar taqsimot chekli dispersiyaga ega bo'lsa, u holda X medianasi orasidagi masofa

    Bu chegarani Mallows [13] isbotladi, u Jensen tengsizligini ikki marta quyidagi tarzda ishlatgan. | · | Dan foydalanish mutlaq qiymat uchun bizda bor

    Birinchi va uchinchi tengsizliklar Jensen tengsizligidan kelib chiqadi, ularning har biri konveks bo'lgan mutlaq qiymatli funktsiya va kvadrat funktsiyasiga qo'llaniladi. Ikkinchi tengsizlik, mediananing mutlaq burilish funktsiyasini a ↦ E ⁡ (| X - a |) < displaystyle a mapsto operatorname (| X-a |)>.

    Mallowsning isboti, mutlaq qiymatni me'yor bilan almashtirish orqali tengsizlikning ko'p o'zgaruvchan versiyasini olish uchun umumlashtirilishi mumkin [14].

    Muqobil dalil Chebishevning bir tomonlama tengsizligidan foydalanadi, u joylashuv va o'lchov parametrlari bo'yicha tengsizlikda ko'rinadi. Bu formula ham to'g'ridan -to'g'ri Kantellining tengsizligidan kelib chiqadi. [17]

    Unimodal tarqatish Tahrirlash

    Bir xil bo'lmagan taqsimotda, o'rtacha va o'rtacha o'rtasidagi masofani aniqroq aniqlash mumkin:

    O'rtacha va rejim o'rtasida ham shunday munosabatlar mavjud:

    Jensen tengsizligi shuni ko'rsatadiki, har qanday tasodifiy o'zgaruvchi uchun X cheksiz umid bilan E.[X] va har qanday qavariq funksiya uchun f

    Bu tengsizlik medianani ham umumlashtiradi. Biz f funktsiyasini aytamiz: ℝ → ℝ a C funktsiyasi agar, har qanday uchun t,

    yopiq interval (bitta nuqta yoki bo'sh to'plamning degenerativ holatlariga ruxsat berish). Har bir C funktsiyasi konveks, lekin teskari tutilmaydi. Agar f u holda C funktsiyasi

    Agar medianalar yagona bo'lmasa, bayonot tegishli suprema uchun amal qiladi. [19]

    O'rtacha tahrirlash namunasi

    O'rtacha tahrir namunasini samarali hisoblash

    Taqqoslash-saralash bo'lsa ham n elementlar talab qilinadi Ω (n jurnali n) operatsiyalar, tanlash algoritmlari n ta elementning k-eng kichigini faqat Θ (n) operatsiyalar. Bu medianni o'z ichiga oladi, ya'ni n / 2 -chi tartib statistikasi (yoki juft sonli misollar uchun ikkita o'rta tartibli statistikaning o'rtacha arifmetik ko'rsatkichi). [20]

    Tanlov algoritmlari hali ham Ω talab qiladigan salbiy tomonga ega.n) xotira, ya'ni xotirada to'liq namuna (yoki uning chiziqli o'lchamli qismi) bo'lishi kerak. Vaqtning chiziqli talabi singari, bu ham taqiqlovchi bo'lishi mumkinligi sababli, medianani baholashning bir necha protseduralari ishlab chiqilgan. Oddiy-bu uchta elementdan iborat namunaning medianasi deb baholanadigan uchta qoidaning medianasi, u tez-tez saralash algoritmida subroutine sifatida ishlatiladi, bunda uning kiritish medianasi baholanadi. Eng ishonchli baholovchi - Tukeyniki to'qqizinchi, bu cheklangan rekursiya bilan qo'llaniladigan uchta qoidaning medianasi: [21] agar A - bu massiv sifatida joylashtirilgan namuna va

    The davolovchi namuna ustidan bitta o'tishda ishlaydigan, chiziqli vaqtni talab qiladigan, lekin sub-chiziqli xotirani talab qiladigan median uchun taxminchi. [22]

    Namuna taqsimoti Tahrirlash

    Namuna o'rtacha va namunaviy mediananing taqsimoti Laplas tomonidan aniqlandi. [23] f (x) < displaystyle f (x)> zichlik funktsiyasiga ega populyatsiyadan namunaviy mediananing taqsimlanishi o'rtacha m < displaystyle m> va dispersiyasi [24] bilan asimptotik normaldir.

    Asimptotik taqsimotning chiqarilishi Tartibga solish

    Demak, mediananing zichlik funktsiyasi F < displaystyle F> tomonidan ilgari surilgan nosimmetrik beta taqsimotidir. O'rtacha, biz kutgandek, 0,5 ga teng va uning dispersiyasi 1 / (4 (N + 2)) < displaystyle 1 / (4 (N + 2))>. Zanjir qoidasiga ko'ra, namunaviy mediananing mos keladigan dispersiyasi

    Qo'shimcha 2 chegarada ahamiyatsiz.

    Empirik mahalliy zichlik Tartibga solish

    v 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
    f (v) 0.000 0.008 0.010 0.013 0.083 0.108 0.328 0.220 0.202 0.023 0.005
    F (v) 0.000 0.008 0.018 0.031 0.114 0.222 0.550 0.770 0.972 0.995 1.000

    Kuzatuvlar alohida-alohida baholanganligi sababli, mediananing aniq taqsimotini tuzish, yuqoridagi ifodaning Pr (Median = v) < displaystyle Pr ( operatorname = v)> kimdir (va odatda) namunadagi mediananing bir nechta misollari bo'lishi mumkin. Shunday qilib, biz ushbu imkoniyatlarning barchasini yig'ishimiz kerak:

    Bu yerda, i nuqta soni medianadan keskin kam k soni ancha katta.

    Ushbu dastlabki tayyorgarliklardan foydalanib, namuna kattaligining o'rtacha va mediananing standart xatolariga ta'sirini o'rganish mumkin. Kuzatilgan o'rtacha 3.16, kuzatilgan xom medianasi 3 va kuzatilgan interpolatsiyalangan medianasi 3.174. Quyidagi jadvalda taqqoslash statistikasi keltirilgan.

    Kutilayotganidek, mediananing kutilayotgan qiymati namuna kattaligi oshgani sari biroz pasayadi, kutilganidek, mediananing ham, o'rtacha ham xatolar namunaviy o'lchamning teskari kvadrat ildiziga mutanosibdir. Asimptotik yaqinlashuv standart xatoni yuqori baholab, ehtiyotkorlik bilan xato qiladi.

    Namunaviy ma'lumotlardan dispersiyani baholash Tahrirlash

    (2 f (x))-2 < displaystyle (2f (x))^<-2>>-n-1 2 ning asimptotik qiymati (p-m) < displaystyle n^<-< frac <1> <2> >> ( nu -m)> bu erda ν < displaystyle nu> populyatsiya medianasi -bir nechta mualliflar tomonidan o'rganilgan. Jekknife standart "bitta o'chirish" usuli mos kelmaydigan natijalarni beradi. [25] Muqobil variant - "o'chirish k" usuli - bu erda k < displaystyle k> namuna kattaligiga qarab o'sadi, asimptotik jihatdan izchil ekanligi ko'rsatilgan. [26] Bu usul katta ma'lumotlar to'plamlari uchun hisob -kitob uchun qimmat bo'lishi mumkin. Ma'lumki, yuklash chizig'ining izchilligi [27], lekin juda sekin birlashadi (n-1 4 < displaystyle n^<-< frac <1> <4> >>> tartibi). [28] Boshqa usullar taklif qilingan, lekin ularning xatti -harakatlari katta va kichik namunalarda farq qilishi mumkin. [29]

    Samaradorlikni tahrirlash

    O'rtacha dispersiyaning medianlik dispersiyasiga nisbati sifatida o'lchanadigan namunaviy mediananing samaradorligi namuna kattaligiga va aholining asosiy taqsimlanishiga bog'liq. Oddiy taqsimotdan N = 2 n + 1 < displaystyle N = 2n + 1> namunasi uchun katta N uchun samaradorlik:

    Boshqa baholovchilar Tahrirlash

    Bir xil bo'lmagan tarqatish uchun nosimmetrik taxminan bitta median, Xodjes -Leman baholovchi - aholi medianasining mustahkam va yuqori samarali baholovchisi. [31]

    Agar ma'lumotlar ehtimollik taqsimotining ma'lum bir oilasini ko'rsatuvchi statistik model bilan ifodalangan bo'lsa, unda mediananing taxminiy bahosini, ehtimollik taqsimoti oilasini ma'lumotlarga moslashtirish va taqsimlanishning nazariy medianasini hisoblash orqali olish mumkin. [ iqtibos kerak ] Pareto interpolatsiyasi - bu populyatsiya Pareto taqsimotiga ega deb hisoblansa, buni qo'llash.

    Ilgari, ushbu maqolada, bitta o'lchovli namuna yoki populyatsiya bo'lgan bir xil bo'lmagan median muhokama qilingan. Agar o'lchov ikki yoki undan yuqori bo'lsa, bir xil bo'lmagan mediananing ta'rifini kengaytiradigan bir nechta tushunchalar mavjud, har bir bunday o'zgaruvchan mediananing o'lchami aynan bitta bo'lganida bir xil bo'lmagan medianaga mos keladi. [31] [32] [33] [34]

    Marginal median tahrirlash

    Chegaraviy medianalar koordinatalar turkumiga nisbatan aniqlangan vektorlar uchun aniqlanadi. Marginal mediana komponentlari bir xil bo'lmagan median bo'lgan vektor deb ta'riflanadi. Chegaraviy medianani hisoblash oson va uning xossalarini Puri va Sen o'rgangan [31] [35].

    Geometrik medianni tahrirlash

    Diskret nuqta to'plamining geometrik medianasi x 1,… x N < displaystyle x_ <1>, ldots x_> Evklid fazosida - [a] nuqta, tanlangan nuqtalarga masofalar yig'indisini kamaytiradi.

    Marginal medianadan farqli o'laroq, geometrik mediana evklidning o'xshashlik o'zgarishlariga, masalan, tarjimalar va aylanishlar bilan tengdir.

    Markaz nuqtasini tahrirlash

    Mediananing yuqori o'lchamdagi alternativ umumlashmasi - markaziy nuqta.

    Interpolatsiyalangan median tahrirlash

    Psevdo-median tahrirlash

    Bir xil bo'lmagan tarqatish uchun nosimmetrik taxminan bitta mediana, Xodjes-Leman baholovchi-nosimmetrik taqsimot uchun aholi o'rtacha medianining mustahkam va yuqori samarali baholovchisi, Xodjes-Leman baholovchi-aholining mustahkam va yuqori samarali baholovchisi. psevdo-median, bu nosimmetrik taqsimot medianasi va aholi medianasiga yaqin. [37] Xodjes -Lehmann baholovchi ko'p o'zgaruvchan taqsimot uchun umumlashtirilgan. [38]

    Regressiya variantlari Tahrirlash

    Theil -Sen bashoratchisi - qiyalik medianalarini topishga asoslangan mustahkam chiziqli regressiya usuli. [39]

    O'rtacha filtrni tahrirlash

    Monoxromli rastrli tasvirlarni qayta ishlash kontekstida har bir piksel mustaqil ravishda qora (kichik ehtimollik bilan) yoki oq (kichik ehtimollik bilan) bo'lib, tuz va qalampir shovqini deb nomlanuvchi shovqin turi mavjud, aks holda o'zgarmaydi. (ehtimollik 1 ga yaqin). Mahallalarning o'rtacha qiymatlari (3 × 3 kvadrat kabi) tasviri bu holda shovqinni samarali kamaytirishi mumkin. [ iqtibos kerak ]

    Klaster tahlili Tahrirlash

    Klaster tahlilida k-medianlar klasterlash algoritmi klasterlarni aniqlash usulini beradi, bunda k-vositachilar klasterlashda ishlatiladigan klaster-vositalar orasidagi masofani maksimal darajaga ko'tarish mezoni klaster-medianlar orasidagi masofani maksimallashtirish bilan almashtiriladi.

    Median -median chizig'i Tartibga solish

    1942 yilda Nair va Shrivastava shunga o'xshash fikrni taklif qilishdi, lekin buning o'rniga, namunalar vositalarini hisoblashdan oldin, namunani uchta teng qismga bo'lishni yoqladilar. [41] 1951 yilda Braun va Mood ikkita namunaning medianlarini emas, balki vositalarini ishlatish g'oyasini ilgari surdilar. [42] Tukey bu g'oyalarni birlashtirdi va namunani uchta teng o'lchamli pastki namunalarga bo'lishni va pastki namunalarning medianalariga asoslanib chiziqni baholashni tavsiya qildi. [43]

    Har qanday anglatadi-xolis baholovchi, Gauss kuzatganidek, kvadrat xato xato funktsiyasiga nisbatan xavfni (kutilayotgan yo'qotish) minimallashtiradi. A o'rtacha-xolis baholovchi Laplas kuzatganidek, absolyut og'ish yo'qotish funktsiyasi bilan bog'liq xavfni minimallashtiradi. Boshqa yo'qotish funktsiyalari statistik nazariyada, xususan, mustahkam statistikada qo'llaniladi.

    Median xolis baholovchilar nazariyasi 1947 yilda Jorj Braun tomonidan qayta tiklandi: [44]

    Agar bir o'lchovli θ parametrining bahosi, agar aniq θ uchun, smeta taqsimotining medianasi the qiymatiga to'g'ri kelsa, o'rtacha baholanmagan bo'ladi, deyiladi, ya'ni bashorat tez-tez ortiqcha baholaganda. Bu talab ko'p maqsadlar uchun xolis talabni bajarishga o'xshaydi va qo'shimcha xususiyatga ega bo'lib, u birma-bir o'zgarish ostida o'zgarmaydi.

    O'rtacha xolis baholovchilarning boshqa xususiyatlari haqida xabar berilgan. [45] [46] [47] [48] O'rtacha xolis baholovchilar birma-bir o'zgarish ostida o'zgarmasdir.

    O'rtacha xolis baholovchilarni tuzish usullari mavjud, ular maqbul (o'rtacha xolis baholovchilar uchun minimal o'zgaruvchanlik xususiyatiga o'xshash). Bunday konstruktsiyalar monoton ehtimollik funktsiyalari bo'lgan ehtimollik taqsimoti uchun mavjud. [49] [50] Bunday protseduralardan biri o'rtacha xolis baholovchilar uchun Rao-Blekuell protsedurasining analogidir: Protsedura Rao-Blekvell protsedurasiga qaraganda, ehtimollik taqsimotining kichikroq sinfiga, lekin katta darajadagi yo'qotish funktsiyalariga tegishli. [51]

    Qadimgi yaqin sharqdagi ilmiy tadqiqotchilar umuman statistikani ishlatmaganlar, balki turli hodisalarni birlashtirgan kengroq nazariya bilan maksimal muvofiqlikni ta'minlaydigan qiymatlarni tanlaganlar. [52] O'rta er dengizi (va keyinroq, Evropa) ilmiy jamoasida o'rtacha statistik ma'lumotlar asosan o'rta asr va erta zamonaviy rivojlanishdir. (Evropadan tashqaridagi mediananing tarixi va uning o'tmishdoshlari tarixi hali o'rganilmagan.)

    Median g'oyasi 13 -asrda turli baholarni adolatli tahlil qilish uchun Talmudda paydo bo'lgan. [53] [54] Biroq, bu tushuncha keng ilmiy jamoatchilikka tarqalmadi.

    Buning o'rniga, zamonaviy medianing eng yaqin ajdodi Al-Biruniy tomonidan ixtiro qilingan o'rta masofadir. [55]: 31 [56] Al-Beruniy asarining keyingi olimlarga etkazilishi aniq emas. Al-Biruniy o'z usulini metallarni sinashda qo'lladi, lekin u o'z asarini e'lon qilgandan so'ng, ko'pchilik tahlilchilar, o'zlarini aldashga urinmasliklari uchun, o'z natijalaridan eng yoqimsiz qiymatni qabul qilishdi. [55]: 35–8 Biroq, kashfiyot davrida dengizda navigatsiyaning ko'payishi, kema navigatorlari noqulay ob -havo sharoitida dushman qirg'oqlariga qarshi kenglikni aniqlashga harakat qilishiga to'g'ri keldi, bu esa umumiy statistik ma'lumotlarga bo'lgan qiziqishni kuchaytirdi. Qayta kashf etilgan yoki mustaqil ravishda ixtiro qilingan bo'lsada, o'rta masofani Harriotning "Raleining Gvianaga sayohati uchun ko'rsatmalar, 1595" dagi dengiz navigatorlariga tavsiya etiladi. [55]: 45-8

    Median g'oyasi birinchi marta Edvard Raytning 1599 yilgi kitobida paydo bo'lgan bo'lishi mumkin Navigatsiyada Certain xatolar kompas navigatsiyasi haqidagi bo'limda. Rayt o'lchangan qiymatlarni rad etishni xohlamadi va ehtimol, ma'lumotlarning katta qismini o'rta masofaga qaraganda ko'proq to'g'ri deb hisoblagan bo'lishi mumkin. Biroq, Rayt o'z texnikasini ishlatishga misollar keltirmadi, shuning uchun u zamonaviy median tushunchasini tasvirlab berganini tekshirish qiyin. [52] [56] [b] Mediana (ehtimollik nuqtai nazaridan), albatta, Kristian Gyuygensning yozishmalarida paydo bo'lgan, lekin aktuar amaliyoti uchun mos bo'lmagan statistikaga misol sifatida. [52]

    Medianning birinchi tavsiyanomasi 1757 yilga to'g'ri keladi, o'shanda Rojer Jozef Boskovich regressiya usulini ishlab chiqqan. L 1 me'yor va shuning uchun medianada bevosita. [52] [57] 1774 yilda Laplas bu istakni aniq ko'rsatdi: u medianani PDF formatidagi PDF qiymatini standart baholovchi sifatida ishlatishni taklif qildi. Maxsus mezon xatoning kutilayotgan kattaligini minimallashtirish edi | a - alfa | < displaystyle | alpha - alpha ^<*> |> bu erda a ∗ < displaystyle alpha ^<*>> -bu taxmin va a < displaystyle alpha> -haqiqiy qiymat. Shu maqsadda Laplas 1800 -yillarning boshlarida o'rtacha o'rtacha va namunaviy mediananing taqsimlanishini aniqladi. [23] [58] Biroq, o'n yil o'tgach, Gauss va Legendre (a -a ∗) 2 < displaystyle ( alpha - alfa ^<*>) ^<2>> ni kamaytiradigan eng kichik kvadratlar usulini ishlab chiqdilar. o'rtacha qiymatni olish. Regressiya sharoitida Gauss va Legendre yangiliklari hisoblashni ancha osonlashtiradi. Shunday qilib, Laplacesning taklifi 150 yil o'tgach, hisoblash qurilmalari paydo bo'lgunga qadar rad etildi (va bu hali ham kam uchraydigan algoritm). [59]

    1843 yilda Antuan Avgustin Kurtot bu atamani birinchi bo'lib ishlatgan [60] o'rtacha (valeur médiane) ehtimollik taqsimotini ikkita teng yarmiga bo'ladigan qiymat uchun. Gustav Teodor Fechner medianni ishlatgan (Markaziy) sotsiologik va psixologik hodisalarda. [61] Ilgari u faqat astronomiya va tegishli sohalarda ishlatilgan. Gustav Fexner ma'lumotni rasmiy tahlil qilishda mediani ommalashtirdi, garchi u ilgari Laplas tomonidan ishlatilgan bo'lsa [61] va median F.Y. Edgeworthning darsligida paydo bo'lgan. [62] Frensis Galton inglizcha atamani ishlatgan o'rtacha 1881 yilda, [63] [64] ilgari atamalarni ishlatgan o'rtacha qiymat 1869 yilda va o'rta 1880 yilda. [65] [66]

    Statistiklar 19 -asr mobaynida intuitiv ravshanlik va qo'lda hisoblash qulayligi uchun medianlardan foydalanishni rag'batlantirdilar. Biroq, median tushunchasi o'rtacha momentlar arifmetikasi kabi yuqori momentlar nazariyasiga to'g'ri kelmaydi va uni kompyuter bilan hisoblash ancha qiyin. Natijada, 20 -asrda o'rtacha o'rtacha arifmetik o'rtacha tomonidan o'rtacha o'rtacha tushunchasi o'rnini bosdi. [52] [56]


    Garri Xopkins va Buyuk Depressiya davrida ishdan bo'shatish

    Garri Xopkins va 1930 yillar davomida Buyuk Depressiya natijasida vujudga kelgan iqtisodiy vayronagarchiliklarni bartaraf etish uchun mo'ljallangan yangi shartnoma va ish o'rinlari dasturlari vaqtinchalik favqulodda yordam boshqarmasi (TERA), federal favqulodda yordam boshqarmasi (FERA), qurilish ishlari boshqarmasi. (CWA) va Ishlarni bajarish ma'muriyati (WPA). Ushbu dasturlarda Xopkins ijtimoiy ishchi sifatida ishlab chiqqan siyosati aks etgan.

    Garri Xopkins (1890-1946) Ayova shtati Grinnell shahridagi Grinnell kollejini tugatgandan so'ng, ijtimoiy ish dunyosiga kirdi. U birinchi karerasini ko'p qismini Manxettenda o'tkazdi, dastlab turar -joy ishchisi (Kristodora turar -joy binosidagi muqaddas va dunyoviy bo'limiga o'ting), keyin esa kambag'allarning ahvolini yaxshilash Nyu -York uyushmasiga "do'stona tashrif buyuruvchi" sifatida ( AICP). Birinchi jahon urushi boshlanganda, u Amerika Qizil Xoch jamoasiga qo'shildi va Nyu -Orlean va Atlantadagi ko'rfaz bo'limi direktori sifatida ishladi. U 1921 yilda Nyu -Yorkka qaytib keldi va Nyu -York Sil kasalligi assotsiatsiyasining direktori sifatida ijtimoiy e'tirof etilgan ijtimoiy ish boshqaruvchisi bo'ldi.

    Buyuk Depressiyaning dastlabki yillarida Xopkins Nyu -York gubernatori Franklin Ruzvelt tomonidan vaqtincha favqulodda yordam boshqarmasi (TERA) boshlig'i va shtat bo'ylab ishsizlarga to'g'ridan -to'g'ri yordam berish va ishdan bo'shatish uchun tayinlangan. 1931 yilda Nyu -York shtati qonun chiqaruvchi organi buning uchun yigirma million dollar ajratdi. TERA boshlig'i sifatida Xopkins shtatning iqtisodiy muammolarini hal qilish uchun to'liq hukumat ishlariga sodiq edi. U bu ishlar foydali loyihalar bilan chegaralanishi va xususiy sanoat bilan raqobatlashmasligini talab qildi. Mablag 'cheklanganligi sababli, TERA ishiga nomzodlar ehtiyojni aniqlaydigan test sinovlaridan o'tishlari kerak edi. Biroq, ko'rsatmalar irqi, dini yoki siyosati bo'yicha kamsitishni aniq taqiqlab qo'ydi. TERA yangiliklari ishsizlar xayriya qilishni xohlamasligini anglash edi. Ular ish topmoqchi edilar va Xopkins bu ishlarni ta'minlash shtat hukumati zimmasida deb hisoblardi. Xopkins Albani shahrida bo'lgan yillarida iqtisodiy favqulodda vaziyatlarda hukumat yordamini ko'rsatadigan innovatsion dasturni o'rnatdi.

    Yangi ochilgan prezident Ruzvelt iqtisodiy inqiroz bilan kurashish uchun o'zining yangi bitimini boshlaganidan ikki oy o'tgach, 1933 yil may oyida Xopkins Vashingtonga TERA modelida tuzilgan federal yordam dasturini (FERA) boshqarishga keldi. . Yangi sotuvchi Xopkinsning fikricha, agar xususiy sanoat mavjud ishchi kuchini o'zlashtira olmasa, ish bilan ta'minlash hukumatning burchidir. Agar mahalliy hukumatlar bunday ish bilan ta'minlay olmagan bo'lsa, federal hukumat ham ishga kirishi kerak edi. Shuningdek, u ish bilan ta'minlash orqali ishsizlikni kamaytirish bo'yicha milliy majburiyat ishsizlarga nisbatan jamoatchilikning salbiy munosabatini engishga yordam beradi deb ishongan. doimiy pastki sinf. Xopkins, rekonstruktsiya moliya korporatsiyasi binosidagi koridorda, vaqtincha ish stolida o'tirgan holda, oxir -oqibat o'n besh million odamni ish bilan ta'minlaydigan, shuningdek, ishlay olmaydiganlar uchun yangi va eng munosib yordam standartlarini o'rnatadigan dasturni ishlab chiqa boshladi.

    FERA shtatlarga mos ravishda mablag 'ajratdi: shtat yig'ishi mumkin bo'lgan har uch dollar uchun bitta federal dollar. Oilada faqat bir kishi FERA yordamidan foydalanish huquqiga ega edi va ijtimoiy xodim oilaning moliyaviy ehtiyojini aniqlashi kerak edi. FERAning asosiy vazifalari ishsizlar uchun etarli darajada yordam berish va foydali ish qilish edi. To'g'ridan -to'g'ri yordam (naqd to'lovlar yoki "dole") juda muhtoj bo'lganlarga berildi, ammo ishsiz ishchilarga mehnat qadr -qimmatini berish uchun ishdan bo'shatish, ya'ni davlat to'lovlari evaziga yordam to'lash boshlandi. ish haqi oz bo'lsa ham. Bu ish loyihalari xususiy sanoat bilan raqobatlasha olmaydi, chunki bu Amerika biznesi uchun iqtisodiy tiklanish maqsadini buzadi. To'g'ridan -to'g'ri yengillikka bo'lgan haqiqiy ehtiyoj shuni ko'rsatdiki, amerikaliklarning o'n foizi yalang'och yashash darajasiga tushib qolgan va faqat xalq yordami yoki "dole" orqali tirik qolgan. Xopkins buning zarurligini tan oldi. Lekin u bu odamning qadr -qimmati uchun nima qilishini bilardi. U ishga muhtoj bo'lganlarni yordam varaqlaridan olib tashlab, ularni davlat ishlariga joylashtirmoqchi edi. “Bir odamga dole bering, shunda siz uning jasadini qutqarib, ruhini yo'q qilasiz. "Unga ish bering va unga kafolatlangan maosh to'lang, shunda siz tanani ham, ruhni ham qutqarasiz. ”" Dole, albatta, arzonroq edi, lekin Xopkins uchun bu o'zini hurmat qilish va mag'rurlik uchun juda qimmatga tushdi.

    Xopkins baxtli emas edi, lekin cheklangan mablag 'uni FERA doirasida ish bilan bog'liq yordamni boshqarishga majbur qildi. U kamsituvchi vositalarni sinovdan o'tkazishga majbur bo'ldi. Ishning tabiati ko'plab ayollarni dasturdan chiqarib tashladi. FERA ’s ishini yengillashtirish dasturi etarli odamlarni ishga joylashtirmadi. Xarid qilish qobiliyati mamlakat iqtisodiyotini ko'tarish uchun etarli darajada oshmagan edi. Xopkins, prezidentni favqulodda favqulodda vaziyatlar dasturini qo'llab -quvvatlashga ishontirish uchun hozirda uning o'q -dorilari etarli ekanligini his qildi.The New York Times tahririyati, 1939 yil 22 aprel

    1933 yil 9 -noyabrda Prezident Ruzvelt qurilish ishlari bo'yicha eksperimental ma'muriyatni (CWA) yaratdi va uni Garri Xopkins boshchiligida joylashtirdi. To'rt oy ichida malakali va malakasiz to'rt million ishsiz amerikalik ishga joylashtirildi. Ishchilarning yarmi yordam varaqlaridan, qolgan yarmi esa yordam so'rab mag'rur bo'lgan ishsizlardan olingan. These jobs were to be useful public projects, free of the taint of relief workers seeking employment were not subjected to any means test. Furthermore, CWA projects did not limit the amount of a worker’s wage to their family’s estimated budgetary deficiency as did the FERA program. This was real work for a real wage, and the workers were proud of this. By the time the CWA ended in the spring of 1934, 200,00 worthwhile projects had been initiated.

    Although the CWA was short-lived, it was successful because of the wages it provided for millions of Americans over the hard winter of 1933-34. However, by the spring of 1934 more than eleven million workers were still on relief eighty percent of them were fully employable. For New Dealers this represented a deplorable waste of manpower. President Roosevelt declared to the nation that “continued dependence on relief induces a spiritual and mental disintegration fundamentally destructive to the national fiber. To dole out relief in this way is to administer a narcotic, a subtle destroyer of the human spirit. It is inimical to the dictates of sound policy. It is in violation of the traditions of America. Work must be found for the able-bodied but destitute workers.”

    In his State of the Union Address on January 4, 1935, President Roosevelt stated that the federal government “must quit this business of relief,” and requested $4 billion to provide jobs for those already on relief. To this end, Congress passed the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1935 creating the Works Progress Administration (WPA), an agency to provide government jobs for those able-bodied reliefers. WPA workers could earn no more that an established monthly security wage which, while lower than what they could earn in private industry, was higher than relief. The hourly wages could be no less than the prevailing rate for private industry but work hours could be limited to the number of hours necessary to meet the established security wage.

    The WPA operated from 1935-1942 and at its peak, from 1935-1938, it gave jobs to 3 million each year and spent a total of $10.7 billion. Unlike the FERA, it was run by federal rather than local officials and required no matching state money the care of unemployables was relegated back to the states.

    Government jobs as a means of stabilizing business and providing employment for the able-bodied but idle worker in times of economic depression was a principle that Hopkins had brought with him to Washington in 1933. His work-relief programs mitigated the economic and psychological miseries of millions of Americans and demonstrated his firm belief that direct relief degraded the recipient, wasted his or her work potential, and returned little to the community. Harry Hopkins had faith in the federal government’s ability to assure men and women the opportunity to earn a decent living through useful work and faith, too, in Americans’ willingness to take advantage of that opportunity.

    How to Cite this Article (APA Format): Hopkins, J. (2011). Harry Hopkins and work relief. Retrieved [date accessed] from /eras/harry-hopkins-and-work-relief-during-the-great-depression/.

    3 Replies to &ldquoHarry Hopkins and Work Relief During the Great Depression&rdquo

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    Relief of a Median Man - History

    Dating to the late 4th century BCE, this finely modeled figure was originally part of a deep relief. Such Greek funerary reliefs often included supporting figures surrounding the deceased person in this case, an older man, the youth's father, probably once completed the group. The figure's nudity and military stance indicate his heroic death. Turning on the axis of his body to look out of the sculptural space at the viewer, he was depicted in an idealized way as a hero, one who died bravely in battle. The rhythmic curves and contrappasto position are indicative of Late Classical Greek art, as is the focus on an individual person, as by this time patrons had lost some of their interest in images of mighty Olympian gods and legendary heroes.

    In both architectural sculpture and single votive statues of Classical Greece, the nude male figure celebrated the human body. In later stages of Greek art, near the end of the 5th and during the 4th centuries BCE, the great patrons and sculptors of Athens embraced a general loosening of classic form, and a more human, emotional approach to rendering the figure. The calm, noble detachment of earlier sculpture gave way to more sensitively rendered images of individuals expressing emotion and feeling. The nude body of this young man has the radiant purity of an athlete in his prime, although implicit in the work is a sense of tragedy, as he has died in the peak of youth. A monument of the highest sculptural quality and of considerable size, this was likely carved by a recognized master of the 4th century BCE. A very similar composition appears on the Ilissos relief (now in the National Museum in Athens) featuring an old man (the father) mourning his son (a nude athlete figure, like ours, but with head intact, see Web Resources below for a comparison). This work is one of the very few surviving 4th-century BCE Greek sculptures in an American collection.

    Heather Bowling, Digital Collections Content Coordinator, 2018.

    Manba qilingan:

    Anne Bromberg, Dallas Museum of Art: Selected Works, (Dallas, Texas: Dallas Museum of Art, 1983), 101.

    Anne Bromberg, "Figure of a young man from a funerary relief," in Dallas Museum of Art: A Guide to the Collection, Ed. Charles Venable (New Haven, NJ: Yale University Press, 1997), 27.


    Tarkibi

    Patients with MALS reportedly experience abdominal pain, particularly in the epigastrium, which may be associated with eating and which may result in anorexia and weight loss. The pain can be in the left or right side, but usually where the ribs meet. [2] Other signs are persistent nausea, lassitude (especially after a heavy meal) and exercise intolerance. Diarrhea is a common symptom, some experience constipation. While some experience vomiting, not everyone does. Exercise or certain postures can aggravate the symptoms. Occasionally, physical examination reveals an abdominal bruit in the mid-epigastrium. [2]

    Complications of MALS result from chronic compression of the celiac artery. They include gastroparesis [3] and aneurysm of the superior and inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries. [4]

    The median arcuate ligament is a ligament formed at the base of the diaphragm where the left and right diaphragmatic crura join near the 12th thoracic vertebra. This fibrous arch forms the anterior aspect of the aortic hiatus, through which the aorta, thoracic duct, and azygos vein pass. The median arcuate ligament usually comes into contact with the aorta above the branch point of the celiac artery. However, in up to one quarter of normal individuals, the median arcuate ligament passes in front of the celiac artery, compressing the celiac artery and nearby structures such as the celiac ganglia. [2] In some of these individuals, this compression is pathologic and leads to the median arcuate ligament syndrome. [2]

    Several theories attempt to explain the origin of pain caused by compression of the celiac artery. [5] One proposes that compression of the celiac artery causes ischemia, or decreased blood flow, to abdominal organs, leading to pain. Another hypothesizes that there is compression not only of the celiac artery but also of the celiac ganglia, and that pain results from compression of the latter.

    Median arcuate ligament syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion. [2] [5] That is, the diagnosis of MALS is generally considered only after patients have undergone an extensive evaluation of their gastrointestinal tract including upper endoscopy, colonoscopy, and evaluation for gallbladder disease and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). [5]

    The diagnosis of MALS relies on a combination of clinical features and findings on medical imaging. [2] Clinical features include those signs and symptoms mentioned above classically, MALS involves a triad of abdominal pain after eating, weight loss, and an abdominal bruit, although the classic triad is found in only a minority of individuals that carry a MALS diagnosis. [5]

    Diagnostic imaging for MALS is divided into screening and confirmatory tests. [5] A reasonable screening test for patients with suspected MALS is duplex ultrasonography to measure blood flow through the celiac artery. [5] [6] Peak systolic velocities greater than 200 cm/s are suggestive of celiac artery stenosis associated with MALS. [5]

    1. Focal narrowing of proximal celiac artery with poststenotic dilatation
    2. Indentation on superior aspect of celiac artery
    3. Hook-shaped contour of celiac artery

    Further evaluation and confirmation can be obtained via angiography to investigate the anatomy of the celiac artery. [5] Historically, conventional angiography was used, although this has been largely replaced by less invasive techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. [2] [5] Because it provides better visualization of intra-abdominal structures, CT angiography is preferred to MR angiography in this setting. [5] The findings of focal narrowing of the proximal celiac artery with poststenotic dilatation, indentation on the superior aspect of the celiac artery, and a hook-shaped contour of the celiac artery support a diagnosis of MALS. [2] These imaging features are exaggerated on expiration, even in normal asymptomatic individuals without the syndrome. [2]

    Proximal celiac artery stenosis with poststenotic dilatation can be seen in other conditions affecting the celiac artery. [2] The hook-shaped contour of the celiac artery is characteristic of the anatomy in MALS and helps distinguish it from other causes of celiac artery stenosis such as atherosclerosis. [2] This hooked contour is not entirely specific for MALS however, given that 10–24% of normal asymptomatic individuals have this anatomy. [2]

    Decompression of the celiac artery is the general approach to treatment of MALS. [5] The mainstay of treatment involves an open or laparoscopic surgery approaches to divide, or separate, the median arcuate ligament to relieve the compression of the celiac artery. [5] This is combined with removal of the celiac ganglia and evaluation of blood flow through the celiac artery, for example by intraoperative duplex ultrasound. If blood flow is poor, celiac artery revascularization is usually attempted methods of revascularization include aortoceliac bypass, patch angioplasty, and others. [5]

    In recent, a laparoscopic approach used to achieve celiac artery decompression [7] however, should the celiac artery require revascularization, the procedure would require conversion to an open approach. [5]

    Endovascular methods such as percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) have been used in patients who have failed open and/or laparoscopic intervention. [5] PTA alone, without decompression of the celiac artery, may not be of benefit. [5] [8]

    There are few studies of the long-term outcomes of patients treated for MALS. [5] According to Duncan, [5] the largest and more relevant late outcomes data come from a study of 51 patients who underwent open surgical treatment for MALS, 44 of whom were available for long-term follow-up at an average of nine years following therapy. [9] The investigators reported that among patients who underwent celiac artery decompression and revascularization, 75% remained asymptomatic at follow-up. In this study, predictors of favorable outcome included:

    • Age from 40 to 60 years
    • Lack of psychiatric condition or alcohol use
    • Abdominal pain that was worse after meals
    • Weight loss greater than 20 lb (9.1 kg)

    It is estimated that in 10–24% of normal, asymptomatic individuals the median arcuate ligament crosses in front of (anterior to) the celiac artery, causing some degree of compression. [2] [10] Approximately 1% of these individuals exhibit severe compression associated with symptoms of MALS. [2] The syndrome most commonly affects individuals between 20 and 40 years old, and is more common in women, particularly thin women. [2]

    Celiac artery compression was first observed by Benjamin Lipshutz in 1917. [11] MALS was first described by Pekka-Tapani Harjola in 1963 [12] and subsequently by J. David Dunbar and Samuel Marable in 1965. [13] It has also been called Harjola-Marable syndrome va Marable syndrome. [11]


    Relief of a Median Man - History

    A few years ago, my mom developed rheumatoid arthritis. Her wrists, knees and toes swelled up, causing crippling, chronic pain. She had to file for disability. She stopped attending our local mosque. Some mornings it was too painful for her to brush her teeth. I wanted to help. But I didn't know how. I'm not a doctor.

    So, what I am is a historian of medicine. So I started to research the history of chronic pain. Turns out, UCLA has an entire history of pain collection in their archives. And I found a story — a fantastic story — of a man who saved — rescued — millions of people from pain people like my mom. Yet, I had never heard of him. There were no biographies of him, no Hollywood movies. His name was John J. Bonica. But when our story begins, he was better known as Johnny "Bull" Walker.

    It was a summer day in 1941. The circus had just arrived in the tiny town of Brookfield, New York. Spectators flocked to see the wire-walkers, the tramp clowns — if they were lucky, the human cannonball. They also came to see the strongman, Johnny "Bull" Walker, a brawny bully who'd pin you for a dollar. You know, on that particular day, a voice rang out over the circus P.A. system. They needed a doctor urgently, in the live animal tent. Something had gone wrong with the lion tamer. The climax of his act had gone wrong, and his head was stuck inside the lion's mouth. He was running out of air the crowd watched in horror as he struggled and then passed out. When the lion finally did relax its jaws, the lion tamer just slumped to the ground, motionless. When he came to a few minutes later, he saw a familiar figure hunched over him. It was Bull Walker. The strongman had given the lion tamer mouth-to-mouth, and saved his life.

    Now, the strongman hadn't told anyone, but he was actually a third-year medical student. He toured with the circus during summers to pay tuition, but kept it a secret to protect his persona. He was supposed to be a brute, a villain — not a nerdy do-gooder. His medical colleagues didn't know his secret, either. As he put it, "If you were an athlete, you were a dumb dodo." So he didn't tell them about the circus, or about how he wrestled professionally on evenings and weekends. He used a pseudonym like Bull Walker, or later, the Masked Marvel. He even kept it a secret that same year, when he was crowned the Light Heavyweight Champion of the world.

    Over the years, John J. Bonica lived these parallel lives. He was a wrestler he was a doctor. He was a heel he was a hero. He inflicted pain, and he treated it. And he didn’t know it at the time, but over the next five decades, he'd draw on these dueling identities to forge a whole new way to think about pain. It'd change modern medicine so much so, that decades later, Time magazine would call him pain relief's founding father. But that all happened later.

    In 1942, Bonica graduated medical school and married Emma, his sweetheart, whom he had met at one of his matches years before. He still wrestled in secret — he had to. His internship at New York's St. Vincent's Hospital paid nothing. With his championship belt, he wrestled in big-ticket venues, like Madison Square Garden, against big-time opponents, like Everett "The Blonde Bear" Marshall, or three-time world champion, Angelo Savoldi.

    The matches took a toll on his body he tore hip joints, fractured ribs. One night, The Terrible Turk's big toe scratched a scar like Capone's down the side of his face. The next morning at work, he had to wear a surgical mask to hide it. Twice Bonica showed up to the O.R. with one eye so bruised, he couldn't see out of it. But worst of all were his mangled cauliflower ears. He said they felt like two baseballs on the sides of his head. Pain just kept accumulating in his life.

    Next, he watched his wife go into labor at his hospital. She heaved and pushed, clearly in anguish. Her obstetrician called out to the intern on duty to give her a few drops of ether to ease her pain. But the intern was a young guy, just three weeks on the job — he was jittery, and in applying the ether, irritated Emma's throat. She vomited and choked, and started to turn blue. Bonica, who was watching all this, pushed the intern out of the way, cleared her airway, and saved his wife and his unborn daughter. At that moment, he decided to devote his life to anesthesiology. Later, he'd even go on to help develop the epidural, for delivering mothers. But before he could focus on obstetrics, Bonica had to report for basic training.

    Right around D-Day, Bonica showed up to Madigan Army Medical Center, near Tacoma. At 7,700 beds, it was one of the largest army hospitals in America. Bonica was in charge of all pain control there. He was only 27. Treating so many patients, Bonica started noticing cases that contradicted everything he had learned. Pain was supposed to be a kind of alarm bell — in a good way — a body's way of signaling an injury, like a broken arm. But in some cases, like after a patient had a leg amputated, that patient might still complain of pain in that nonexistent leg. But if the injury had been treated, why would the alarm bell keep ringing? There were other cases in which there was no evidence of an injury whatsoever, and yet, still the patient hurt.

    Bonica tracked down all the specialists at his hospital — surgeons, neurologists, psychiatrists, others. And he tried to get their opinions on his patients. It took too long, so he started organizing group meetings over lunch. It would be like a tag team of specialists going up against the patient's pain. No one had ever focused on pain this way before.

    After that, he hit the books. He read every medical textbook he could get his hands on, carefully noting every mention of the word "pain." Out of the 14,000 pages he read, the word "pain" was on 17 and a half of them. Seventeen and a half. For the most basic, most common, most frustrating part of being a patient. Bonica was shocked — I'm quoting him, he said, "What the hell kind of conclusion can you come to there? The most important thing from the patient's perspective, they don't talk about."

    So over the next eight years, Bonica would talk about it. He'd write about it he'd write those missing pages. He wrote what would later be known as the Bible of Pain. In it he proposed new strategies, new treatments using nerve-block injections. He proposed a new institution, the Pain Clinic, based on those lunchtime meetings. But the most important thing about his book was that it was kind of an emotional alarm bell for medicine. A desperate plea to doctors to take pain seriously in patients' lives. He recast the very purpose of medicine. The goal wasn't to make patients better it was to make patients feel better. He pushed his pain agenda for decades, before it finally took hold in the mid-ྂs. Hundreds of pain clinics sprung up all over the world.

    But as they did — a tragic twist. Bonica's years of wrestling caught up to him. He had been out of the ring for over 20 years, but those 1,500 professional bouts had left a mark on his body. Still in his mid-50s, he suffered severe osteoarthritis. Over the next 20 years he'd have 22 surgeries, including four spine operations, and hip replacement after hip replacement. He could barely raise his arm, turn his neck. He needed aluminum crutches to walk. His friends and former students became his doctors. One recalled that he probably had more nerve-block injections than anyone else on the planet. Already a workaholic, he worked even more — 15- to 18-hour days. Healing others became more than just his job, it was his own most effective form of relief. "If I wasn't as busy as I am," he told a reporter at the time, "I would be a completely disabled guy."

    On a business trip to Florida in the early 1980s, Bonica got a former student to drive him to the Hyde Park area in Tampa. They drove past palm trees and pulled up to an old mansion, with giant silver howitzer cannons hidden in the garage. The house belonged to the Zacchini family, who were something like American circus royalty. Decades earlier, Bonica had watched them, clad in silver jumpsuits and goggles, doing the act they pioneered — the Human Cannonball. But now they were like him: retired. That generation is all dead now, including Bonica, so there's no way to know exactly what they said that day. But still, I love imagining it. The strongman and the human cannonballs reunited, showing off old scars, and new ones. Maybe Bonica gave them medical advice. Maybe he told them what he later said in an oral history, which is that his time in the circus and wrestling deeply molded his life.

    Bonica saw pain close up. He felt it. He lived it. And it made it impossible for him to ignore in others. Out of that empathy, he spun a whole new field, played a major role in getting medicine to acknowledge pain in and of itself.

    In that same oral history, Bonica claimed that pain is the most complex human experience. That it involves your past life, your current life, your interactions, your family. That was definitely true for Bonica.


    Tarkibi

    The term only appears twice in Iranian texts from before the 5th century BCE, and only one of these can be dated with precision. This one instance occurs in the trilingual Behistun inscription of Darius the Great, and which can be dated to about 520 BCE. In this trilingual text, certain rebels have magian as an attribute in the Old Persian portion as maγu- (generally assumed to be a loan word from Median). The meaning of the term in this context is uncertain.

    The other instance appears in the texts of the Avesta, the sacred literature of Zoroastrianism. In this instance, which is in the Younger Avestan portion, the term appears in the hapax moghu.tbiš, meaning "hostile to the moghu", where moghu does not (as was previously thought) mean "magus", but rather "a member of the tribe" [4] or referred to a particular social class in the proto-Iranian language and then continued to do so in Avestan. [5]

    An unrelated term, but previously assumed to be related, appears in the older Gathic Avestan language texts. This word, adjectival magavan meaning "possessing maga-", was once the premise that Avestan maga- and Median (i.e. Old Persian) magu- were co-eval (and also that both these were cognates of Vedic Sanskrit magha-). While "in the Gathas the word seems to mean both the teaching of Zoroaster and the community that accepted that teaching", and it seems that Avestan maga- is related to Sanskrit magha-, "there is no reason to suppose that the western Iranian form magu (Magus) has exactly the same meaning" [6] as well. But it "may be, however", that Avestan moghu (which is not the same as Avestan maga-) "and Medean magu were the same word in origin, a common Iranian term for 'member of the tribe' having developed among the Medes the special sense of 'member of ning (priestly) tribe', hence a priest." [4] cf [5]

    Classical Greek Edit

    The oldest surviving Greek reference to the magi – from Greek μάγος (mágos, plural: magoi) – might be from 6th century BCE Heraclitus (apud Clemens Protrepticus 12), who curses the magi for their "impious" rites and rituals. Geraklit nazarda tutgan marosimlarning ta'rifi saqlanib qolmagan va Heraklit chet elliklarni nazarda tutgan deb taxmin qiladigan hech narsa yo'q.

    Better preserved are the descriptions of the mid-5th century BCE Herodotus, who in his portrayal of the Iranian expatriates living in Asia Minor uses the term "magi" in two different senses. In the first sense (Tarixlar 1.101), Herodotus speaks of the magi as one of the tribes/peoples (ethnous) of the Medes. Boshqa ma'noda (1.132), Gerodot "magi" atamasini "sakerdotal kasta" ni umumiy ma'noda ishlatish uchun ishlatadi, lekin "etnik kelib chiqishi hech qachon aytilganidek bo'lmaydi". [6] According to Robert Charles Zaehner, in other accounts, "we hear of Magi not only in Persia, Parthia, Bactria, Chorasmia, Aria, Media, and among the Sakas, but also in non-Iranian lands like Samaria, Ethiopia, and Egypt. Their influence was also widespread throughout Asia Minor. It is, therefore, quite likely that the sacerdotal caste of the Magi was distinct from the Median tribe of the same name." [6]

    As early as the 5th century BCE, Greek magos had spawned mageia va magike to describe the activity of a magus, that is, it was his or her art and practice. Ammo deyarli boshidanoq harakatning nomi va aktyorning ismi ajralgan. Shundan so'ng, mageia was used not for what actual magi did, but for something related to the word 'magic' in the modern sense, i.e. using supernatural means to achieve an effect in the natural world, or the appearance of achieving these effects through trickery or sleight of hand. The early Greek texts typically have the pejorative meaning, which in turn influenced the meaning of magos to denote a conjurer and a charlatan. Already in the mid-5th century BC, Herodotus identifies the magi as interpreters of omens and dreams (Tarixlar 7.19, 7.37, 1.107, 1.108, 1.120, 1.128).

    Ellinistik davrdan oldingi boshqa yunon manbalari, fors Axamaniylar saroyida birinchi tajribaga ega bo'lgan, askar janob Ksenofonni o'z ichiga oladi. In his early 4th century BCE Cyropaedia, Xenophon depicts the magians as authorities for all religious matters (8.3.11), and imagines the magians to be responsible for the education of the emperor-to-be.

    Rim davri Tahrir

    Once the magi had been associated with "magic" – Greek magikos – it was but a natural progression that the Greeks' image of Zoroaster would metamorphose into a magician too. [7] The first century Pliny the Elder names "Zoroaster" as the inventor of magic (Tabiat tarixi xxx.2.3), but a "principle of the division of labor appears to have spared Zoroaster most of the responsibility for introducing the dark arts to the Greek and Roman worlds. That dubious honor went to another fabulous magus, Ostanes, to whom most of the pseudepigraphic magical literature was attributed." [7] For Pliny, this magic was a "monstrous craft" that gave the Greeks not only a "lust" (aviditatem) for magic, but a downright "madness" (rabiem) for it, and Pliny supposed that Greek philosophers – among them Pythagoras, Empedocles, Democritus, and Plato – traveled abroad to study it, and then returned to teach it (xxx.2.8–10).

    "Zoroaster" – or rather what the Greeks supposed him to be – was for the Hellenists the figurehead of the 'magi', and the founder of that order (or what the Greeks considered to be an order). U, asosan, raqiblarning matnlarini obro'sizlantirish uchun yozilgan "zardushtiylik" psevdepigrafasining keng to'plamining muallifi sifatida loyihalashtirildi. "The Greeks considered the best wisdom to be exotic wisdom" and "what better and more convenient authority than the distant – temporally and geographically – Zoroaster?" [7] The subject of these texts, the authenticity of which was rarely challenged, ranged from treatises on nature to ones on necromancy. But the bulk of these texts dealt with astronomical speculations and magical lore.

    Astrologiya bilan bog'lanishning bir omili Zardushtning ismi, aniqrog'i, yunonlar undan nima qilganligi edi. His name was identified at first with star-worshiping (astrothytes "star sacrificer") and, with the Zo-, even as the yashash star. Later, an even more elaborate mytho-etymology evolved: Zoroaster died by the living (zo-) flux (-ro-) of fire from the star (-astr-) which he himself had invoked, and even that the stars killed him in revenge for having been restrained by him. [8] The second, and "more serious" [8] factor for the association with astrology was the notion that Zoroaster was a Chaldean. The alternate Greek name for Zoroaster was Zaratas / Zaradas / Zaratos (cf. Agathias 2.23–5, Clement Stromata I.15), which – according to Bidez and Cumont – derived from a Semitic form of his name. The Suda's chapter on astronomia notes that the Babylonians learned their astrology from Zoroaster. Lucian of Samosata (Mennipus 6) decides to journey to Babylon "to ask one of the magi, Zoroaster's disciples and successors", for their opinion.

    So'z mágos (Greek) and its variants appear in both the Old and New Testaments. [9] Ordinarily this word is translated "magician" or "sorcerer" in the sense of illusionist or fortune-teller, and this is how it is translated in all of its occurrences (e.g. Acts 13:6) except for the Gospel of Matthew, where, depending on translation, it is rendered "wise man" (KJV, RSV) or left untranslated as Sehrgar, typically with an explanatory note (NIV). However, early church fathers, such as St. Justin, Origen, St. Augustine and St. Jerome, did not make an exception for the Gospel, and translated the word in its ordinary sense, i.e. as "magician". [10] The Gospel of Matthew states that magi visited the infant Jesus to do him homage shortly after his birth (2:1–2:12). The gospel describes how magi from the east were notified of the birth of a king in Judaea by the appearance of his star. Upon their arrival in Jerusalem, they visited King Herod to determine the location of the king of the Jews's birthplace. Herod, disturbed, told them that he had not heard of the child, but informed them of a prophecy that the Messiah would be born in Bethlehem. He then asked the magi to inform him when they find the infant so that Herod may also worship him. Guided by the Star of Bethlehem, the wise men found the baby Jesus in a house Matthew does not say if the house was in Bethlehem. They worshiped him, and presented him with "gifts of gold and of frankincense and of myrrh." (2.11) In a dream they are warned not to return to Herod, and therefore return to their homes by taking another route. Since its composition in the late 1st century, numerous apocryphal stories have embellished the gospel's account. Matthew 2:16 implies that Herod learned from the wise men that up to two years had passed since the birth, which is why all male children two years or younger were slaughtered.

    In addition to the more famous story of Simon Magus found in chapter 8, the Book of Acts (13:6–11) also describes another magus who acted as an advisor of Sergius Paulus, the Roman proconsul at Paphos on the island of Cyprus. He was a Jew named Bar-Jesus (son of Jesus), or alternatively Elymas. (Another Cypriot magus named Atomos is referenced by Josephus, working at the court of Felix at Caesarea.)

    One of the non-canonical Christian sources, the Syriac Infancy Gospel, provides, in its third chapter, a story of the wise men of the East which is very similar to much of the story in Matthew. This account cites Zoradascht (Zoroaster) as the source of the prophecy that motivated the wise men to seek the infant Jesus. [11]

    In Arabic, "Magians" (majus) is the term for Zoroastrians. The term is mentioned in the Quran, in sura 22 verse 17, where the "Magians" are mentioned alongside the Jews, the Sabians and the Christians in a list of religions who will be judged on the Day of Resurrection.

    In the 1980s, Saddam Hussein's Ba'ath Party used the term majus during the Iran–Iraq War as a generalization of all modern-day Iranians. "By referring to the Iranians in these documents as majus, the security apparatus [implied] that the Iranians [were] not sincere Muslims, but rather covertly practice their pre-Islamic beliefs. Thus, in their eyes, Iraq's war took on the dimensions of not only a struggle for Arab nationalism, but also a campaign in the name of Islam." [12]

    In India, the Sakaldwipiya Brahmins are considered to be the descendants of the ten Maga (Sanskrit मग) priests who were invited to conduct worship of Mitra (Surya) at Mitravana (Multan), as described in the Samba Purana, Bhavishya Purana and the Mahabharata. Their original home was a region named as Sakadvipa. According to Varahamihira (c. 505 - c. 587), the statue of the Sun god (Mitra), is represented as wearing the "northern" (central Asian) dress, specifically with horse riding boots. Several Brahmin communities of India trace their descent from the Magas. Several of the classical astronomers and mathematicians of India such are Varahamihira are considered to be the descendants of the Magas. [13] [14]

    Varahamihira specifies that installation and consecration of the Sun images should be done by the Magas. Albiruni mentions that the priests of the Sun Temple at Multan were Magas. The Magas had colonies in a number of places in India, and were the priests at Konark, Martanda and other sun temples. [15]

    Victor H. Mair (1990) suggested that Chinese (巫 "shaman witch, wizard magician") may originate as a loanword from Old Persian *maguš "magician magi". Mair reconstructs an Old Chinese *m y ag. [16] The reconstruction of Old Chinese forms is somewhat speculative. The velar final -g in Mair's *m y ag (巫) is evident in several Old Chinese reconstructions (Dong Tonghe's *m y wag, Zhou Fagao's *mjwaγ, and Li Fanggui's *mjag), but not all (Bernhard Karlgren's *m y wo and Axel Schuessler's *ma).

    Mair adduces the discovery of two figurines with unmistakably Caucasoid or Europoid features dated to the 8th century BCE, found in a 1980 excavation of a Zhou Dynasty palace in Fufeng County, Shaanxi Province. One of the figurines is marked on the top of its head with an incised graph. [17]

    Mair's suggestion is based on a proposal by Jao Tsung-I (1990), which connects the "cross potent" Bronzeware script glyph for wu 巫 with the same shape found in Neolithic West Asia, specifically a cross potent carved in the shoulder of a goddess figure of the Halaf period. [18]


    Cost of Living 1932

    1. Wall Street Crash on October 29 News Events, 1929
    2. Banks began to fail in October 1930
    3. The US introduces import tariffs on over 20,000 imported goods to record levels leading to other countries following suit
    4. Due to bank failures ( no federal deposit insurance existed ) people withdrew money from the banks to keep in currency or gold making the problem worse
    5. Drought Conditions and over mechanization of farming caused great area's of the midwest to become Dust Bowls
    6. Economic cost of World War I still a problem stifling investment ( Worldwide )

    Drainage

    The few streams emptying into the desiccated central plateau dissipate in saline marshes. The general drainage pattern is down the outward slopes of the mountains, terminating in the sea. There are three large rivers, but only one—the Kārūn—is navigable. It originates in the Zagros Mountains and flows south to the Shatt Al-Arab (Arvand Rūd), which empties into the Persian Gulf. The Sefīd ( Safid) River originates in the Elburz Mountains in the north and runs as a mountain stream for most of its length but flows rapidly into the Gīlān plain and then to the Caspian Sea. The Dez Dam in Dezfūl is one of the largest in the Middle East. The Sefīd River Dam, completed in the early 1960s at Manjīl, generates hydroelectric power and provides water for irrigation.

    The Zāyandeh River, the lifeline of Eṣfahān province, also originates in the Zagros Mountains, flowing southeastward to Gāv Khūnī Marsh (Gāvkhāneh Lake), a swamp northwest of the city of Yazd. The completion of the Kūhrang Dam in 1971 diverted water from the upper Kārūn through a tunnel 2 miles (3 km) long into the Zāyandeh for irrigation purposes.

    Other streams are seasonal and variable: spring floods do enormous damage, while in summer many streams disappear. However, water is stored naturally underground, finding its outlet in springs and tap wells.

    The largest inland body of water, Lake Urmia, in northwestern Iran, covers an area that varies from about 2,000 to 2,300 square miles (5,200 to 6,000 square km). Other lakes are principally seasonal, and all have a high salt content.


    Videoni tomosha qiling: 7 клас рельєф Євразії (Iyul 2022).


Izohlar:

  1. Kigajin

    aha thank you!

  2. Hawiovi

    Ajoyib, juda qimmatli fikr

  3. Merewood

    This variant does not suit me. Who else can breathe?

  4. Hosea

    Menimcha, siz noto'g'risiz. Men tekshirishni taklif qilaman.

  5. Nat

    Noteworthy the very valuable information

  6. Jaleel

    Yaxshi yozilgan. Albatta, ijobiy etarli emas, lekin men uni bitta nafasda o'qiganman



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