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Miloddan avvalgi 215-205 yillardagi birinchi Makedoniya urushi

Miloddan avvalgi 215-205 yillardagi birinchi Makedoniya urushi


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Miloddan avvalgi 215-205 yillardagi birinchi Makedoniya urushi

Kirish
Birinchi bosqich: Rim va Filipp
Ikkinchi bosqich: Rim va Aetoliya va Filipp
Uchinchi bosqich: Aetoliya va Filipp

Kirish

Birinchi Makedoniya urushi (miloddan avvalgi 215-205 yillar), Makedoniyalik Filipp Vning Italiyada Rimga qarshi qator yirik g'alabalaridan so'ng Gannibal bilan ittifoq tuzish haqidagi qarori tufayli yuzaga kelgan. Bu Rim qo'shinlari Gretsiyaning materik qismida jang qilgan birinchi urush edi, garchi na Rim, na Karfagen urushga katta kuch sarflamagan. Janglarning aksariyati Makedoniya Filippi V va Aetolian Ligasi va ularning ittifoqchilari o'rtasida bo'lgan.

Filipp V 221 yilda Makedoniya taxtiga o'tirdi va ko'p o'tmay Yunon (yoki yunon) Ligasi va Aetoliya Ligasi o'rtasidagi Ijtimoiy urushga qo'shildi, lekin Filipp o'z hukmronligining dastlabki bosqichida ham xavotirda edi. Rimning kuchayib borayotgan kuchi. Makedoniya va Rim to'g'ridan -to'g'ri qo'shnilar emas edi, lekin ular Adriatikaning sharqiy sohillarida muntazam aloqada bo'lishardi. Bu sohadagi ikkita asosiy kuch - Epirus va Iliriya - odatda Makedoniyaga do'stona munosabatda bo'lishgan, rimliklar esa bu hududga tobora ko'proq jalb qilingan. 230-228 yillarda ular illyiriyaliklarning qirg'oqda haddan tashqari kuchga ega bo'lishining oldini olish uchun aralashdilar (Birinchi Iliriya urushi) va 219 yilda qaytishdi (Ikkinchi Iliriya urushi), bu safar ularning sobiq ittifoqchisi Faros Demetrius muvozanatni buzishining oldini olish uchun. kuchdan. Mag'lubiyatdan so'ng, Demetrius Filippning sudiga qochdi va u tez orada uning bosh maslahatchilaridan biriga aylandi.

Ko'p o'tmay, Gannibal Italiyaga mashhur hujumini boshladi va Ikkinchi Punik urushini boshladi. Bir qator g'alabalar 217 yilda Trasimen ko'li jangi bilan yakunlandi. Bu xabar Filippga etib kelganida, u ijtimoiy urushni tugatish uchun muzokaralarni boshladi. 217 yil sentyabr oyida Naupakt tinchligi bu urushni tugatdi va Filippni Rimning zaifligidan foydalanishga urinishdan ozod qildi. O'sha paytda Adriyatikadan sharqda Rimda hech qanday haqiqiy mulk yo'q edi, lekin qirg'oqda do'stlari va ittifoqchilari bor edi va Filippning birinchi nishoni bu edi.

216 yilda Filipp kutilmaganda Iliriya sohilidagi Apolloniyani egallab olishga urinib ko'rdi. 100 yorug'likdan iborat parkni qurish lembi, u Yunonistonning janubiy chekkasida va Adriatik bo'yida suzib yurdi, oxir -oqibat Aulon ko'rfaziga etib keldi, nishonidan atigi 14 mil narida. Uning eng katta qo'rquvi, rimliklar uni to'xtatish uchun Sitsiliyadan o'z flotini yuborishi mumkinligidan edi, chunki ularning og'ir kvinqueremlari uni osonlikcha yengib ketishardi. lembi. Tez orada rimliklar Filippning ittifoqchisi Scerdilaidasdan nima qilayotganini bilib, Adriatikaga o'nta quinqueremdan iborat kuch yuborishdi. Filipp ularning yondashuvini bilib, vahimaga tushdi, ehtimol Rim flotining kichikligini bilmadi va o'z flotini Makedoniya suvlariga qaytarishni buyurdi.

Bu vaqtda Filipp Karfagenliklardan mustaqil harakat qilar edi, ular Gannibal davrida o'tgan yili (217) rimliklar ustidan bir qator ajoyib g'alabalarga erishgan edi. Filipp Adriatikada muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchraganida, Gannibal Kannadagi katta g'alabasini qo'lga kiritdi. 216-215 yil qishda Filipp Rimning aniq mag'lubiyatidan foyda olish imkoniyatini qo'ldan boy berganga o'xshardi, chunki Gannibal unga hech qanday ittifoqchi kerak emasdek tuyulardi, lekin 215 yilning bahorida rimliklar aniq edi. kurashni davom ettirmoqchi edilar.

Birinchi bosqich: Rim va Filipp

Miloddan avvalgi 215 yil yozida Afinalik Ksenofan boshchiligidagi Filipp elchixonasi Gannibal lageriga kelishib oldi. Qabul qilingan shartlar hayratlanarli darajada noaniq edi, ehtimol Gannibalning tez g'alabaga bo'lgan ishonchini aks ettirardi. Filipp va Gannibal Rimga qarshi ittifoqchi sifatida harakat qilishlari kerak edi, lekin ulardan ikkinchisiga to'g'ridan -to'g'ri yordam yuborish shart emas edi. Rimliklar mag'lub bo'lgach, Karfagen va Makedoniya o'rtasida mudofaa ittifoqi paydo bo'ladi. Alyansning yagona aniq qismi Rim va Gannibal o'rtasidagi tinchlik shartnomasini qamrab oldi. Rimliklar Filippga hech qachon hujum qilmaslikka, Illyriya materigidagi barcha "mol -mulkini" tashlab ketishga (bu bosqichda ularning rasmiy do'stlari va ittifoqchilariga tegishli) va Feros Demetriy uyini qaytarib berishga rozi bo'lishdi. Ikkinchi Iliriya urushi davrida rimliklar.

Rimliklar bu shartnoma shartlarini juda tez topdilar. Ksenofan va Karfagen delegatsiyasini Makedoniyaga qaytargan kema Kalabriya sohilida qo'lga olindi va shartnomaning nusxasi topildi. O'chirilgan Rimning javobi, odatda, ular ittifoqdan qanchalik xavotirlanmaganliklarining belgisi sifatida qaraladi, lekin Kannadagi falokatdan keyin respublikani hamma boshqarishi mumkin edi. Apuliadagi yigirma beshta harbiy kema yana o'ttiztasi bilan kuchaytirildi, ularning hammasi M. Valerius Laevinus boshchiligida edi. U Filippning niyatlarini tekshirishni buyurdi. Agar shartnoma haqiqiy ekanligi isbotlansa, u Makedoniyaga o'tishi va Filippni tark eta olmasligiga ishonch hosil qilishi kerak edi.

Filipp Gannibal bilan tuzilgan bitimga o'z ittifoqchilarini Axey Ligasiga kiritgan edi, lekin u Peloponnesga kelganida, liganing etakchisi Aratusni g'arbda har qanday aralashuvga dushman deb topdi. Vaziyat Messenaning ishi bilan yanada yomonlashdi. Ko'pgina yunon shaharlari singari, Messen (Peloponnesning janubi -g'arbiy qismida) bir tomondan aholi bilan magistratlar va optimallashtiradi boshqa tomondan. Filippni hakam sifatida taklif qilishdi va u xalqni hokimiyatni egallashga undaganga o'xshaydi. Qirg'in sodir bo'ldi, unda 200 ta optimallashtiradi o'ldirildi. Shaharning yangi qoidalari Filippga Ithome qal'asini taklif qildi, lekin Arat Filippning Peloponnesning boshqa burchagida Itom va Akrokorinni ushlab turishiga qarshi chiqdi. Filipp Ithomeni tark etishga majbur bo'ldi, lekin kelasi yili bu hududni egallab olishga ikkinchi urinish qilardi.

Miloddan avvalgi 214 yil

Miloddan avvalgi 214 yilning bahorida Filipp Apolloniyani dengizdan egallashga ikkinchi urinish qildi. Yana uning floti nurdan iborat edi lembi, bu safar ulardan 120 tasi va yana bir bor bu flot Oricum portini egallab, Aulon ko'rfaziga etib keldi. Filipp keyin Apolloniyani qamal qila boshladi, lekin 216 yildagidek rimliklar tezda javob berishdi. Laevinus tezda Oricumni qaytarib oldi va keyin Apolloniyaga mustahkamlovchi elementlarni tashladi. Keyin rimliklar va apollonliklar Filippning lageriga muvaffaqiyatli hujum uyushtirdilar. Filipp qayiqlarini yoqib, Pindus tog'lari bo'ylab Makedoniyaga chekinishga majbur bo'ldi.

214 yilning kuzida Filipp Farenlik Demetriyni Messenga hujum qilish uchun yubordi. Hujum muvaffaqiyatsiz tugadi va Demetriy o'ldirilgan bo'lishi mumkin. Filipp qasos olish uchun Messenaning hududini vayron qildi. Shahar ichidagi guruhlar Filippga qarshi birlashdilar, Yunon Ligasini tark etdilar va aetoliyaliklarga yaqinlashdilar. Achaey ligasi keyingi yili Aratning o'limi bilan yanada zaiflashdi.

Miloddan avvalgi 213 yil

213 yilda Filipp Illyiriyaga quruqlikdan hujum qildi. Bu uning harbiy ekspeditsiyalaridan ko'ra ancha muvaffaqiyatli bo'ldi. Garchi Apolloniya va Dyrraxium unga hujum qila olmasligi uchun juda kuchli garnizon bo'lgan bo'lsada, u Atintanlar va Parfini qabilalarini bo'ysundirishga muvaffaq bo'ldi va Dimallum va Liss qal'asini egallab oldi va Oricumdagi rimliklar bilan ularning ittifoqchisi Scerdilaidasni kesib o'tdi. U Adriatik sohilida ham mustahkam o'rnashib oldi, lekin karfagenliklar bundan hech qachon foydalanmasdilar.

Ikkinchi bosqich: Rim va Aetoliya va Filipp

212

Miloddan avvalgi 212 yilga kelib, Iliriya sohilidagi vaziyat shu qadar jiddiy ediki, rimliklar nihoyat yunon ittifoqchisini qidira boshladilar. Gannibal Tarentumni egallab olgan, Karfagenning katta floti Sirakuzani qamalini buzishga urinishgan. Bu flotning bir qismi Filippning Makedoniya qo'shinini Italiyaga olib kelishi xavfini yangilab, Filippning yangi qirg'oq mulklariga Italiya qirg'oqlari bo'ylab osongina yuborilishi mumkin edi.

Rimliklar uchun yagona foydali ittifoqchi - bu Aetolian Ligasi (Korinf ko'rfazining shimoliy tomoniga asoslangan) edi. 212 yilga kelib, ligadagi etakchi shaxslar Dorimax va Trichoniyalik Skopas edi va ular Filippga dushmanlik qilishdi. Urushni yangilash vaqti to'g'ri bo'lib tuyuldi. Axeya zaif va etakchi emas edi, Filippning Messenga aralashuvi Peloponnesning qolgan qismini unga qarshi qo'ydi. Aetolian Ligasining uzoq vaqtdan beri do'sti bo'lgan Pergam shahrining sharqiy Attaliyasi Kichik Osiyoda Axey qo'zg'oloni bilan bog'lab qo'yilgan edi, lekin hozir u bosilib, Ligaga yordam berishga rozi bo'ldi.

212 yil oxirida yoki 211 yilda Laevinus o'z floti bilan Aetoliyaga tashrif buyurdi, bu birinchi marta Rim harbiy floti Yunon portlariga tashrif buyurdi. U Aetoliya federal assambleyasi bilan uchrashdi va ittifoq shartnomasini qabul qildi. Bu shartnoma shartlari shuni ko'rsatadiki, rimliklar hali ham Adriatikaning sharqini kengaytirishdan manfaatdor emas edilar. Korikraning janubidagi (Korfu) janubdagi shaharlarni yolg'iz rimliklar qo'lga kiritgan yoki rimliklar va atoliyaliklar birgalikda harakat qilgan holda Ligaga qabul qilinadi. Ko'chma mollarni (shu jumladan aholini), agar ular yolg'iz harakat qilsalar, rimliklar o'z zimmalariga oladilar yoki agar ular hamkorlik qilsalar, ittifoqchilar o'rtasida bo'linib ketadilar. Rimliklar 25 quinqueremes berishga rozi bo'lishdi, asketlarning ko'pchiligini esa atolliklar berishdi. Agar xohlasalar, Elis, Messen, Sparta, Attal, Pleurat va Skerdilaidalar alyansga a'zo bo'lishlari mumkin edi. Ikki tomon, shuningdek, alohida sulh tuzmaslikka kelishib oldi.

Yangi ittifoqchilarning birinchi nishoni Aetoliya yuragining g'arbiy sohilida joylashgan Flibsning ittifoqchisi Acarnaniya edi. 212 yilning kuzida Filipp Makedoniyaning shimoliy chegaralarida kampaniya olib bordi, u erda Sintiyani dardoniyaliklardan, Iamphorynnani Tracian Maedidan oldi. Uning yo'qligidan ruhlanib, aetolliklar Akarnaniyaga bostirib kirishdi. Akarnaliklar zabt etishga yoki o'lishga qasam ichdilar, ayollar va bolalarini Epirusga xavfsiz joyga jo'natdilar va Filipp shimoldan qaytguncha aetoliyaliklarni ushlab turishdi.

Rimliklar muvaffaqiyat qozonishdi. Laevinus o'z flotidan foydalanib, akaroniyaliklardan Oeniadae va Nasusni va Filipp akropolisidan tashqari barcha Zacintusni egallab oldi. Keyin barcha uchta shahar atoliyaliklarga topshirildi.

211

211 yilgi asosiy voqea - Antitsirani Laevin va etollik general Skopas tomonidan bosib olinishi. O'z ittifoqiga binoan, rimliklar aholini qul qilib qo'yishdi, shahar esa atoliyaliklarga topshirildi, ular tez orada uni Filippga berishdi. 211 yilning yozida Laevin o'rniga prokonsul P. Sulpicius Galba keldi, u urushning qolgan qismida Rim flotini boshqargan edi.

210

210 -yilgi kampaniya Filippning tashabbus ko'rsatib, etolliklarni Ftiotik Axeyadan (Fessaliya) quvib chiqarishga urinib, unga Yunonistonning markaziy qismiga kirishga ruxsat berdi. Asosiy voqea sohil bo'yidagi Echinus shahrining qamal qilinishi edi. Aetolian generali Dorimachus va Sulpicius Rim floti bilan qamalni ko'tarishga urinishdi, ammo muvaffaqiyatsiz bo'ldi va shahar Filippning qo'liga o'tdi. Egey dengiziga qilingan birinchi ekspeditsiyaning Rimdagi yagona muvaffaqiyati Egina orolini bosib olish edi. Keyin orolni etolliklar topshirishdi, lekin ularda flot yo'q edi, shuning uchun orolni Pergamdagi Attalusga 30 talantga sotdi. Bu oxir -oqibat Attalus flotini urushga olib keldi. Bunga javoban Filipp o'z flotini Egey dengiziga olib kirishga va'da bergan Bitiniya Prusias bilan ittifoq tuzdi. 210, shuningdek, Spartani urushga qo'shganini ko'rdi, bu safar Rim va Aetolliklar tarafida. Bu vaqtda Spartani Likurgning o'g'li Pelopsning qo'riqchisi sifatida Machanidas boshqargan. Spartaning urushga kirishi Filippning vazifalarini ancha murakkablashtirdi, chunki uning Axayadagi ittifoqchilari endi uch tomondan hujumga uchrashdi. 209 va 208 yillarda Filipp ularga yordam berishga majbur bo'ladi.

209

209 yilda Axeylar Sparta va shimoldan hujum qilgan Aetoliya qo'shinlarining bosimi ostida edi. Filipp bunga javoban Peloponnesda muvaffaqiyatli yurish qilib, Rim va Pergamen yordamchilari ko'magida ishlagan Aetoliya armiyasini ikki marta mag'lub etdi. Bu mag'lubiyatlar, urushni tugatish uchun birinchi urinishda (afinaliklar bilan birga) Rodos, Xios va Misrdan kelgan tinchlik elchilari guruhi Gretsiyaga kelishlari bilan bir vaqtda yuz berdi. Ularning mag'lubiyatlari hech bo'lmaganda vaqtincha tinchlik izlashga etoliliklarni ishontirdi. Sulh bitimi tuzildi va tinchlik muzokaralari boshlandi, lekin Sulpitsiy ham, Attal ham qo'shimchalar bilan kelganida ular buzildi. Filipp Siaonda rimliklarni mag'lubiyatga uchratib, Axeyadagi kampaniyasini davom ettirdi. Elisni qo'lga olishga urinish muvaffaqiyatsiz tugadi, keyin Filipp Makedoniyaga qaytib, Dardaniya bosqini bilan kurashishga majbur bo'ldi.

208

Miloddan avvalgi 208 yilgi kampaniya boshlanishida Filipp muammoga duch kelganga o'xshardi. Sulpicius, Attalus va ularning flotlari Egeyda ishlaydilar, etolliklar Filippni shimolda ushlab turishga harakat qilib, Termopilani mustahkamlaganlar va Iliriylar va Maedilar Makedoniyaga bostirib kirmoqchi bo'lganligi haqida mish -mishlar tarqalgan. Darhaqiqat, yil voqealari o'sha paytda Yunonistonda Rim hokimiyatining chegaralarini ko'rsatdi. Ular quruqlikdagi har qanday kampaniyada etolliklarga tayanar edilar va ularning dengizdagi buyrug'idan foydalanish uchun qo'shinlar etishmasdi. Birlashtirilgan flot Lemnos, Peparet va Xalsisga muvaffaqiyatsiz hujum qildi. Filipp quruqlikda Termopila dovonidan o'tishga muvaffaq bo'ldi va Lokrisdagi Opusda Attalni qo'lga olishga juda yaqin keldi. Bu Attalning Gretsiyadagi urushdagi ishtirokiga nuqta qo'ydi, chunki Prifiy Bitiniya nihoyat Filipp tarafidan urushga kirib, Pergamni bosib oldi. Attal o'z shohligini himoya qilish uchun uyiga qaytishga majbur bo'ldi.

Attalus urushdan chiqqach, Sulpitsiy Rim floti bilan Aeginaga nafaqaga chiqdi, Filipp Filippni Lokrisda, Throniumni qo'lga kiritdi va Phocisda qo'lga kiritdi. Keyin u spartaliklarning axanlarga hujumini qaytarish uchun Peloponnesga qaytishga majbur bo'ldi.

Uchinchi bosqich: Filipp va Aetoliya

207

Urushning oxirgi bosqichida rimliklar Egey dengizidan chiqib ketishdi. Sulpicius Axay shaharlarining eng g'arbiy qismi bo'lgan Dyme -ni ishdan bo'shatgan bo'lishi mumkin, ammo shundan keyin rimliklar Illyriya qirg'og'ida patrullik ishlarini olib borgan. Ularning fikriga ko'ra, urush o'z maqsadiga erishdi, Filippni Iliriya qirg'og'idan uzoqlashtirdi, Gannibal xavfi esa eng yuqori darajada edi. Bundan tashqari, 208-207 yillar Hasdrubalning Italiyaga bostirib kirganini ko'rdi va bu tahdidga qarshi kurashish uchun Sulpitsius legioni olib qo'yilgan bo'lishi mumkin. O'n yil o'tgach, Karfagen Filippga yordam bermasligi aniq bo'ldi.

Bu aetoliyaliklarni zaif ahvolda qoldirdi, axay kuchining kutilmagan tarzda qayta tiklanishi bilan yomonlashdi. Bunga 210-09 yillarda Megalopolis Kraugisning o'g'li filopoemenlarning Axey otliq qo'shinlari qo'mondoni etib tayinlanishi sabab bo'ldi. U tajribali yollanma kapitan edi, u Kritda o'n yil o'tkazgandan so'ng Axeyaga qaytdi. Otliqlardan keyin u 208-7 yillarda piyoda askarlarini isloh qildi, keyin 207 yil davomida spartaliklarni og'ir mag'lubiyatga uchratdi. Bu Mantiniyadagi ko'plab janglardan birida sodir bo'lgan. Tegeani egallab olgan Spartalik Machanidalar Mantinaeyaga yaqinlashdilar. Filopemenlar keyingi jangda spartalik falanksni mag'lub etishdi. Machanidas jangda o'ldirilgan, ehtimol filopoemenlar tomonidan.

Filipp janubda hech narsaga chalg'imasdan, etolliklarni mag'lub etishga e'tibor qaratdi. U ularni Salesadan haydab, Zakintosni (Ion orollari) qaytarib oldi. Keyin u shimoldan Aetoliyaga bostirib kirib, Termumdagi Aetoliy federal ma'badini ishdan bo'shatdi.

206

207 yildagi mag'lubiyatlar va Rim tomonidan qo'llab -quvvatlanmaganligi aetolliklarni tinchlik o'rnatish vaqti kelganiga ishontirdi. 206 yilning kuzida va Rim bilan ittifoqni buzgan holda, Aetolian Ligasi Filipp bilan sulh tuzdi. Jang paytida Filippga berilgan ko'p joylar, shu jumladan Fokiyaning ko'p qismi yo'qolgan. Aetoliyaliklar ham Rim dushmanligiga sazovor bo'lishdi.

205

Rimliklar yana bir bor urushni yangilashga urinishdi, prokurul P. Sempronius Tuditanusni Illyiriyaga 10 ming piyoda va 1000 otliq qo'shin boshchiligida yubordi. Bu armiya Filipp bilan yolg'iz qolishi uchun juda kichik edi va aniqki, aetolliklarni urushni qayta boshlashga undashi kerak edi, lekin muvaffaqiyatsiz.

Har ikki tomonda ham urushni davom ettirish uchun ozgina sabab bor edi. Filippga Karfagen Rim bilan urushda yutqazishi aniq bo'ldi - 205 yilda Scipio Africanus keyingi yil Afrikaga bostirib kirishga tayyorgarlik ko'rdi. Agar Filipp yaxshi shartnoma tuzishga tayyor bo'lsa, Rimga kurashni davom ettirishning hojati yo'q edi. Epirote konfederatsiyasining magistrlari tinchlik muzokaralarini tashkil qilishni taklif qilishganda, rimliklar rozi bo'lishdi.

Muzokaralar Finikitsada bo'lib o'tdi. 205 yil kuzida kelishilgan "Feniks tinchligi", odatda Filippni qo'llab -quvvatladi va unga urushdan oldin bosib olingan Rim ittifoqchilaridan biri bo'lgan Atintanlar ustidan nazoratni ushlab turishga imkon berdi. Tinchlik 205 yil oxirida Rim senati va xalqi tomonidan tasdiqlangan, Sempronius esa konsul etib saylangan.

Rim va Filippning urush natijasidan qoniqish uchun asoslari bor edi. Filipp ichki Illyriya va materik Yunonistonda o'z ta'sirini kengaytirdi, rimliklar esa uni Iliriya qirg'og'iga yoki hatto Italiyaga tahdid qilishiga to'sqinlik qilishdi. Tinchlik uzoqqa cho'zilmas edi va Ikkinchi Makedoniya urushi faqat besh yildan keyin boshlanadi.


Makedoniya urushlari (miloddan avvalgi 215-146 yillar)

Rimliklar Gretsiya ustidan nazorat o'rnatgan va Makedoniya qirolligini vayron qilgan bir qator urushlar.

Birinchi Makedoniya urushi (miloddan avvalgi 215-205 yillar)

Miloddan avvalgi 215 yilda Makedoniya qiroli Filipp V Italiyaga bostirib kirgan karfagenlik general Gannibal bilan shartnoma imzoladi. Filipp Filist Rim va Illyriya (Albaniya) mulklariga bostirib kirdi. Garchi rimliklar muhim Apolloniya shahrini Filippning qo'lidan ushlab turishga muvaffaq bo'lishgan bo'lsa -da, Italiyadagi urush ularga miloddan avvalgi 211 yilgacha, Rimliklar Yunon konfederatsiyasi Aetoliya bilan ittifoq tuzguncha aralashishga to'sqinlik qildi.

Rimliklar quruqlik urushini yunonlarga qoldirib, asosan dengiz yordami bilan cheklanishdi. Keyingi yillarda Rimning muvaffaqiyatlari asosan diplomatik edi. Bir qancha yunon davlatlari Rimni tanladi. Filipp Gretsiyadan diplomatik yo'l bilan quvib chiqarildi. Keyin, chaqmoq chaqishi paytida Filipp yunonlar va ularning Bolqon qabilalar ittifoqchilarini mag'lub etdi, Gretsiyadagi mavqeini tikladi va Aetoliyaga hujum qildi. Aeoliyaliklar spartalik ittifoqchilari ahoniylar tomonidan mag'lubiyatga uchraganidan keyin (mil. 206 y.) Tinchlik uchun sudga berishdi. Illyiriyadagi muvaffaqiyatsiz kampaniyadan so'ng, rimliklar ham shunday qilishdi. Finikiya tinchligi (miloddan avvalgi 205 y.) Filipni Illyriyadagi fathlarini egallab oldi.

Ikkinchi Makedoniya urushi (miloddan avvalgi 200-197 yillar)

Miloddan avvalgi 200 yilda yana urush boshlandi. Rimliklar Illyiriyaga ikkita legion bilan qo'ndi va ichkariga yurish qildi. Ular Makedoniyaga kira olmadilar, lekin bir qancha davlatlarni ularga qo'shilgan ko'plab yunon davlatlariga qo'shilishga majburlashdi.

Eramizdan avvalgi 199 -yilda yunon ittifoqchilarining qo'shinlari Fessaliya va Makedoniyaning janubiga bostirib kirishdi, lekin chaqmoq chaqishi paytida Filipp bu bosqinchilar bilan ham, Bolqon chegarasida Rim va qabilalar ittifoqchilari bilan ham kurashishga muvaffaq bo'ldi. Keyingi yili Filipp tashabbus ko'rsatdi va o'z qo'shinini strategik pozitsiyaga ko'chirdi, u erda Illyriyadagi Rim qo'shinining aloqa liniyalariga tahdid soldi. Rimliklar Filippning lavozimiga hujum qilishdi, bu qimmat, lekin oxir -oqibat muvaffaqiyatli kampaniya. Filipp Makedoniyaga chekinadi. Bu orada, Rim ittifoqchilari dengizda muvaffaqiyat qozonishdi va undan ham ko'proq yunon davlatlari rimliklarga qo'shilishdi.

Filipp Fessaliyaga kirdi, lekin maqsadiga yetguncha Rim armiyasi bilan shug'ullangan. U Sinossefalada jang qilishga majbur bo'ldi va mag'lubiyatga uchradi. U Makedoniya tashqarisidagi barcha hududlarni tashlab, Yunonistonning barcha shaharlarining mustaqilligini hurmat qilishi kerak edi. Rimliklar Makedoniya va Gretsiyada hukmron hokimiyat rolini o'z zimmalariga oldilar.

Uchinchi Makedoniya urushi (miloddan avvalgi 171-168 yillar)

Filipp Vning o'g'li qirol Perseus yana Yunonistonda o'z kuchini topa boshlagach, rimliklar o'zlarining gegemonliklarida o'zlarini xavf ostida his qilishdi. Harbiy harakatlardan qochish uchun Perseus diplomatik yutuqlaridan vijdonsiz foydalanib, ular Iliriya va Gretsiyaga qo'shin olib kelishdi. Perseus tezlik bilan reaksiyaga kirishdi va Fessaliyadagi rimliklardan ustun keldi va ularning ta'minotini uzib qo'ydi.

Bu orada rimliklar shafqatsizliklari, og'ir qo'llari va ochko'zliklari bilan yunonlardan ajralib qolishdi. Perseus, aksincha, tobora ommalashib ketdi. Bundan tashqari, u muvaffaqiyat qozondi, rimliklar yomon intizom va buyruqdan aziyat chekdilar. Makedoniyaning ikkita bosqini muvaffaqiyatsiz tugadi va Perseus qarshi hujum qilib, o'z hududini qaytarib oldi va Rimning Bolqon qabilaviy ittifoqchilarini mag'lub etdi. Keyingi qishda (miloddan avvalgi 169 yil) u Makedoniyaning shimoli -g'arbiy chegarasida, Gretsiya va Epirusda rimliklarga qarshi muvaffaqiyatli kurash olib bordi.

Miloddan avvalgi 168 yilda konsul Lucius Aemilius Paullus Rim armiyasini boshqargan. Rimliklar uchta jabhada hujum qilishga qaror qilishdi: Egey dengizidagi dengiz hujumi, Illyriyadan g'arbdan hujum va Fessaliyadan hujum. Birinchi Makedoniya muvaffaqiyatidan so'ng, Perseus Pydnada rimliklar bilan uchrashdi. Yaxshi joylashtirilgan makedon falanksi tayyor bo'lmagan rimliklarga hujum qildi, ammo makedoniya chizig'i buzildi. Rimliklar qarshi hujum qilib, makedoniyaliklarni sindirishdi. Perseus qo'lga olindi va Italiyaga olib kelindi. Makedoniya Rimga bo'ysunuvchi to'rt respublikaga bo'lingan.

To'rtinchi Makedoniya urushi (miloddan avvalgi 146 yil)

To'rtinchi Makedoniya urushi aslida qo'zg'olon edi. Makedoniyaliklar har doim o'z qirollik uyiga sodiq bo'lgan va miloddan avvalgi 152 yilda Andris ismli taxtga da'vogar makedoniyaliklarni qirollik sulolasini tiklash uchun qo'zg'olon qo'zg'atgan. Qo'zg'olonchilar dastlab Rim legioni va mahalliy militsiyadan iborat qo'shinni mag'lub etishga muvaffaq bo'lishdi, lekin tez orada boshqa Rim armiyasi qo'zg'olonni bostirdi.

Manbalar va qo'shimcha o'qish: Errington, Robert Malkom. Makedoniya tarixi. Berkli: Kaliforniya universiteti matbuoti, 1990. Hammond, Nikolas Geoffri Lem Priere va F. V. Uolbank. Makedoniya tarixi. Jild 3, 336-167 B. C. E. Oksford: Clarendon Press, 1988. Uolbank, Frank Uilyam. Filipp V Makedoniya. Kembrij, Buyuk Britaniya: Kembrij universiteti matbuoti, 1940. Reprint, Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1967.


Tarkibi

Miloddan avvalgi 205 yilda birinchi Makedoniya urushi Finikiya shartnomasi imzolanishi bilan tugadi, uning shartiga ko'ra makedoniyaliklarning g'arb tomon kengayishiga yo'l qo'yilmadi. Bu orada Rim Karfagen bilan band edi va Filipp bundan foydalanib, yunon dunyosini boshqarishni qo'lga kiritishga umid qilgandi. U o'z ambitsiyalariga Krit bilan ittifoq yordam berishini bilar edi va kretliklarni Rodiya aktivlariga hujum qilishga majburlay boshladi. [1] Kichik Osiyodagi hukmron yunon davlati Pergamni tor -mor etib, Aetoliya bilan ittifoq tuzgan Filippga endi Rodosdan boshqa yunon kuchlari qarshilik ko'rsatmadi. O'rta er dengizining janubi-sharqida iqtisodiy va harbiy jihatdan hukmronlik qilgan Rodos orol davlati rasmiy ravishda Filipp bilan ittifoqdosh edi, lekin uning dushmani Rim bilan ham ittifoqdosh edi. [1] Bundan tashqari, Filipp Bolqonda asosiy kuch sifatida o'z mavqeini mustahkamlashga harakat qildi. U o'z kuchlarini Makedoniyaning shimoliy chegarasiga olib bordi va jangda 10 ming askarini yo'qotgan iliriyaliklarni mag'lubiyatga uchratdi. [1] Filipp o'zining shimoliy chegarasi himoyalangan holda, e'tiborini Egey dengiziga qaratdi.

Feniks shartnomasi Filippni g'arbga Iliriya yoki Adriatik dengiziga kengaytirishni taqiqlab qo'ydi, shuning uchun qirol diqqatini sharqdan Egey dengiziga qaratdi va u erda katta flot qurishni boshladi. [2]

Filipp Rodosning dengiz ustidan hukmronligini buzishning ikki yo'lini ko'rdi: qaroqchilik va urush. Ikkala usuldan ham foydalanishga qaror qilib, u o'z ittifoqchilarini Rhodiya kemalariga qaroqchilar hujumini boshlashga undadi. Litiya urushidan buyon Kritda o'z o'rnini egallagan Filipp uzoq vaqt qaroqchilik bilan shug'ullangan kritlarni ishontirdi. Shuningdek, u etolliklarni va spartaliklarni qaroqchilikda ishtirok etishga ko'ndirdi. Bu xalqlarning jozibasi, qo'lga olingan Rodiya kemalaridan katta o'ljani va'da qilish edi. [3] U Aetolian Freebooter Dicaearchusni Egey orqali katta razziyaga jo'natdi, u davomida Kiklad va Rodiya hududlarini talon -taroj qildi. [2] Bundan tashqari, Filipp hiyla -nayrang yordamida rhodiyaliklarning dengiz kuchlarini zaiflashtirishga harakat qildi. U bunga o'z agenti Herakleidni Rodosga yuborish orqali erishdi va u erda 13 ta qayiqxonani yoqib yubordi. [1]

Miloddan avvalgi 205 yil oxiriga kelib, Rodos bu bosqinlar natijasida ancha zaiflashdi va Filipp o'z rejasining ikkinchi qismi, to'g'ridan -to'g'ri harbiy qarama -qarshilik bilan oldinga siljish imkoniyatini ko'rdi. U Ierapitna va Olous shaharlarini va Sharqiy Kritning boshqa shaharlarini Rodosga qarshi urush e'lon qilishga ko'ndirdi. [3]

Rodosning urush e'lon qilishiga birinchi javobi diplomatik edi, ular Rim Respublikasidan Filippga yordam so'rashdi. Biroq, rimliklar boshqa urushdan, Ikkinchi Punik urushi tugaganidan ehtiyot bo'lishdi. Rim Senati aholini urushga ko'ndirishga urindi, hatto Pergam, Kizik va Vizantiya Rodiyaliklar tarafidan urushga qo'shilganidan keyin ham, lekin urushdan charchagan shahar aholisini jilovlay olmadi. [4]

Bu vaqtda Filipp Rodosni Marmara dengizi sohilidagi Aetoliya bilan ittifoqchi shahar bo'lgan Ciusga hujum qilib qo'zg'atdi. [5] Rodos va boshqa shtatlar kelishuvga vositachilik qilishga urinishlariga qaramay, Filipp Tsiyni va uning qo'shnisi Mirleiyani qo'lga oldi. [5] Filipp keyin bu shaharlarni qayin ukasi, Bitiniya qiroli Prusias I ga topshirdi, u shaharlarni o'z nomidan Prusa va Apameyani xotini deb o'zgartirdi. Bu shaharlar evaziga Prusias u o'z shohligini Pergam hisobidan kengaytirishda davom etishini va'da qildi (uning Pergam bilan oxirgi urushi 205 yilda tugagan). Bu shaharlarning bosib olinishi aetolliklarning g'azabini keltirdi, chunki ikkalasi ham Aetoliya Ligasining a'zolari edi. Aetoliya va Makedoniya o'rtasidagi ittifoq faqat aetolliklarning Filippdan qo'rqishidan iborat edi va bu voqea allaqachon buzilgan munosabatlarni yomonlashtirdi. [6] Filipp keyinchalik Aetoliya Ligasi a'zolari bo'lgan Lisimaxiya va Xalsedon shaharlarini Aetoliya bilan ittifoqni zo'ravonlik bilan tahdid qilish orqali buzishga majbur qildi. [7]

Uyga qaytayotganda Filipp floti Frakiya sohilidagi Tasos orolida to'xtadi. Filippning generali Metrodorus shaharning elchilari bilan uchrashish uchun orolning xuddi shu nomdagi poytaxtiga bordi. Elchilar garnizon olmasliklari, Makedoniya armiyasiga o'lpon to'lashlari yoki qo'shin qo'shishlari shart emasligi va o'z qonunlaridan foydalanishda davom etishlari sharti bilan shaharni makedoniyaliklarga topshirishlarini aytishdi. [8] Metrodorus, qirol shartlarni qabul qildi, va tasiyaliklar makedoniyaliklarga o'z eshiklarini ochdi, deb javob berdi. Ammo devorlar ichida Filipp o'z askarlariga barcha fuqarolarni qul qilib, shaharni talon -taroj qilishni buyurdi. [8] Filippning bu kampaniya paytida qilgan harakati uning yunon davlatlari orasida obro'siga jiddiy ta'sir ko'rsatdi, bu erda uning harakatlari Birinchi Makedoniya urushi paytida aetoliyaliklar va rimliklarning vahshiy bosqinlaridan yaxshiroq emas edi. [5]

Miloddan avvalgi 204 yilda yoki miloddan avvalgi 203 yil bahorida Filippga Misrlik Sosibius va Agatokllar, yosh fir'avn Ptolomey Vning xizmatchilari murojaat qilishgan [1] Vazirlar ittifoq tuzish uchun Ptolomey va Filippning qizi o'rtasida nikoh tuzishga harakat qilishgan. Misr hisobidan o'z imperiyasini kengaytirmoqchi bo'lgan Salavkiylar imperiyasi Buyuk Antiox III ga qarshi. Filipp bu taklifni rad etdi va miloddan avvalgi 203-202 yil qishda Antiox bilan ittifoq tuzdi va Ptolemeylar imperiyasining bo'linishini uyushtirdi. [9] Filipp Misr va Kiprni egallashda Antioxga yordam berishga rozi bo'ldi, Antiox Filippga Kiren, Kiklad va Ioniyani boshqarishga yordam berishga va'da berdi. [2]

Miloddan avvalgi 202 yil oxirida etolliklar Filippga qarshi ittifoq tuzish uchun Rimga elchilar yuborishdi. Makedoniya tajovuzkorligi Aetoliya Ligasini hozirgi mavqeini saqlab qolish uchun ularga qo'shimcha himoyachilar kerakligiga ishontirdi. Biroq, rimliklar etolliklar Filipp bilan Birinchi Makedoniya urushini tugatish to'g'risida kelishib olganliklarini hali ham o'ylab o'tirganlarida, aetoliyalik elchilarga rad javobini berishdi. [5] Rimning qo'llab -quvvatlamagan munosabati Filippni Egey kampaniyasini davom ettirishga undadi. Filipp, Egey dengizi ustidan nazoratni uning mintaqaviy hukmronligini saqlab qolishda muhim deb bildi. Egeyni boshqarib, u Pergamni ajratib qo'yishi va Rimning Sharqiy O'rta er dengiziga aralashishga urinishini cheklashi mumkin edi. [5]

Salavkiylar shartnomasi tuzilishi bilan Filipp qo'shini Frakiyadagi Ptolomey hududlariga hujum qildi. Pergam qiroli Attal I Rodiya ittifoqiga qo'shilganini eshitgach, Filipp g'azablanib, Pergam hududiga bostirib kiradi. [10] Biroq, Egal dengizida Filipp dengiz flotiga qarshi kampaniya boshlashdan oldin, Attal o'z poytaxtining shahar devorlarini mustahkamlagan edi. Bu va boshqa ehtiyot choralarini qo'llagan holda, u Filippni o'z hududidan katta miqdordagi o'ljalarni tortib olishiga yo'l qo'ymaslikka umid qildi. Shaharda odam yo'qligini ko'rib, u o'z jangchilarini unga qarshi yubordi, lekin ular osongina qaytarildi. [11] Shahar devorlari juda kuchli deb hisoblab, Filipp bir necha ma'badni, jumladan Afrodita ma'badini va Afina Niceforus ma'badini vayron qilganidan keyin chekinib ketdi. [11] Makedoniyaliklar Tyatirani qo'lga kiritgandan so'ng, ular Teba tekisligini talon -taroj qilishdi, lekin o'ljalar kutilganidan unchalik samarasiz bo'ldi. U Tebaga kelganida, u hududning salavkiy gubernatori Zeuxisdan ta'minot talab qilgan. Biroq, Zeuxis Filippga katta miqdorda ta'minot berishni hech qachon rejalashtirmagan. [11]

Pergam eridan chiqib ketgandan so'ng, Filipp Makedoniya floti bilan janubga yo'l oldi va Kikladlarni bo'ysundirgandan so'ng, Samos orolini Ptolomey Vdan olib, u erda joylashgan Misr flotini qo'lga kiritdi. [12] Keyin flot shimolga burilib, Xios orolini qamal qildi. Filipp Rodosga etib borar ekan, Egeyning shimoliy orollarini zinapoya sifatida ishlatmoqchi edi. Filippni qamal qilish yaxshi kechmadi va Pergam, Rodos va ularning yangi ittifoqchilari Kos, Kizik va Vizantiyaning birlashgan flotlari shimoldan ham, janubdan ham yaqinlashganda vaziyat yomonlashdi. [13] Filipp ittifoqchilar uning chekinish chizig'ini muhrlashga urinayotganini tushunib, qamalni olib tashladi va do'stona portga suzib keta boshladi. [14] Biroq, u ittifoqchi flotga duch keldi va Xios jangiga sabab bo'ldi.

30 ming kishidan iborat 200 ta kemadan iborat Makedoniya floti koalitsiyaning oltmish beshta yirik harbiy kemasi, to'qqizta o'rta kemasi va uchta trememali flotidan ancha ko'p edi. [5] Jang ittifoqchilarning chap qanotiga qo'mondonlik qilayotgan Attalning Makedoniya o'ng qanotiga qarshi harakatlanishi bilan boshlandi, ittifoqchilarning o'ng qanoti rodiyalik admiral Teofilisk qo'mondonligida Makedoniyaning chap qanotiga hujum qildi. The allies gained the upper hand on their left flank and captured Philip's flagship Philip's admiral, Democrates, was slain in the fighting. [15] Meanwhile, on the allied right flank, the Macedonians were initially successful in pushing the Rhodians back. Theophiliscus, fighting on his flagship, received three fatal wounds but managed to rally his men and defeat the Macedonian boarders. The Rhodians were able to use their superior navigational skills to incapacitate large numbers of Macedonian ships, swinging the battle back into their favour. [16]

On the allied left flank, Attalus saw one of his ships being sunk by the enemy and the one next to it in danger. [17] He decided to sail to the rescue with two quadriremes and his flagship. Philip, however, whose ship had not been involved in the fighting to this point, saw that Attalus had strayed some distance from his fleet and sailed to attack him with four quinqueremes and three hemioliae. [18] Attalus, seeing Philip approaching, fled in terror and was forced to run his ships aground. Upon landing he spread coins, purple robes and other splendid articles on the deck of his ship and fled to the city of Erythrae. When the Macedonians arrived at the shore, they stopped to collect the plunder. Philip, thinking that Attalus had perished in the chase, started towing away the Pergamese flagship. [18]

Following the flight of their monarch, the Pergamese fleet withdrew north. However, having been bested by the Rhodians on the allied right wing, the Macedonian left wing disengaged and retreated to join its victorious right flank. The withdrawal of the Macedonian left permitted the Rhodians to sail unmolested back into Chios' harbour. [18]

While the battle was not decisive, it was a significant setback for Philip, who lost 92 ships destroyed and 7 captured. [19] On the allied side, the Pergamese had three ships destroyed and two captured, while the Rhodians lost three ships sunk and none captured. During the battle the Macedonians lost 6,000 rowers and 3,000 marines killed and had 2,000 men captured. The casualties for the allies were significantly lower, with the Pergamese losing 70 men the Rhodians 60 killed, the allies as a whole losing 600 captured. [20] Peter Green describes this defeat as "crippling and costly", with Philip sustaining more casualties than he had previously suffered in any battle. [21]

After this battle, the Rhodian admirals decided to leave Chios and sail back home. On the way back to Rhodes, the Rhodian admiral Theophiliscus died of the wounds he received at Chios, but before he died he appointed Cleonaeus as his successor. [22] As the Rhodian fleet was sailing in the strait between Lade and Miletus on the shore of Asia Minor, Philip's fleet attacked them. Philip defeated the Rhodian fleet in the Battle of Lade and forced it to retreat back to Rhodes. [23] The Milesians were impressed by the victory and sent Philip and Heracleides garlands of victory when they entered Milesian territory as did the city of Hiera Cone. [24]

Philip, disappointed by the spoils in Mysia, proceeded south and plundered the towns and cities of Caria. He invested Prinassus, which held out bravely at first, but when Philip set up his artillery, he sent an envoy into the city offering to let them leave the city unharmed or they would all be killed. The citizens decided to abandon the city. [25] At this stage in the campaign, Philip's army was running out of food, so he seized the city of Myus and gave it to the Magnesians in return for food supplies. Since the Magnesians had no grain, Philip settled for enough figs to feed his whole army. [26] Subsequently, Philip turned north in order to seize and garrison the cities of Iasos, Bargylia, Euromus and Pedasa in quick succession. [27]

While Philip's fleet was wintering in Bargylia, the combined Pergamese and Rhodian fleet blockaded the harbour. The situation in the Macedonian camp became so grave that the Macedonians were close to surrendering. [21] The dire situation was alleviated somewhat by supplies sent by Zeuxis. [28] Philip, however, managed to get out by trickery. He sent an Egyptian deserter to Attalus and the Rhodians to say that he was preparing to attack the allies the next day. Upon hearing the news, Attalus and the Rhodians started preparing the fleet for the oncoming attack. [21] While the allies were making their preparations, Philip slipped past them by night with his fleet, leaving numerous campfires burning to give the appearance that he remained in his camp. [21]

While Philip was involved in this campaign, his allies the Acarnanians became involved in a war against Athens after the Athenians murdered two Acarnanian athletes. [29] The Acarnanians complained to Philip about this provocation, and he decided to send a force under the command of Nicanor the Elephant to assist them in their attack on Attica. [30] The Macedonians and their allies plundered and looted Attica before attacking Athens. [31] The invaders made it as far as the Academy of Athens when the Roman ambassadors in the city ordered the Macedonians to retreat or to face war with Rome. [30]

Philip's fleet had just escaped from the allied blockade and Philip ordered that a squadron head to Athens. The Macedonian squadron sailed into Piraeus and captured four Athenian ships. [30] As the Macedonian squadron was retreating, the Rhodian and Pergamese fleet, which had followed Philip's ships across the Aegean, appeared from the allied base at Aegina and attacked the Macedonians. The allies defeated the Macedonian fleet and recaptured the Athenian ships, which they returned to the Athenians. [21] The Athenians were so pleased by the rescue that they replaced the recently abolished pro-Macedonian tribes, the Demetrias and Antigonis tribes, with the Attalid tribe in honour of Attalus as well as destroying monuments that had previously been erected in honour of Macedonian Kings. [32] Attalus and the Rhodians convinced the Athenian assembly to declare war on the Macedonians. [33]

The Pergamese fleet sailed back to their base at Aegina and the Rhodians set out to conquer all the Macedonian islands from Aegina to Rhodes, successfully assaulting all except Andros, Paros and Cythnos. [34] Philip ordered his prefect on the island of Euboea, Philoces, to assault Athens once again with 2,000 infantry and 200 cavalry. Philocles was unable to capture Athens, but ravaged the surrounding countryside. [34]

Meanwhile, Rhodian, Pergamese, Egyptian, anti-Macedonian Cretan and Athenian delegations travelled to Rome to appear before the Senate. [35] When they were given audience they informed the Senate about the treaty between Philip and Antiochus and complained of Philip's attacks on their territories. In response to these complaints the Romans sent three ambassadors, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, Gaius Claudius Nero and Publius Sempronius Tuditanus to Egypt with the orders to go to Rhodes after speaking with Ptolemy. [36]

While this was happening, Philip attacked and occupied the cities in Thrace which still belonged to Ptolemy, Maroneia, Cypsela, Doriscus, Serrheum and Aemus. The Macedonians then advanced on the Thracian Chersonese where they captured the cities of Perinthus, Sestos, Elaeus, Alopeconnesus, Callipolis and Madytus. [37] Philip then descended to the city of Abydos, which was held by a combined Pergamese and Rhodian garrison. Philip started the siege by blockading the city by land and sea to stop attempts to reinforce or supply the city. The Abydenians, full of confidence, dislodged some of the siege engines with their own catapults while some of Philip's other engines were burnt by the defenders. With their siege weaponry in tatters, the Macedonians started undermining the city's walls, eventually succeeding in collapsing the outer wall. [38]

The situation was now grave for the defenders and they decided to send two of their most prominent citizens to Philip as negotiators. Appearing before Philip, these men offered to surrender the city to him on the conditions that the Rhodian and the Pergamese garrisons were allowed to leave the city under a truce and that all the citizens were permitted to leave the city with the clothes they were wearing and go wherever they pleased, in effect meaning an unconditional surrender. [39] Philip replied that they should "surrender at discretion or fight like men." [40] The ambassadors, powerless to do more, carried this response back to the city.' [40]

Informed of this response, the city's leaders called an assembly to determine their course of action. They decided to liberate all slaves to secure their loyalty, to place all the children and their nurses in the gymnasium and to put all the women in the temple of Artemis. They also asked for everyone to bring forward their gold and silver and any clothes that were valuable so they could put them in the boats of the Rhodians and the Cyzicenes. [41] Fifty elder and trusted men were elected to carry out these tasks. All the citizens then swore an oath. As Polybius writes:

. whenever they saw the inner wall being captured by the enemy, they would kill the children and women, and would burn the above mentioned ships, and, in accordance with the curses that had been invoked, would throw the silver and gold into the sea. [41]

After reciting the oath, they brought forward the priests and everyone swore that they would defeat the enemy or die trying.' [41]

When the interior wall fell, the men, true to their promise, sprang from the ruins and fought with great courage, forcing Philip to send his troops forward in relays to the front line. By nightfall the Macedonians retreated to camp. That night the Abydenians resolved to save the women and children and at daybreak they sent some priests and priestess with a garland across to the Macedonians, surrendering the city to Philip. [42]

Meanwhile, Attalus sailed across the Aegean to the island of Tenedos. The youngest of the Roman ambassadors, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, had heard about the siege at Abydos while he was in Rhodes and he arrived at Abydos to find Philip. Meeting the king outside the city, Lepidus informed him of the Senate's wishes. [43] Polybius writes:

The Senate had resolved to order him not to wage war with any Greek state nor to interfere in the dominions of Ptolemy and to submit the injuries inflicted on Attalus and the Rhodians to arbitration and that if he did so he might have peace, but if he refused to obey he would promptly have war with Rome." Upon Philip endeavoring to show that the Rhodians had been the first to lay hands on him, Marcus interrupted him by saying: "But what about the Athenians? And what about the Cianians? And what about the Abydenians at this moment? Did any one of them also lay hands on you first?" The king, at a loss for a reply, said: "I pardon the offensive haughtiness of your manners for three reasons: first, because you are a young man and inexperienced in affairs secondly, because you are the handsomest man of your time" (this was true) "and thirdly, because you are a Roman. But for my part, my first demand to the Romans is that they should not break their treaties or go to war with me but if they do, I shall defend myself as courageously as I can, appealing to the gods to defend my cause. [44]

While Philip was walking through Abydos, he saw people killing themselves and their families by stabbing, burning, hanging, and jumping down wells and from rooftops. Philip was surprised to see this, and published a proclamation announcing that would give three days' grace to anybody wishing to commit suicide. [45] The Abydenians, who were bent on following the orders of the original decree, thought that this would amount to treason to the people who had already died, and refused to live under these terms. Apart from those in chains or similar restraints, each family individually hurried to their deaths. [44]

Philip then ordered another attack on Athens his army failed to take either Athens or Eleusis, but subjected Attica to the worst ravaging the Atticans had seen since the Persian Wars. [46] In response, the Romans declared war on Philip and invaded his territories in Illyria. Philip was forced to abandon his Rhodian and Pergamese campaign in order to deal with the Romans and the situation in Greece. Thus began the Second Macedonian War. [47]

After Philip's withdrawal from his campaign against Rhodes, the Rhodians were free to attack Olous and Hierapytna and their other Cretan allies. Rhodes' search for allies in Crete bore fruit when the Cretan city of Knossos saw that the war was going in Rhodes' favour and decided to join Rhodes in an attempt to gain supremacy over the island. [3] Many other cities in central Crete subsequently joined Rhodes and Knossos against Hierapytna and Olous. Now under attack on two fronts, Hierapytna surrendered. [3]

Under the treaty signed at the conclusion of the war, Hierapytna agreed to break off all relations and alliances with foreign powers and to place all its harbors and bases at Rhodes' disposal. Olous, among the ruins of which the terms of the treaty have been found, had to accept Rhodian domination. [3] As a result, Rhodes was left with control of a significant part of eastern Crete after the war. The conclusion of the war left the Rhodians free to help their allies in the Second Macedonian War.

The war had no particular short-term effect on the rest of Crete. Pirates and mercenaries there continued in their old occupations after the war's end. In the Battle of Cynoscephalae during the Second Macedonian War three years later, Cretan mercenary archers fought for both the Romans and the Macedonians. [48]

The war was costly for Philip and the Macedonians, losing them a fleet that had taken three years to build as well as triggering the defection of their Greek allies, the Achean League and the Aetolian League, to the Romans. In the war's immediate aftermath the Dardani, a barbarian tribe, swarmed across the northern border of Macedon, but Philip was able to repel this attack. [46] In 197, however, Philip was defeated in the Battle of Cynoscephalae by the Romans and was forced to surrender. [49] This defeat cost Philip most of his territory outside Macedon and he had to pay a war indemnity of 1,000 talents of silver to the Romans. [50]

The Rhodians regained control over the Cyclades and reconfirmed their naval supremacy over the Aegean. The Rhodians' possession of eastern Crete allowed them to largely stamp out piracy in that area, but pirate attacks on Rhodian shipping continued and eventually led to the Second Cretan War. [3] Attalus died in 197 and was succeeded by his son, Eumenes II, who continued his father's anti-Macedonian policy. The Pergamese, meanwhile, came out of the war having gained several Aegean islands which had been in Philip's possession and went on to become the supreme power in Asia Minor, rivaled only by Antiochus. [30]


Hostilities Resume

From Naupactus, Sulpicius sailed east to Corinth and Sicyon, conducting raids there. Philip, with his cavalry caught the Romans ashore and was able to drive them back to their ships, with the Romans returning to Naupactus.

Philip then joined Cycliadas the Achaean general, near Dyme for a joint attack on the city of Elis, the main Aetolian base of operations against Achaea. However, Sulpicius had sailed into Cyllene and reinforced Elis with 4000 Romans. Leading a charge, Philip was thrown from his horse. Fighting on foot Philip became the object of a fierce battle, finally escaping on another horse. The next day Philip captured the stronghold of Phyricus, taking 4000 prisoners and 20,000 animals. Hearing news of Illyrian incursions in the north Philip abandoned Aetolia and returned to Demetrias in Thessaly.

Meanwhile, Sulpicius sailed round into the Aegean and joined Attalus on Aegina for the winter. In 208 BC the combined fleet of thirty-five Pergamene and twenty-five Roman ships failed to take Lemnos, but occupied and plundered the countryside of the island of Peparethos (Skopelos), both Macedonian possessions.

Attalus and Sulpicius then attended a meeting in Heraclea Trachinia of the Council of the Aetolians which included representatives from Egypt and Rhodes, who were continuing to try to arrange a peace. Learning of the conference and the presence of Attalus, Philip marched rapidly south in an attempt to break up the conference and catch the enemy leaders, but arrived too late.

Surrounded by foes, Philip was forced to adopt a defensive policy. He distributed his commanders and forces and set up a system of beacon fires at various high places to communicate instantly any enemy movements.

After leaving Heraclea, Attalus and Sulpicius sacked both Oreus, on the northern coast of Euboea and Opus, the chief city of eastern Locris. The spoils from Oreus had been reserved for Sulpicius, who returned there, while Attalus stayed to collect the spoils from Opus. However, with their forces divided, Philip, alerted by signal fire, attacked and took Opus. Attalus caught by surprise was barely able to escape to his ships.

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HISTORIC BATTLES

First Macedonian War (214–205 BC)

The First Macedonian War (214–205 BC) was fought by Rome, allied (after 211 BC) with the Aetolian League and Attalus I of Pergamon, against Philip V of Macedon, contemporaneously with the Second Punic War (218–201 BC) against Carthage. There were no decisive engagements, and the war ended in a stalemate. View Historic Battle »

Demetrius urges war against Rome: According to the ancient Greek historian Polybius, an important factor in Philip's decision to take advantage of this opportunity was the influence of Demetrius of Pharos.

Philip makes peace with Aetolia: Philip, at once began negotiations with the Aetolians. At a conference on the coast near Naupactus, Philip met the Aetolian leaders, and a peace treaty was concluded.

Philip builds a fleet: Philip spent the winter of 217–216 BC building a fleet of 100 warships and training men to row them, and according to Polybius, it was a practice that "hardly any Macedonian king had ever done before".

Philip allies with Carthage: After hearing of Rome's disastrous defeat at the hands of Hannibal at Cannae in 216 BC, Philip sent ambassadors to Hannibal's camp in Italy to negotiate an alliance.

War breaks out in Illyria: Upon receiving word from Oricum of events in Illyria, Laevinus crossed over with his fleet and army. Landing at Oricum, Laevinus was able to retake the town with little fighting.

Rome seeks allies in Greece: Desiring to prevent Philip from aiding Carthage in Italy and elsewhere, Rome sought out land allies in Greece.

Campaign in Greece: Upon hearing of the Roman alliance with Aetolia, Philip's first action was to secure his northern borders. He conducted raids in Illyria at Oricum and Apollonia and seized the frontier town of Sintia in Dardania or perhaps Paionia.

Attempt at peace fails: There he met representatives from the neutral states of Egypt, Rhodes, Athens and Chios who were trying to end the war—they were trading states and the war was likely hurting trade.

Hostilities resume: Philip, with his cavalry caught the Romans ashore and was able to drive them back to their ships, with the Romans returning to Naupactus.

The war ends: Free from the pressure of the combined Roman and Pergamon fleets, Philip was able to resume the offensive against the Aetolians.

Tegishli maqolalar

First Macedonian War (214–205 BC)

Was fought by Rome, allied (after 211 BC) with the Aetolian League and Attalus I of Pergamon, against Philip V of Macedon, contemporaneously with the Second Punic War (218–201 BC) against Carthage. View First Macedonian War (214–205 BC) »

Second Macedonian War (200–197 BC)

Fought between Macedon, led by Philip V of Macedon, and Rome, allied with Pergamon and Rhodes. The result was the defeat of Philip who was forced to abandon all his possessions in southern Greece, Thrace and Asia Minor. View Second Macedonian War (200–197 BC) »

Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC)

In 179 BC King Philip V of Macedon died and was succeeded by his ambitious son Perseus. He was anti-Roman and stirred anti-Roman feelings around Macedonia. He was suspected of preparing for war against Rome by the Romans and their most important ally in the east, Eumenes II of Pergamon. View Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC) »

Fourth Macedonian War (150-148 BC)

The Fourth Macedonian War (150 BC to 148 BC) was fought between the Roman Republic and a Greek uprising led by the Macedonian pretender to the throne Andriscus. Pretending to be the son of former king Perseus, who had been deposed by the Romans after the Third Macedonian War in 168 BC, Andriscus sought to re-establish the old Macedonian Kingdom. View Fourth Macedonian War (150-148 BC) »


First Macedonian War (214–205 BC)

The First Macedonian War (214–205 BC) was fought by Rome, allied (after 211 BC) with the Aetolian League and Attalus I of Pergamon, against Philip V of Macedon, contemporaneously with the Second Punic War (218–201 BC) against Carthage. There were no decisive engagements, and the war ended in a stalemate.

Tegishli maqolalar

First Macedonian War (214–205 BC)

Was fought by Rome, allied (after 211 BC) with the Aetolian League and Attalus I of Pergamon, against Philip V of Macedon, contemporaneously with the Second Punic War (218–201 BC) against Carthage. View Historic Battles »

Second Macedonian War (200–197 BC)

Fought between Macedon, led by Philip V of Macedon, and Rome, allied with Pergamon and Rhodes. The result was the defeat of Philip who was forced to abandon all his possessions in southern Greece, Thrace and Asia Minor. View Historic Battles »

Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC)

In 179 BC King Philip V of Macedon died and was succeeded by his ambitious son Perseus. He was anti-Roman and stirred anti-Roman feelings around Macedonia. View Historic Battles »

Fourth Macedonian War (150-148 BC)

Fought between the Roman Republic and a Greek uprising led by the Macedonian pretender to the throne Andriscus. Andriscus sought to re-establish the old Macedonian Kingdom. View Historic Battles »


RESOURCES
This article uses material from the Wikipedia article "First Macedonian War (214–205 BC)", which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.


First Macedonian War 215-205 BC - History


Macedonian Wars 215-168 BC

The Macedonian Wars were fought between the Rim Respublikasi va Kingdom of Macedonia .

The Chapters of the Macedonian Wars

There were FOUR different conflicts:


First Macedonian War
The First Macedonian War was fought 215-205 BC .

Macedonian King Philip V allied with Gannibal dan Carthage , who was himself involved in a war against Rome, the Second Punic War . Brilliant timing, thought Philip, and went ahead to invade Illyria, formerly under Roman domination. The Romans were unable to defend their territories. The Peace of Phoenice in 205 BC concluded the war.

The Macedonians won the First Macedonian War.


Second Macedonian War
The Second Macedonian War was fought 200-196 BC .

Philip kept going for more territories, the Romans told him to stop, Philip couldn't hear on that ear. The Battle of Cynoscephalae in 197 BC was part of this war. Led by General Titus Quinctius Flamininus Rome won the battle and the war.

The Romans won the Second Macedonian War.

Third Macedonian War
The Third Macedonian War was fought 171-168 BC .

Rome noticed Philip's successor Perseus trying to ally himself with a number of Greek rulers. The Romans decided it was time for yet another war. Roman general Lucius Aemilius Paullus sent the Macedonians packing at the Battle of Pydna in 168 BC.

To drive the point home, the Romans took Perseus prisoner and made Macedonia pay annual tribute.

The Romans won the Third Macedonian War.



Fourth Macedonian War
The Fourth Macedonian War was fought 149-148 BC .

Perseus' son Andriscus thought the arrangement with Rome stunk and hence the Fourth Macedonian War was next on the timeline.

Roman General Quintus Caecilius Metellus straightened the Macedonians out and Macedonia became a Roman province.

The Romans won the Fourth Macedonian War.


War breaks out in Illyria [ edit | manbani tahrirlash]

In the late summer of 214 BC, Philip again attempted an Illyrian invasion by sea, with a fleet of 120 lembi. He captured Oricum which was lightly defended, and sailing up the Aous (modern Vjosë) river he besieged Apollonia. ⎟ va#93

Meanwhile the Romans had moved the fleet from Tarentum to Brundisium to continue the watch on the movements of Philip and a legion had been sent in support, all under the command of the Roman propraetor Marcus Valerius Laevinus. ⎠] Upon receiving word from Oricum of events in Illyria, Laevinus crossed over with his fleet and army. Landing at Oricum, Laevinus was able to retake the town with little fighting.

In the account given by Livy, ⎡] Laevinus, hearing that Apollonia was under siege, sent 2000 men under the command of Quintus Naevius Crista, to the mouth of the river. Avoiding Philip's army, Crista was able to enter the city by night unobserved. The following night, catching Philip's forces by surprise, he attacked and routed their camp. Philip, escaping to his ships in the river, made his way over the mountains and back to Macedonia, having burned his fleet and left many thousands of his men that had died or been taken prisoner, along with all of his armies' possessions, behind. Laevinus and his fleet wintered at Oricum.

Twice thwarted in attempts at invasion of Illyria by sea, and now constrained by Laevinus' fleet in the Adriatic, Philip spent the next two years 213–212 BC making advances in Illyria by land. Keeping clear of the coast, he took the inland towns of Atintania, and Dimale, and subdued the Greek ⎢] tribe of the Dassaretae and the Illyrian Parthini ⎣] and at least the southern Ardiaei. ⎤]

He was finally able to gain access to the Adriatic by capturing Lissus and its seemingly impregnable citadel, after which the surrounding territories surrendered. ⎥] Perhaps the capture of Lissus rekindled in Philip hopes of an Italian invasion. ⎦] However the loss of his fleet meant that Philip would be dependent on Carthage for passage to and from Italy, making the prospect of invasion considerably less appealing.


First Macedonian War

Following the death of Pyrrhus of Epirus at the Battle of Argos in 272 BC, Antigonus II Gonatas was firmly in control of Macedon, and has also established hegemony over the Greek city-states. He then did his best to maintain his control over his homeland, raising a great sacred mound to honor the Argead house, reorganized the provincial system to increase its efficiency, and was vigilant in keeping Macedonian coinage a high-quality currency. He extensively utilized the great Antigonid fleet and the naval fortresses of Demetrias, Chalcis, and Corinth to ferry troops to strategic locations. An Athenian-led, Ptolemaic-supported attempt at shaking off Macedonian domination in the Chremonidean War of 267-261 BC failed, but crucial fortresses such as Acrocorinth were lost during his reign, which ended on his death in 239 BC. His successor, Demetrius II of Macedon, ruled for an uneventful decade, and he died in 229 BC. The late king's own son Philip V of Macedon came to the throne as a child, and a distant relative, Antigonus Doson, served as his regent. Doson raised Philip as his own son and energetically set to campaigning to beat back Macedon's enemies. He first expelled the Illyrians from the kingdom and then crushed the Aetolian League, and he renounced all Macedonian claims south of the Thermopylae pass to stabilize Macedon. Antigonus accepted the title of King by the army, and he appointed Philip his official heir. After another series of victories, including the first-ever seizure of Sparta by a foreign army, Doson died in 221 BC, leaving behind a resurgent, stable, and increasingly powerful Macedon to Philip V, who now ascended to the throne. From 220 to 217 BC, the Aetolian War saw the Aetolian League and its allies again challenge Macedonian hegemony, and it was at this time that Demetrius of Pharos arrived at Philip's court. Hannibal's victories over Rome in the Second Punic War led to Demetrius advising Philip to end the Social War and attack Italy himself to acquire hegemony over the Mediterranean. Accepting the military status quo and ending the war at Naupactus, Philip again drove the Illyrians from Macedon and, in the winter of 217 BC, he built a fleet of 100 light warships. In the summer of 216 BC, he made his first attempt at securing Illyria's coastal region, but the approach of a Roman fleet forced him to return home. After the Battle of Cannae, Philip sent an embassy to Hannibal to secure an alliance with Carthage, but the envoy, Xenophanes, was captured by a Roman praetor. Xenophanes claimed that he was travelling to Italy to make peace with Rome, and he was released however, he was captured again on his way back to Macedon with the treaty with Hannibal in hand, and the Romans were warned of the Macedonians' plans. Philip resumed his attacks on coastal Illyria, attacking Corcyra in 214 BC.

In 214 BC, Philip launched a major offensive. His land army marched into Illyria from Epirus as 120 galleys sailed up the Straits of Otranto, seizing Oricum and besieging Apollonia. The Illyrians called to Rome for help, and the Roman commander Marcus Valerius Laevinus crossed the Adriatic with 55 heavy warships and recaptured Apollonia and Oricum. After these victories, he wintered his fleet in Oricum while Philip burned his ships and retreated overland to Macedon. He then attacked through the Pindus mountains and made significant gains in 213-212 BC, taking the inland Dassaretis, Parthini, and Atintani tribal settlements without a significant Roman response, as Rome did not have the land troops to spare for a side venture. During the later part of 212 BC, when Philip once again reached the Adriatic, he seized Lissus, another possible staging point. Rome now acknowledged the Macedonian threat, so the Roman Senate began to use diplomacy as a weapon and enticed other Greek states to do the neutralizing for them. Rome allied with the Aetolian League, who would get any captured town or city in exchange for the booty going to the Romans. Sparta, Elis, Messenia, Illyria, and Pergamon also joined in the war, and the Romans took important centers such as Anticyra. Philip made little gains against the coalition, and, in 207 BC, Rome derailed peace talks. From 206 to 205 BC, the Macedonians were gradually forced into peace, and hostilities were temporarily concluded.


Campaign in Greece

Later that summer, Laevinus seized the main town of Zacynthus, except for its citadel, the Acarnanian town of Oeniadae and the island of Nasos, which he handed over to the Aetolians. He then withdrew his fleet to Corcyra for the winter.

Upon hearing of the Roman alliance with Aetolia, Philip’s first action was to secure his northern borders. He conducted raids in Illyria at Oricum and Apollonia and seized the frontier town of Sintia in Dardania or perhaps Paionia. He then marched rapidly south through Pelagonia, Lyncestis and Bottiaea and on to Tempe which he garrisoned with 4,000 men. He turned north again into Thrace, attacking the Maedi and their chief city Iamphorynna before returning to Macedon.

No sooner had Philip arrived there when he received an urgent plea for help from his ally the Acarnanians. Scopas the Aetolian strategos (general) had mobilised the Aetolian army and was preparing to invade Acarnania. Desperate and overmatched, but determined to resist, the Acarnanians sent their women, children and old men to seek refuge in Epirus and the rest marched to the frontier, having sworn an oath to fight to the death, “invoking a terrible curse” upon any who were forsworn. Hearing of the Acarnanians’ grim determination, the Aetolians hesitated then, learning of Philip’s approach, finally abandoned their invasion, after which Philip retired to Pella for the winter.

In the spring of 210 BC, Laevinus again sailed from Corcyra with his fleet and, together with the Aetolians, captured Phocian Anticyra. Rome enslaved the inhabitants and Aetolia took possession of the town.

Although there was some fear of Rome and concern with her methods, the coalition arrayed against Philip continued to grow. As allowed for by the treaty, Pergamon, Elis and Messenia, followed by Sparta, all agreed to join the alliance against Macedon. The Roman fleet, together with the Pergamene fleet, controlled the sea, and Macedon and her allies were threatened on land by the rest of the coalition. The Roman strategy of encumbering Philip with a war among Greeks in Greece was succeeding, so much so that when Laevinus went to Rome to take up his consulship, he was able to report that the legion deployed against Philip could be safely withdrawn.

However, the Eleans, Messenians and Spartans remained passive throughout 210 BC and Philip continued to make advances. He invested and took Echinus, using extensive siegeworks, having beaten back an attempt to relieve the town by the Aetolian strategos Dorimachus and the Roman fleet, now commanded by the proconsul Publius Sulpicius Galba. Moving west, Philip probably also took Phalara the port city of Lamia, in the Maliac Gulf. Sulpicius and Dorimachus took Aegina, an island in the Saronic Gulf, which the Aetolians sold to Attalus, the Pergamene king, for thirty talents, and which he was to use as his base of operations against Macedon in the Aegean Sea.

In the spring of 209 BC, Philip received requests for help from his ally the Achaean League in the Peloponnesus who were being attacked by Sparta and the Aetolians. He also heard that Attalus had been elected one of the two supreme commanders of the Aetolian League, as well as rumours that he intended to crossover the Aegean from Asia Minor. Philip marched south into Greece. At Lamia he was met by an Aetolian force, supported by Roman and Pergamene auxiliaries, under the command of Attalus’ colleague as strategos, the Aetolian Pyrrhias. Philip won two battles at Lamia, inflicting heavy casualties on Pyrrhias’ troops. The Aetolians and their allies were forced to retreat inside the city walls, where they remained, unwilling to give battle.


When did Rome defeat Macedonia?

They caused increasing involvement by Rim in Greek affairs and helped lead to Rim domination of the entire eastern Mediterranean area. The First Makedon War (215&ndash205 bc) occurred in the context of the Second Punic War, while Rim was preoccupied with fighting Carthage.

Also Know, is Macedonia in Rome? The Rim province of Makedoniya (Latin: Provincia Macedoniae, Greek: ?&pi&alpha&rho&chiί&alpha &Mu&alpha&kappa&epsilon&delta&omicron&nuί&alpha&sigmaf) was officially established in 146 BC, after the Rim general Quintus Caecilius Metellus defeated Andriscus of Macedon, the last self-styled King of the ancient kingdom of Makedoniya in 148 BC, and after the four client republics (

People also ask, who won the Macedonian war?

The First Macedonian War (214&ndash205 BC) was fought by Rome, allied (after 211 BC) with the Aetolian League and Attalus I of Pergamon, against Philip V of Macedon, contemporaneously with the Second Punic War (218&ndash201 BC) against Carthage.

Birinchisi Macedonian War.

Sana 214&ndash205 BC
Manzil Macedonia and Illyria
Result Stalemate Peace of Phoenice

How did the Romans defeated the Macedonian phalanx?

No matter if it was a Macedonian phalanx they attacked, nor a huge Spartan line, they would most probably win. The Rimliklar used javelin attacks before their lines rushed the enemy, in an effort to try and break the enemy line. The Rim is now in front of the Makedon and uses his sword to kill the pikeman.


Videoni tomosha qiling: #Ishkalni zori.. 18+Yana usha brodveyda..QON tukiladimi deyman.. Faqat bolla korsin, (Iyul 2022).


Izohlar:

  1. Burdett

    Kechirim so'rayman, bu variant menga mos kelmaydi. Kim nafas olishi mumkin?

  2. Doulabar

    Bu shunchaki taqqoslanmaydigan ibora

  3. Garon

    Incredible sentence, I like it :)

  4. Benen

    U bilan to'liq qo'shilaman. Bu erda hech narsa yo'q va menimcha, bu juda yaxshi fikr. Gaplaringa qo'shilaman.



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