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Buyuk Britaniya va Irlandiya uchun erdan foydalanishning tarixiy manbalari bormi?

Buyuk Britaniya va Irlandiya uchun erdan foydalanishning tarixiy manbalari bormi?


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Buyuk Britaniya va Irlandiya uchun erdan foydalanishning tarixiy manbalari bormi? (Faqat Shimoliy Irlandiya emas) Menga Buyuk Britaniya/Irlandiyadagi har bir nuqta/hudud uchun (ideal holda, cherkov qarorida, chunki men tarixiy o'rmonlarning kesilishini o'rmon darajasida o'rganayotganimdan), ma'lumotlar ro'yxati qiziqtiradi. er 1800-1900 yillar mobaynida o'rmon, shahar, qishloq xo'jaligi/ekinlar va boshqalar edi.

Bu ma'lumotlarning zamonaviy versiyalari mavjud, masalan. boshqa savollarda ko'rib chiqilgan Corine er qoplami ma'lumotlari, lekin hech qanday tarixiy emas.

Qurol -aslaha tadqiqotlari 1842 -yillar uchun shunga o'xshash ba'zi ma'lumotlarni o'z ichiga oladi, lekin aslida har bir okrug xaritaga kiritilgan yillar ro'yxatiga nazar tashlasak, haqiqiy ma'lumotlar asosan ancha keyinroq ekanligini ko'rsatadi. https://maps.nls.uk/os/6inch-england-and-wales/


Bu savolning tarixga mosligi haqida qisqacha muhokama qilish uchun ushbu meta -savolga qarang.


Inson geografiyasi

Inson geografiyasi yoki antropogeografiya Bu geografiya bo'limi bo'lib, u odamlar va ularning jamoalar, madaniyatlar, iqtisodiyot va atrof -muhit bilan o'zaro munosabatlari bilan bog'liq va ular bilan aloqalarni o'rganadi. [1] U sifatli va miqdoriy tadqiqot usullarini qo'llash orqali odamlarning ijtimoiy o'zaro ta'sirini, ularning atrof -muhit bilan o'zaro ta'sirini va fazoviy o'zaro bog'liqligini tahlil qiladi. [2] [3]


Demografik o'zgarish

Aholining o'zgarishi

Dunyo aholisi 1800 yildagi 1 milliarddan oshdi 7,8 milliard Bugun.

O'sish 50 yil oldin yiliga 2,2% dan sekinlashdi 1.05% bugun har yili.

Dunyo aholisi qachon va nima uchun ko'paygan? Va aholining tez o'sishi qanday tugaydi?

Dunyo aholisining o'sishi

Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkiloti global aholi sonini ko'paytiradi 10,8 mlrd 2100 yilga kelib.

Keyin aholi o'sish sur'ati kutilmoqda nolga yaqin.

Kelajakdan nimani kutishimiz mumkin? Dunyo aholisining katta yoki kichik bo'lishini nima aniqlaydi?

Aholining kelajakdagi o'sishi

Dan boshlab, jahon o'rtacha yoshi oshdi 22 yil 1970 yilda 31 yil.

Dunyoning 26 foizini 14 yoshdan kichiklar tashkil qiladi. 8% 65 yoshdan katta.

Dunyo bo'ylab aholining yoshi qanday? U qanday o'zgargan va kelajakda populyatsiyalarning yosh tarkibi qanday bo'ladi?

Yosh tuzilishi

Ba'zi mamlakatlarda gender kamsitilishi tug'ilish paytida jinsiy nisbatlarning buzilishiga olib keladi.

Erkaklar va ayollar soni mamlakatlar o'rtasida qanday farq qiladi? Va nima uchun?

Jinslar nisbati

Hayot va o'lim

Dunyoda o'rtacha umr ko'rish davomiyligi 73 yil.

Dunyo miqyosidagi tengsizlik juda katta.

Odamlarning o'rtacha yoshi qachon va nima uchun o'sdi va biz erta o'limga qarshi qanday qilib oldinga siljishimiz mumkin?

Hayot davomiyligi

5,5 mln har yili besh yoshgacha bo'lgan bolalar vafot etadi.

Bolalar o'limining global darajasi 3.9%.

Nega bolalar o'lmoqda va buning oldini olish uchun nima qilish kerak?

Bolalar va chaqaloqlar o'limi

Dunyo bo'yicha o'rtacha tug'ilish darajasi 2,5 bola har bir ayol uchun.

So'nggi 50 yil ichida bu ko'rsatkich bor edi yarmiga qisqardi.

Dunyo bo'ylab va vaqt o'tishi bilan bolalar soni qanday o'zgaradi? Tez global o'zgarishga nima sabab bo'ladi?

Fertilite darajasi

Dunyo aholisining taqsimlanishi

55% dunyo aholisining ko'p qismi shaharlarda yashaydi.

Dunyo aholisi shaharlarga ko'chmoqda. Urbanizatsiya nima uchun ro'y bermoqda va buning oqibatlari qanday?

Urbanizatsiya

Salomatlik

Dunyoda o'rtacha umr ko'rish davomiyligi 73 yil.

Dunyo miqyosidagi tengsizlik juda katta.

Odamlarning o'rtacha yoshi qachon va nima uchun o'sdi va biz erta o'limga qarshi qanday qilib oldinga siljishimiz mumkin?

Hayot davomiyligi

5,5 mln har yili besh yoshgacha bo'lgan bolalar vafot etadi.

Bolalar o'limining global darajasi 3.9%.

Nega bolalar o'lmoqda va buning oldini olish uchun nima qilish kerak?

Bolalar va chaqaloqlar o'limi

303 ming ayol har yili homiladorlik bilan bog'liq sabablardan vafot etadi.

Yangi tug'ilgan chaqaloqni tug'ayotgan onaning hayotdan ko'z yumishi bundan ham fojiali bo'lishi mumkinmi? Nega onalar o'lmoqda va bu o'limni oldini olish uchun nima qilish kerak?

Onalar o'limi

Dunyo sog'lig'ining yaxshilanishini ko'rdi.

Ammo hali ham katta tengsizliklar mavjud.

Global sog'liqni saqlash sohasidagi tadqiqotlarimiz.

Global salomatlik

56 mln odamlar har yili o'lishadi.

Vaqt o'tishi bilan o'lim sabablari qanday o'zgargan?

O'lim sabablari

Kasallikning global yuki katta.

Har yili kasalliklar, baxtsiz hodisalar va erta o'lim tufayli 2,5 milliard sog'lom hayot yili yo'qoladi

Kasallik yuki qanday taqsimlanadi va vaqt o'tishi bilan u qanday o'zgaradi?

Kasallik yuki

9,6 mln odamlar har yili saraton kasalligidan vafot etadi.

54% 70 yoshdan kichik.

Saraton dunyodagi o'limning asosiy sabablaridan biridir. Biz saraton kasalligiga qarshi harakat qilyapmizmi?

Saraton

Taxminiy 792 million kishi ruhiy salomatlik buzilishi bor.

Biz depressiya, anksiyete buzilishi, bipolyar buzilish, ovqatlanish buzilishi va shizofreniya kasalliklarining tarqalishi haqida umumiy ma'lumot beramiz.

Ruhiy salomatlik

800 ming o'ladi har yili o'z joniga qasd qilishdan.

58% 50 yoshdan kichik.

Har bir o'z joniga qasd qilish fojia. Ammo ularning oldini olish mumkin.

O'z joniga qasd qilish

Salomatlik uchun xavf

5 mln odamlar har yili havoning ifloslanishidan vafot etadi.

Bizning ichki va tashqi havoning ifloslanishiga umumiy nuqtai nazarimiz.

Havoning ifloslanishi

3,4 mln odamlar har yili tashqi havoning ifloslanishidan vafot etadi.

43% 70 yoshdan kichik.

Tashqi havoning ifloslanishi dunyodagi eng katta sog'liq va ekologik muammolardan biridir.

Tashqi havoning ifloslanishi

1,6 mln odamlar har yili ichki havoning ifloslanishidan erta vafot etadi.

55% 70 yoshdan kichik.

Yog'och, ekinlar chiqindilari va pishirish va isitish uchun go'ng yoqilishi natijasida uy ichidagi havoning ifloslanishi - dunyodagi eng kambag'allarning sog'lig'iga katta xavf tug'diradi.

Ichki havo ifloslanishi

13% kattalar semiz, butun dunyoda.

Semirib ketish javobgar 4,7 mln har yili erta o'lim.

Semizlik qachon oshdi? Dunyo bo'ylab stavkalar qanday farq qiladi? Salomatlikka ta'siri qanday?

Semizlik

8,1 mln odamlar har yili chekishdan vafot etadi.

Ularning yarmi 70 yoshdan kichik.

Tamaki chekish bugungi kunda dunyodagi eng katta sog'liq muammolaridan biridir.

Chekish

2,8 mln odamlar har yili spirtli ichimliklarni iste'mol qilishdan erta vafot etadi.

74% 70 yoshdan kichik.

Kim ko'proq spirtli ichimlik iste'mol qiladi? Vaqt o'tishi bilan iste'mol qanday o'zgargan? Va sog'liqqa qanday ta'sir qiladi?

Spirtli ichimliklarni iste'mol qilish

11,8 mln odamlar har yili giyohvandlikdan vafot etadi.

Bu tamaki chekish, spirtli ichimliklarni iste'mol qilish va giyohvand moddalarni noqonuniy iste'mol qilishni o'z ichiga oladi.

Giyohvand moddalarni iste'mol qilish - chekish, spirtli ichimliklar va giyohvand moddalarni noqonuniy iste'mol qilish bugungi kunda dunyodagi eng katta sog'liq muammolaridan biridir.

Giyohvand moddalarni iste'mol qilish

590,000 odamlar har yili noqonuniy giyohvand moddalarni iste'mol qilishdan bevaqt vafot etadilar.

42% 50 yoshdan kichik.

Opioidlar, kokain, amfetaminlar va nasha uchun giyohvandlik qanchalik keng tarqalgan? Ta'siri qanday?

Opioidlar, kokain, nasha va noqonuniy dorilar

Yuqumli kasalliklar

COVID-19 global pandemiyaga aylandi.

Pandemiya bo'yicha mamlakatlar bo'yicha ma'lumotlar va tadqiqotlar. Har kuni yangilanadi.

Koronavirus pandemiyasi (COVID-19)

1 mln odamlar har yili OIV/OITSdan vafot etadi.

84% 50 yoshdan kichik.

Global epidemiya va ba'zi mamlakatlarda o'limning asosiy sababi.

OIV / OITS

620,000 odamlar har yili bezgakdan o'lishadi.

57% - 5 yoshgacha bo'lgan bolalar.

Chivinlar orqali yuqadigan o'lik kasallik bolalar o'limining asosiy sabablaridan biridir. Qanday qilib biz dunyoning ba'zi mintaqalarida kasallikni yo'q qildik va bezgakka qarshi qanday davom etishimiz mumkin?

Bezgak

Insoniyat allaqachon bitta og'ir kasallikni yo'q qilgan.

Qaysi birini hayotimizda yo'q qilishimiz mumkin va qanday qilib?

Kasalliklarni yo'q qilish

1,6 mln odamlar har yili diareya kasalliklaridan vafot etadi.

Uchdan bir qismi besh yoshgacha bo'lgan bolalardir.

Diareya kasalliklari bolalar o'limining asosiy sabablaridan biri bo'lib, ularning oldini olish mumkin. Qanday qilib biz bu kasalliklarga qarshi kurashda davom etishimiz mumkin?

Diareya kasalliklari

Ilgari chechak har yili millionlab odamlarni o'ldirgan.

Insoniyat bu yuqumli kasallikni butun dunyoda yo'q qildi. Bu qanday mumkin edi?

Chechak kasalligi

Bir avlod oldin poliomielit har yili yuz minglab bolalarni falaj qilib qo'ydi.

Endi butun dunyo uni yo'q qilishi mumkin: poliomielit faqat 2 mamlakatda endemik bo'lib qolmoqda.

Poliomiyelit

2,6 mln odamlar har yili pnevmoniyadan vafot etadi.

Uchdan bir qismi besh yoshgacha bo'lgan bolalardir.

Pnevmoniya 5 yoshgacha bo'lgan bolalar o'limining asosiy sababidir.

Zotiljam

40,000 odamlar har yili tetanozdan o'lishadi.

Yarim qismi besh yoshgacha bo'lgan bolalardir.

Tetanoz - bu mushaklarning og'riqli qisqarishi va o'limga olib keladigan bakterial infektsiya.

Qoqshol

Sog'liqni saqlash muassasalari va aralashuvlar

Sog'liqni saqlash uchun moliyalashtirish zarur.

Sog'liqni saqlash yomon sog'likka qarshi kurashda muvaffaqiyat qozonishning kalitidir. U qanday moliyalashtiriladi?

Sog'liqni saqlashni moliyalashtirish

Vaktsinalar har yili millionlab odamlarning hayotini saqlab qolish va yuqumli kasalliklarga qarshi kurashda muhim rol o'ynaydi.

Emlash

Oziq -ovqat va qishloq xo'jaligi

Oziqlanish

11% dunyo aholisining soni - 820 mln odamlar - to'yib ovqatlanmaydilar.

22% besh yoshga to'lmagan bolalarning "qoloqligi" bor.

Kam ovqatlanish qanday oqibatlarga olib keladi va ochlik va to'yib ovqatlanishga qarshi qanday olg'a siljishimiz mumkin?

Ochlik va kam ovqatlanish

Atrofda 130 mln oxirgi 150 yil ichida odamlar ocharchilikda vafot etdi.

Bu baho bizning tarixiy rekonstruksiyalarimizga asoslangan.

Dunyoning ko'p joylarida ochlik tez -tez uchrab turardi. Ochlikka nima sabab bo'ladi? Ochlikdan qanday qutulish mumkin?

Ochlik

2,884 kkal Bir kishiga o'rtacha global oziq -ovqat ta'minoti.

Mamlakatlar bo'ylab oziq -ovqat ta'minotida katta tengsizliklar mavjud.

Vaqt o'tishi bilan oziq -ovqat mahsulotlarining mavjudligi qanday o'zgargan? Dunyo bo'ylab oziq -ovqat ta'minoti qanday o'zgaradi?

Oziq -ovqat ta'minoti

Insonning balandligi bizga o'tmishda sog'lik va ovqatlanishdagi o'zgarishlarni ko'rsatadi.

Populyatsiyaning o'rtacha balandligi bizga o'tmishdagi aholining oziqlanishi va yashash sharoitlari haqida ma'lumot berishi mumkin, bu haqda bizda boshqa ma'lumotlar yo'q.

Inson balandligi

Taxminiy 2 milliard Odamlarda asosiy mikroelementlar etishmaydi.

Oziq -ovqat nafaqat energiya va oqsil manbai, balki sog'lik uchun zarur bo'lgan mikroelementlar - vitaminlar va minerallardir. Kimga mikroelementlar etishmasligining "yashirin ochligi" ko'proq ta'sir qiladi?

Mikroelementlar etishmasligi

Yaxshi ovqatlanish uchun har xil ovqatlanish zarur.

Mamlakatlar o'rtasida ovqatlanish xilma -xilligida katta tengsizliklar mavjud.

Dunyo bo'ylab odamlar nima yeydi?

Diyet kompozitsiyalari

Oziq -ovqat narxi iste'molchilar uchun ham, dehqonlar uchun ham muhim.

Oziq-ovqat odamlar uchun arzon bo'lishi kerak va shu bilan birga u dunyo ishchi kuchining to'rtdan bir qismi uchun asosiy daromad manbai hisoblanadi.

Oziq -ovqat narxlari

13% kattalar semiz, butun dunyoda.

Semirib ketish javobgar 4,7 mln har yili erta o'lim.

Semizlik qachon oshdi? Dunyo bo'ylab stavkalar qanday farq qiladi? Salomatlikka ta'siri qanday?

Semizlik

2,8 mln odamlar har yili spirtli ichimliklarni iste'mol qilishdan erta vafot etadi.

74% 70 yoshdan kichik.

Kim ko'proq spirtli ichimlik iste'mol qiladi? Vaqt o'tishi bilan iste'mol qanday o'zgargan? Va sog'liqqa qanday ta'sir qiladi?

Spirtli ichimliklarni iste'mol qilish

Oziq -ovqat mahsulotlari ishlab chiqarish

Dunyo hamma uchun etarli miqdordagi oziq -ovqat ishlab chiqaradi.

Ammo u butun dunyo bo'ylab teng taqsimlanmagan.

Dunyo bo'ylab mamlakatlar qancha oziq -ovqat ishlab chiqaradi?

Qishloq xo'jaligi ishlab chiqarish

26% Issiqxona gazlarining emissiyasi oziq -ovqat ishlab chiqarishdan kelib chiqadi.

50% Dunyoda yashashga yaroqli erlarning bir qismi qishloq xo'jaligi uchun ishlatiladi.

Oziq -ovqat mahsulotlarining ekologik ta'siri qanday? Qishloq xo'jaligining atrof -muhitga ta'sirini qanday kamaytirish mumkin?

Oziq -ovqat mahsulotlarini ishlab chiqarishning atrof -muhitga ta'siri

Donning global o'rtacha hosildorligi 4 tonna gektariga.

Ammo ko'plab mintaqalarda hosil ancha past.

Er maydoniga hosil etishtirishni ko'paytirish oziq -ovqat xavfsizligi, turmush darajasi va insoniyatning atrof -muhitga ta'sirini kamaytirish uchun muhim ahamiyatga ega.

Hosildorlik

Go'sht butun dunyodagi odamlar uchun muhim ovqatlanish manbai hisoblanadi. Talab qanchalik tez o'sib bormoqda? Va hayvonlarning farovonligi va erning ekologiyasiga qanday ta'sir qiladi?

Go'sht va sut mahsulotlari ishlab chiqarish

Baliq va dengiz mahsulotlari odamlar ovqatlanishining muhim qismidir. Borayotgan talab baliq populyatsiyasiga qanday ta'sir qiladi? Akvakulturada ishlab chiqarish yovvoyi ov bilan qanday taqqoslanadi?

Dengiz mahsulotlari ishlab chiqarish

Qishloq xo'jaligiga kirishlar

Bir paytlar inson mehnatining asosiy qismi oziq -ovqat ishlab chiqarishga bag'ishlangan. Bu qachon va qanday o'zgargan? Bugungi kunda qishloq xo'jaligida mehnat taqsimoti qanday?

Qishloq xo'jaligida bandlik

Insoniyat Yerdan qanday foydalanmoqda? Yovvoyi tabiat uchun ko'proq er qolishi uchun erdan foydalanishni qanday kamaytirish mumkin?

Yerdan foydalanish

Dunyo ko'proq ishlab chiqaradi 200 mln tonna o'g'it har yili.

O'g'itlar o'simliklarni o'sishi uchun zarur bo'lgan oziq moddalar bilan ta'minlaydi. O'g'itlar qanchalik muhim? Dunyo bo'ylab ulardan foydalanish qanday farq qiladi?

O'g'itlar

Pestitsidlar ko'pincha hosildorlikni saqlash uchun ishlatiladi.

Butun dunyoda uni ishlatishda katta farqlar mavjud.

Pestitsidlar o'simliklarni begona o'tlardan, zamburug'lardan yoki hasharotlardan himoya qilish uchun ishlatiladi. Ular qayerda ishlatiladi? Ularning ta'siri qanday?

Pestitsidlar

Energiya va atrof -muhit

Sayyoradagi yovvoyi tabiatning xilma -xilligini o'rganing. Turlarga nima tahdid solmoqda? Bioxilma -xillikni yo'qotmaslik uchun nima qilishimiz kerak?

Bioxilma -xillik

Energiya

13% Dunyo aholisi elektr energiyasiga ega emas.

40% pishirish uchun toza yoqilg'idan foydalanish imkoniyati yo'q.

Elektr va toza pishirish yoqilg'isidan foydalanish yaxshi turmush darajasi va salomatlik uchun juda muhimdir.

Energiyaga kirish

Global energiya ishlab chiqarish o'sdi 2,5 barobar oxirgi 50 yil ichida.

Dunyo qanday energiya manbalariga tayanadi? Bu energiya nimaga sarflanadi? Va vaqt o'tishi bilan u qanday o'zgaradi?

Energiya

5% Birlamchi energiya ishlab chiqarish global qayta tiklanadigan manbalardan keladi

Quyosh, shamol, gidroenergetika va boshqa qayta tiklanadigan energiya manbalari hozirda global energiyaning oz qismini tashkil qiladi. Ammo ular tez o'sib bormoqda va iqlim o'zgarishiga qarshi kurashda muhim rol o'ynashi mumkin.

Qayta tiklanadigan energiya

86% Dunyodagi asosiy energiya qazib olinadigan yoqilg'idan keladi.

TWh boshiga o'limlar 2.8 gaz uchun 24.6 ko'mir uchun.

Ko'mir, gaz va neft sanoatlashtirish va farovonlikning oshishi uchun kalit edi, lekin ularning salomatlik va iqlimga katta ta'siri biz bu energiya manbalaridan voz kechishimizni anglatadi.

Yoqilg'i moyi

Chiqindilar

Plastmassadan foydalanishning ko'p afzalliklari bor - u arzon, ko'p qirrali, chidamli va boshqa chiqindilarni, ayniqsa, oziq -ovqat chiqindilarini kamaytirishga yordam beradi. Ammo, agar u yomon boshqarilsa, atrof -muhit va okeanimizni ifloslantirishi mumkin. Bizning okeanlarimizdagi plastmassa qayerdan keladi va plastik ifloslanishini kamaytirish uchun nima qilishimiz kerak?

Plastik ifloslanish

Neft to'kilishi atrof -muhitga katta salbiy ta'sir ko'rsatishi mumkin.

Neft to'kilishi qanchalik tez -tez sodir bo'ladi? Vaqt o'tishi bilan u qanday o'zgargan?

Neft to'kilishi

Iqlim va havo

36 milliard har yili tonna CO₂ chiqariladi.

Issiqxona gazlarini kim chiqaradi? Qaysi davlatlar va qaysi tarmoqlar? Va chiqindilarni kamaytirish uchun nima qilish kerak?

CO₂ va issiqxona gazlari emissiyasi

5 mln odamlar har yili havoning ifloslanishidan vafot etadi.

Bizning ichki va tashqi havoning ifloslanishiga umumiy nuqtai nazarimiz.

Havoning ifloslanishi

3,4 mln odamlar har yili ochiq havoning ifloslanishidan vafot etadi.

43% 70 yoshdan kichik.

Tashqi havoning ifloslanishi dunyodagi eng katta sog'liq va ekologik muammolardan biridir.

Tashqi havoning ifloslanishi

1,6 mln odamlar har yili ichki havoning ifloslanishidan erta vafot etadi.

55% 70 yoshdan kichik.

Yog'och, ekin chiqindilari va pishirish va isitish uchun go'ng yoqilishi natijasida uy ichidagi havoning ifloslanishi - dunyodagi eng kambag'allarning salomatligi uchun katta xavf.

Ichki havo ifloslanishi

Ozon qatlamini buzuvchi gazlar emissiyasi kamaygan 98%.

Ammo ozon qatlamining tiklanishi uchun o'nlab yillar kerak bo'ladi.

Ozon parchalanadigan gazlarning chiqishi erning ozon qatlamiga tahdid solmoqda. Global hamkorlik va tartibga solish chiqindilarni kamaytirishga qaratilgan. Bu urinishlar muvaffaqiyatli bo'ladimi?

Ozon qatlami

Suv

Bu shunday 29% dunyo aholisining soni.

Toza va xavfsiz suv salomatlik uchun zarurdir. Vaqt o'tishi bilan kirish qanday o'zgargan? Odamlar qaerga kira olmaydi?

Toza suv

Bu shunday 60% dunyo aholisining soni.

Xavfsiz sanitariya vositalaridan foydalanish yuqumli kasalliklardan o'limni kamaytirish, to'yib ovqatlanishni oldini olish va qadr -qimmatini ta'minlash uchun zarurdir. Bugungi kunda global vaziyat qanday va biz qanday qilib oldinga siljishimiz mumkin?

Sanitariya
  • Biz butun dunyoda foydalanamiz 70% qishloq xo'jaligi uchun chuchuk suvni tortib olish 19% sanoatda va 11% uy xo'jaliklarida.

Butun dunyodagi chuchuk suv manbalari ushbu yozuvning diqqat markazida. Biz qancha suv ishlatamiz? Vaqt o'tishi bilan u qanday o'zgargan?

Suvdan foydalanish va stress

Yer va ekotizimlar

26% Issiqxona gazlarining emissiyasi oziq -ovqat ishlab chiqarishdan kelib chiqadi.

50% Dunyoda yashashga yaroqli erlarning bir qismi qishloq xo'jaligi uchun ishlatiladi.

Oziq -ovqat mahsulotlarining ekologik ta'siri qanday? Qishloq xo'jaligining atrof -muhitga ta'sirini qanday kamaytirish mumkin?

Oziq -ovqat mahsulotlarini ishlab chiqarishning atrof -muhitga ta'siri

O'rmonlar butun dunyo bo'ylab qanday taqsimlangan? Biz har yili o'rmonlarni kesishdan qancha yo'qotamiz?

O'rmonlar va o'rmonlarning kesilishi

Insoniyat Yerdan qanday foydalanmoqda? Yovvoyi tabiat uchun ko'proq er qolishi uchun erdan foydalanishni qanday kamaytirish mumkin?

Yerdan foydalanish
  • So'nggi o'n yil ichida tabiiy ofatlar oqibatida har yili o'lganlar soni ko'paydi 45,000 global miqyosda.

Odamlar qayerda va qaysi ofatlardan halok bo'lishadi? Tabiiy ofatlardan o'limni oldini olish uchun nima qilishimiz kerak?

Tabiiy ofatlar

Innovatsiya va texnologik o'zgarish

Texnologik taraqqiyot turmush darajasini yaxshilashning asosiy omili bo'ldi.

Texnologiya - bu nashrda ko'rib chiqiladigan barcha katta muammolar uchun muhim bo'lgan o'zgarishlarning asosiy omili.

Texnologik taraqqiyot

Texnologiyalarni qabul qilish yashash sharoitlarini yaxshilashning asosiy omili bo'ldi.

Texnologiya global o'zgarishlarning etakchi haydovchisi bo'lib, ish, sayohat va yashash tarzimizni buzadi. Dunyo bo'ylab turli texnologiyalar qanchalik tez qabul qilindi? Global va mamlakat darajasidagi ma'lumotlarni o'rganing va texnologiyalarni qabul qilish bo'yicha tadqiqotlar o'tkazing.

Texnologiyani qabul qilish

Qashshoqlik va iqtisodiy rivojlanish

Davlat sektori

Davlat xarajatlari sezilarli darajada oshdi, lekin butun dunyoda katta farqlar bor edi.

Hukumatlar moliyaviy resurslarini nimaga sarflaydilar?

Davlat xarajatlari

Dunyo mamlakatlarining qariyb yarmi davlat daromadlarining 80% dan ortig'ini soliq tushumlari tashkil qiladi.

Va deyarli har bir mamlakatda 50% dan ortiq.

Soliqlar davlat daromadlarining eng muhim manbai hisoblanadi. Kim qancha to'laydi va soliq tizimlari nimasi bilan farq qiladi?

Soliq solish

Turli mamlakatlar o'z harbiy kuchlariga qancha pul sarflaydilar? Vaqt o'tishi bilan u qanday o'zgargan?

Harbiy xarajatlar

Sog'liqni saqlash uchun moliyalashtirish zarur.

Sog'liqni saqlash yomon sog'likka qarshi kurashda muvaffaqiyat qozonishning kalitidir. U qanday moliyalashtiriladi?

Sog'liqni saqlashni moliyalashtirish

Dunyo bo'ylab ta'limni moliyalashtirish o'sib bormoqda, lekin hali ham katta bo'shliqlar mavjud.

Ta'lim qanday moliyalashtiriladi? Bunga qancha pul sarflaymiz? Qaytish qanday?

Ta'limni moliyalashtirish

Qashshoqlik va farovonlik

Dunyo ancha farovonlashdi, lekin ba'zi mamlakatlarda daromadlar juda past darajada qolmoqda.

Hozirgi barcha boy davlatlar o'tmishda kambag'al edi - kambag'al mamlakatlar qanday qilib boyib ketishadi?

Iqtisodiy o'sish

Har o'ninchi Dunyoda bir kishi kuniga 1,90 dollardan kam yashaydi.

Uchdan ikki qismi dunyo aholisining kuniga 10 dollardan kam maosh oladi.

Xalqaro qashshoqlik chegarasi kuniga 1,90 dollar bo'lib, sayyoradagi eng qashshoq odamlarga qaratilgan. Vaqt o'tishi bilan qashshoqlik qanday o'zgargan va dunyo qashshoqlikka qarshi kurashda qanday g'alaba qozonishi mumkin?

Global o'ta qashshoqlik

Iqtisodiy tengsizlik

Ko'p mamlakatlarda daromadlar tengsizligi yuqori darajada.

Daromadlar qanday taqsimlanadi va vaqt o'tishi bilan taqsimot qanday va nima uchun o'zgardi?

Daromad tengsizligi

Ko'pgina mamlakatlarda gender bo'yicha ish haqi farqi kamaygan, ammo tengsizliklar hali ham katta va keng tarqalgan.

Erkaklar va ayollar o'rtasidagi daromadlar, ish o'rinlari va boylikdagi tengsizlikni nima aniqlaydi?

Jinslar bo'yicha iqtisodiy tengsizlik

Dunyoda tengsizlik pasayib ketdi, lekin yashash sharoitlari hali ham butun dunyoda teng emas.

Dunyo bo'ylab yashash sharoitlari juda teng emas va iqtisodiy farqlar bunga asosiy sababdir. Bu taqsimot qanday o'zgaradi?

Global iqtisodiy tengsizlik

Mehnat

Taxminiy 17% bolalar butun dunyoda ishlaydi.

Bolalar nima uchun va qayerda ishlaydi? Vaqt o'tishi bilan bolalar mehnati qanday o'zgargan?

Bolalar mehnati

Ko'p odamlar juda past daromadlar uchun uzoq vaqt ishlashlari kerak.

Dunyo bo'ylab odamlar ishlashga qancha vaqt sarflaydilar? Vaqt o'tishi bilan ish vaqti qanday o'zgardi va bu o'zgarishlar odamlar hayoti uchun qanday ahamiyatga ega? Ish vaqti haqidagi ma'lumotlarni va tadqiqotlarni o'rganing.

Ish vaqti
  • Ayollar ishchi kuchining ishtiroki 49% mamlakatlar o'rtasida katta farqlarga ega bo'lgan global miqyosda.

Ayollarning mehnat bozorida ishtirok etishini nima aniqlaydi? Qanday o'zgaradi?

Ayollarning bandligi

Korruptsiya

Korruptsiya ko'plab mamlakatlar va sohalarda keng tarqalgan muammo hisoblanadi.

Korruptsiya qanchalik keng tarqalgan? Bu qanday ta'sir qiladi? Va uni kamaytirish uchun nima qilish kerak?

Korruptsiya

Turmush sharoitlari, jamiyat va farovonlik

Vaqt - cheklangan resurs

Dunyo bo'ylab odamlar o'z vaqtlarini qanday o'tkazadilar? Turli mamlakatlarda kundalik mashg'ulotlar qanday farq qiladi va bu farqlar odamlar hayoti uchun qanday ahamiyatga ega? Vaqtdan foydalanish bo'yicha ma'lumotlarni o'rganing va o'rganing.

Vaqtdan foydalanish

Nikoh instituti tez o'zgarib bormoqda

Nikoh instituti qanday o'zgaradi? Nikohlarning necha foizi ajralish bilan tugaydi? Nikoh va ajralishlar haqidagi global ma'lumotlarni o'rganing.

Nikohlar va ajralishlar

Yolg'izlik butun dunyoda keng tarqalgan.

Bizning farovonligimiz uchun oila va do'stlar muhim. Ushbu maqolada biz yolg'izlik va ijtimoiy aloqalar haqidagi ma'lumotlarni o'rganamiz va ijtimoiy aloqalar va farovonlik o'rtasidagi bog'liqlik haqidagi dalillarni ko'rib chiqamiz.

Yolg'izlik va ijtimoiy aloqalar

Hayotdan mamnunlik va baxt mamlakatlar ichida ham, mamlakatlarda ham turlicha.

O'z-o'zidan xabar qilingan hayotdan qoniqish, odamlar va mamlakatlar o'rtasida katta farq qiladi. Bu farqlarni nima tushuntiradi?

Baxt va hayotdan qoniqish

So'nggi o'n yilliklarda sog'liqni saqlash, ta'lim va turmush darajasi oshdi, lekin ko'proq taraqqiyot zarur.

Inson taraqqiyoti indeksi - bu inson taraqqiyotining o'lchovidir, u sog'liqni saqlash, ta'lim va daromadlarni qamrab oladi. Dunyo bo'ylab indeks qanday o'zgaradi va vaqt o'tishi bilan u qanday o'zgargan?

Inson taraqqiyoti indeksi

Taxminiy 17% bolalar butun dunyoda ishlaydi.

Bolalar nima uchun va qaerda ishlaydi? Vaqt o'tishi bilan bolalar mehnati qanday o'zgargan?

Bolalar mehnati

Ko'p odamlar juda past daromadlar uchun uzoq vaqt ishlashlari kerak.

Dunyo bo'ylab odamlar ishlashga qancha vaqt sarflaydilar? Vaqt o'tishi bilan ish vaqti qanday o'zgardi va bu o'zgarishlar odamlar hayoti uchun qanday ahamiyatga ega? Ish vaqti haqidagi ma'lumotlarni va tadqiqotlarni o'rganing.

Ish vaqti

55% dunyo aholisining ko'p qismi shaharlarda yashaydi.

Dunyo aholisi shaharlarga ko'chmoqda. Urbanizatsiya nima uchun ro'y bermoqda va buning oqibatlari qanday?

Urbanizatsiya

Turizm ko'plab mamlakatlar uchun muhim daromad va ish joyidir.

Turizm uchun qancha sayohat? Ular qayerga borishadi?

Turizm

Madaniyat

O'tmishdagi rivojlanish haqidagi noto'g'ri tushunchalar ko'pchilikning kelajakdagi taraqqiyotga pessimistik qarashlarini bildiradi.

Odamlarning kelajakka qarashlari qanday - shaxsan va butun dunyo uchun?

Optimizm va pessimizm

Ishonch darajasi mamlakatlar va jamiyat guruhlari o'rtasida juda farq qilishi mumkin.

Ishonch jamiyat, farovonlik va samarali hamkorlik uchun zarurdir. Ishonch turli jamiyatlar va joylar o'rtasida qanday farq qiladi va ishonch darajasi uchun nima muhim?

Ishonch

Uy -joy

13% Dunyo aholisi elektr energiyasiga ega emas.

40% pishirish uchun toza yoqilg'idan foydalanish imkoniyati yo'q.

Elektr va toza pishirish yoqilg'isidan foydalanish yaxshi turmush darajasi va salomatlik uchun juda muhimdir.

Energiyaga kirish

Bu shunday 29% dunyo aholisining soni.

Toza va xavfsiz suv salomatlik uchun zarurdir. Vaqt o'tishi bilan kirish qanday o'zgargan? Odamlar qaerga kira olmaydi?

Toza suv

Butun dunyo mamlakatlarida uysiz qolish muammosi.

Qancha uysizlar? Vaqt o'tishi bilan uysizlar qanday o'zgargan?

Boshpanasizlik

1,6 mln odamlar har yili ichki havoning ifloslanishidan erta vafot etadi.

55% 70 yoshdan kichik.

Yog'och, ekin chiqindilari va pishirish va isitish uchun go'ng yoqilishi natijasida uy ichidagi havoning ifloslanishi - dunyodagi eng kambag'allarning salomatligi uchun katta xavf.

Ichki havo ifloslanishi

Ko'pchilikda kechasi yorug'lik yo'q

Bir paytlar tunda yorug'lik hamma joyda qimmat edi. Ba'zi joylarda odamlarga tunda yorug'lik etishmayapti, boshqa joylarda esa yorug'lik juda arzonlashdi.

Kechasi yorug'lik

Bu shunday 60% dunyo aholisining soni.

Xavfsiz sanitariya vositalaridan foydalanish yuqumli kasalliklardan o'limni kamaytirish, to'yib ovqatlanishni oldini olish va qadr -qimmatini ta'minlash uchun zarurdir. Bugungi kunda global vaziyat qanday va biz qanday qilib oldinga siljishimiz mumkin?

Sanitariya

Inson huquqlari va demokratiya

Nima uchun davlatlar demokratik davlatga aylanadi? Demokratiklashtirishning odamlar hayoti va xalqaro munosabatlarga ta'siri qanday?

Demokratiya

Bolalarga nisbatan turli shakllarda zo'ravonlik kamaydi, lekin hozir ham uchrab turibdi.

Bolalarga nisbatan jismoniy va hissiy zo'ravonlik qanchalik keng tarqalgan? Vaqt o'tishi bilan u qanday o'zgargan?

Bolalar va bolalar huquqlariga qarshi zo'ravonlik

Ko'pgina mamlakatlarda gender bo'yicha ish haqi farqi kamaygan, ammo tengsizliklar hali ham katta va keng tarqalgan.

Erkaklar va ayollar o'rtasidagi daromadlar, ish o'rinlari va boylikdagi tengsizlikni nima aniqlaydi?

Jinslar bo'yicha iqtisodiy tengsizlik

Korruptsiya ko'plab mamlakatlar va sohalarda keng tarqalgan muammo hisoblanadi.

Korruptsiya qanchalik keng tarqalgan? Bu qanday ta'sir qiladi? Va uni kamaytirish uchun nima qilish kerak?

Korruptsiya

Inson huquqlarining buzilishi hali ham ko'p mamlakatlarda keng tarqalgan.

Matbuot erkinligidan irqchilikka qadar, bu yozuv inson huquqlarining miqdoriy choralarini ko'rib chiqadi.

Inson huquqlari

Zo'ravonlik va urush

Urush va tinchlik

  • So'nggi o'n yil ichida har yili janglar natijasida halok bo'lganlar soni ko'paydi 55,000 global miqyosda.

Odamlar vahshiyona shafqatsizlikka qodir - urush tarixi buni juda aniq ko'rsatib turibdi. Urushda qancha odam halok bo'ldi? Dunyoni tinchroq qilish istiqbollari qanday?

Urush va tinchlik

Turli mamlakatlar o'z harbiy kuchlariga qancha pul sarflaydilar? Vaqt o'tishi bilan u qanday o'zgargan?

Harbiy xarajatlar
  • So'nggi o'n yil ichida har yili terrorchilik qurbonlari soni ko'paydi 22,000 global miqyosda.

Terrorchilarning hujumlariga ommaviy axborot vositalari katta e'tibor qaratadi va ko'pincha jamoatchilik nutqida ustunlik qiladi. Bu hujumlardan qancha odam o'ldi va vaqt o'tishi bilan u qanday o'zgardi?

Terrorizm

Dunyoning yadroviy kuchlari bor 10 mingdan ortiq yadro qurollari.

Dunyoning yadroviy davlatlari jami 10145 yadroviy o'qga ega. Bu qurollar qishloq xo'jaligiga keyingi ta'siri tufayli yuz millionlab odamlarni to'g'ridan -to'g'ri va milliardlab odamlarni o'ldirish imkoniyatiga ega.

Yadro qurollari

Tinchlikni saqlash operatsiyalari nizolarning oldini olishda ishlatiladi, lekin har doim ham muvaffaqiyatli bo'lavermaydi.

Tinchlikparvarlik davlatlarga mojarodan tinchlikka o'tishga yordam berishga qaratilgan. Vaqt o'tishi bilan tinchlikparvarlik operatsiyalari va kuchlari qanday o'zgargan? Tinchlikparvarlik faoliyati haqidagi global ma'lumotlarni ko'ring.

Tinchlikparvarlik

Muayyan ijtimoiy guruhlarni maqsadli o'ldirish millionlab odamlarni o'ldirdi.

Etnik kelib chiqishi, dini yoki siyosiy e'tiqodi uchun alohida guruhlarga qaratilgan uyushtirilgan qotilliklar millionlab odamlarni o'ldirdi.

Genotsidlar

Zo'ravonlik

Bolalarga nisbatan turli shakllarda zo'ravonlik kamaydi, lekin hozir ham uchrab turibdi.

Bolalarga nisbatan jismoniy va hissiy zo'ravonlik qanchalik keng tarqalgan? Vaqt o'tishi bilan u qanday o'zgargan?

Bolalar va bolalar huquqlariga qarshi zo'ravonlik

Odamlar qotillikdan qayerda o'lishayapti? Vaqt o'tishi bilan qotillik darajasi qanday o'zgargan?

Qotillik

Zo'ravonlik ko'plab tarixiy jamiyatlarda juda keng tarqalgan edi.

Uzoq o'tmishda zo'ravonlik qanchalik keng tarqalgan edi?

Zo'ravon o'lim haqidagi etnografik va arxeologik dalillar

Ta'lim va bilim

So'nggi o'n yilliklarda global ta'lim yaxshilandi, lekin bundan ham ko'proq yutuqlarga erishish mumkin.

Global ta'lim haqidagi tadqiqotlarimizga umumiy nuqtai.

Global ta'lim

O'rta va qo'shimcha ma'lumotli odamlar ulushi o'sishi kutilmoqda, lekin butun dunyoda teng emas.

Demografik, iqtisodiy va texnologik o'zgarishlar global ta'lim kelajagiga qanday ta'sir qilmoqda?

Kelajak ta'limining prognozlari

Ta'lim natijalari

O'qish va yozishni bilish ta'lim va bilim olamini ochadi. Qachon va nima uchun ko'proq odamlar savodli bo'lishdi? Qanday qilib taraqqiyot davom etishi mumkin?

Savodxonlik

Maktablar ko'pincha o'z va'dalarini bajarmaydilar: ko'p maktablarda bolalar juda kam o'rganishadi.

Ta'lim natijalari mamlakatlar o'rtasida qanday farq qiladi? Vaqt o'tishi bilan ta'lim sifati qanday o'zgargan?

Ta'lim sifati

Ta'limning qaytishi ishchi kuchi va malakali kadrlarga sezilarli ta'sir ko'rsatadi.

Ta'limning ijtimoiy va individual qaytishi qanday?

Ta'limga qaytadi

Ta'limga kirish

Ko'p bolalarda boshlang'ich ta'limdan oldin o'rganish imkoniyatlari juda kam.

Ta'limga erta kirish hayotning qolgan qismini yaxshilashi mumkin. Mamlakatlarda maktabgacha ta'lim qanday farq qiladi va vaqt o'tishi bilan u qanday o'zgargan?

Maktabgacha ta'lim

61 mln boshlang'ich maktab yoshidagi bolalar maktabda emas.

202 mln o'rta maktab yoshidagi bolalar maktabda emas.

Dunyo bo'ylab maktabga kirish qanday farq qiladi? O'g'il bolalar va qizlar o'rtasidagi munosabatlar qanday? Va vaqt o'tishi bilan u qanday o'zgargan?

Boshlang'ich va o'rta ta'lim

Butun dunyoda 34% 5 yil ichida o'rta ta'lim olganlar oliy ma'lumotga ega.

Universitet va oliy ma'lumotga kirish qachon oshdi? Mamlakatlar o'rtasida qanday farq bor?

Oliy ta'lim

Ta'limdagi tengsizlik

Mamlakatlar va mamlakatlarda ta'lim olish imkoniyatlarida katta tengsizliklar mavjud.

Ta'lim tengsizligi vaqt o'tishi bilan qanday o'zgargan? O'g'il bolalar va qizlarning ta'lim olish imkoniyatlari qanday farq qiladi.

Ta'lim harakatchanligi va tengsizlik

Ta'limga kirishlar

Dunyo bo'ylab ta'limni moliyalashtirish o'sib bormoqda, lekin hali ham katta bo'shliqlar mavjud.

Ta'lim qanday moliyalashtiriladi? Bunga qancha pul sarflaymiz? Qaytish qanday?

Ta'limni moliyalashtirish

Dunyo bo'ylab ko'plab o'qituvchilar etarli darajada ta'lim olmaydilar.

Professional o'qituvchilarning global ko'rinishi. Qancha o'qituvchi bor? Ular qanday darajada dars berishadi? Ularning malakasi qanday?

O'qituvchilar va professorlar

Ommaviy axborot vositalari

Kitob nashriyoti bilim almashish va tarbiyalashning asosiy omili bo'ldi.

Kitoblar asrlar davomida fan va san'atning markazida bo'lgan. Ularning tarixi va dolzarbligi ushbu maqolada.

Kitoblar

Ko'pchilik uchun Internet hozir ishlash, ma'lumot topish va boshqalar bilan bog'lanish uchun juda zarur. Qanday qilib dunyoning yarmi bir avlodda Internetga kirdi? Va oldinda qanday qiyinchiliklar bor?

Internet

Bizning ma'lumotlar dunyosi bepul va hamma uchun ochiq.

Bizga xayriya qilish orqali bu ishni bajarishga yordam bering.

Litsenziya: Bizning Ma'lumotlar dunyosida ishlab chiqarilgan barcha materiallar, shu jumladan interaktiv vizualizatsiya va kod, Creative Commons BY litsenziyasi ostida to'liq ochiq. Siz manba va mualliflar hisobga olingan taqdirda, ularni har qanday vositada ishlatish, tarqatish va ko'paytirishga ruxsatingiz bor. Boshqa barcha materiallar, shu jumladan uchinchi shaxslar tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan va "Ma'lumotlar dunyosi" tomonidan taqdim etilgan ma'lumotlar, uchinchi tomon mualliflarining litsenziya shartlariga bo'ysunadi.

Ma'lumotlar dunyosi - Angliya va Uelsda ro'yxatdan o'tgan xayriya jamg'armasi Global Change Data Lab loyihasi (Xayriya raqami 1186433).


Ma'lumot manbalari

Dunyo bo'ylab odam savdosi haqidagi ma'lumotlarning asosiy manbalari qurbonlari aniqlangan ma'lumotlarga asoslangan. Odatda ularni turli xil aktyorlar to'playdi, jumladan huquqni muhofaza qilish organlari, sud va nodavlat tashkilotlar qurbonlarni himoya qilish va ularga yordam beradi.

Bir qancha BMT agentliklari va xalqaro nodavlat notijorat tashkilotlari odam savdosi qurbonlari profillari, odam savdosining keng tarqalishi hamda majburiy mehnat va majburiy nikoh kabi hodisalar haqidagi ma'lumotlar manbalarini ishlab chiqarish uchun hamkorlik qilgan.

Operatsion holatlar to'g'risidagi ma'lumotlar va jabrlanuvchilar profillari

In the course of protecting and providing services to victims, counter-trafficking actors frequently collect individual-level, operational case data. IOM has been providing direct assistance to victims of human trafficking since the mid-1990s and assists approximately 8,000 victims each year globally. Through its case management activities, the Organization has developed the largest database of victim of trafficking case data in the world, with information on over 55,000 individual cases.

Operational data from counter-trafficking organizations are often highly sensitive and pertain to individuals, which raises a range of privacy and civil liberty concerns where the risk of identifying data subjects can be high and the consequences severe. While many organizations and governments around the world collect data on cases of human trafficking, disaggregated data has not been easily accessible to external stakeholders or has not been frequently shared between relevant actors in the past due to the sensitivity of its content, and data protection and confidentiality considerations.

To overcome these challenges, in 2017, IOM made its own data publicly available online through the Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC), along with combined data from other leading counter-trafficking organizations with significant case-level datasets.

The Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative

The Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC) is the first global data hub on human trafficking, with data contributed by organizations from around the world. The resulting dataset is the largest of its kind globally, with information on over 108,000 individual cases of human trafficking visualized throughout the site, including through an interactive global map. An anonymized version of this dataset is publicly available to download. By putting such data in the public domain, the goal of CTDC is to break down information-sharing barriers and equip the counter-trafficking community with up to date, reliable data on human trafficking. As new data from contributing partners are added, CTDC will continue to expand in scope, featuring new datasets from diverse counter-trafficking actors and disseminating standards on sharing trafficking-case data.

IOM’s Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative has made great progress in overcoming data obstacles, but more work is needed throughout the counter-trafficking community to agree on common standards and methods of data sharing and applicability. Disaggregated case-level data are the most detailed source of information on human trafficking and should thus play a vital part of any meaningful analysis on the phenomenon.

National reporting mechanisms

Another key source of trafficking information is official reports on administrative data compiled by governments (or other central reporting bodies) on human trafficking cases within their national jurisdictions.

UNODC surveys governments on trafficking victims identified in their respective countries for the Global Report on Trafficking in Persons, using a common questionnaire with a standard set of indicators, and then aggregates the results. The most recent global report was produced in 2018. In 2016, this exercise produced data on more than 24,000 identified victims of trafficking from 97 governments, a peak compared to the previous years. Data are largely published in the form of total numbers disaggregated by variables such as sex, age, and type of exploitation, wherever possible. In addition to government surveys, UNODC collects official information such as police reports that are available in the public domain, and some information from inter-governmental organisations and NGOs.

Estimating prevalence of human trafficking

There are currently no global or regional estimates of the prevalence of human trafficking.

Some national estimates have been developed, including using human trafficking administrative data:

Multiple Systems Estimation is the methodology used to estimate the total (unidentified and identified) victims of trafficking at country level. This is based on the analysis of the overlap of multiple lists of human trafficking cases provided by different actors in the counter-trafficking field, such as NGOs, law enforcement, other authorities and international organizations. MSE depends upon the existence of various databases of identified victims of human trafficking in the country of implementation. A number of other technical assumptions should also be met. For example, it must be possible for more than one entity recording administrative data to be able to independently identify a victim of trafficking. Researchers developing the method have estimated that it could potentially be used in approximately 50 countries around the world. Initial estimates have already been conducted in several countries, including the UK and the Netherlands.

Relatively few examples of estimates of related forms of exploitation exist:

    - This is a global estimate of the prevalence of the human-trafficking-related crimes of forced labour and forced marriage, produced by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and the Walk Free Foundation (WFF), in collaboration with IOM. The 2017 report estimates that 40 million people were victims of modern slavery in any given day in 2016. Out of these, approximately 25 million people were in forced labour and another 15 million people were in a forced marriage. Data from IOM’s human trafficking database on sexual exploitation and child exploitation were used for the estimates.
  • Estimating forced labour, forced recruitment and abductions in displacement contexts. IOM is developing a series of comparable estimates on prevalence of forced labour, forced marriage, forced recruitment into armed groups and abductions among Internally Displaced People (IDPs) and their families, in partnership with ILO and WFF. This is a pilot research initiative in three countries with large numbers of IDPs and where IOM has substantial humanitarian operations and suitable sampling frames. The report with the findings, methodology and recommendations will be published in 2020.

Trafficking in humanitarian settings and large-scale migration flows

Humanitarian crises such as those associated with conflicts or natural disasters may exacerbate pre-existing trafficking trends and give rise to new ones. While some forms of trafficking could be a direct result of crises, such as exploitative sexual services demanded by armed groups or the forced recruitment of child soldiers, others are less evident, with traffickers thriving on the widespread human, material, social and economic losses caused by crises and the inability of families and communities to protect themselves and their children.

IOM works to combat trafficking and protect trafficked persons in humanitarian settings. To address the acute need for data for evidence-based programming in these location, IOM has been using its Displacement Tracking Matrix to regularly collect data on risks and issues relevant to human trafficking and exploitation in crises. In addition, IOM with partners is also working to produce prevalence estimates on issues related to human trafficking.

Locations of recent regular data collection with human trafficking indicators include Cox’s Bazar in Bangladesh, North-East Nigeria, Ukraine, Central and South American countries. The data gathered during these operations can be used to better understand risks to trafficking, vulnerability to exploitation, gaps in assistance and to identify areas of further research.

IOM, through DTM, also produces primary data on the migrants’ vulnerability to human trafficking, abuse, exploitation and violence on different migration routes, for example on the main migration routes to Europe. Data with trafficking indicators are collected in countries like Italy, Libya, or Greece. Further similar data collection is planned in countries from Central and West Africa, and in Eastern Africa.

IOM produced a report with UNICEF on the specific experiences of children and youth migrating via the Mediterranean migration routes to Europe. In a separate report, IOM identified predictors of vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation for migrants taking these routes. There is limited reliable data on human trafficking and exploitation in displacement contexts.


Emissions by Country

Source: Boden, T.A., Marland, G., and Andres, R.J. (2017). National CO 2 Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Cement Manufacture, and Gas Flaring: 1751-2014 , Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, doi 10.3334/CDIAC/00001_V2017. In 2014, the top carbon dioxide (CO2) emitters were China, the United States, the European Union, India, the Russian Federation, and Japan. These data include CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion, as well as cement manufacturing and gas flaring. Together, these sources represent a large proportion of total global CO2 emissiya.

Emissions and sinks related to changes in land use are not included in these estimates. However, changes in land use can be important: estimates indicate that net global greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture, forestry, and other land use were over 8 billion metric tons of CO2 equivalent, [2] or about 24% of total global greenhouse gas emissions. [3] In areas such as the United States and Europe, changes in land use associated with human activities have the net effect of absorbing CO2, partially offsetting the emissions from deforestation in other regions.


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Discussion

At the broadest scale, all seven lakes showed changes in trophic state and external drivers consistent with some degree of cultural eutrophication (Figs. 2–4-2–4 and Appendix S2: Figs. S3–S5). In the period since European land clearance began to expand c. 1750 CE, all lakes experienced climate change in the form of earlier ice-out, agricultural expansion and contraction, and a continuous increase in human population in the watershed (Appendix S2: Figs. S3–S5). While any of these changes could facilitate lake eutrophication, the timing and extent of inferred change in trophic state differed across lakes and among the paleoecological metrics (Figs. 2–4-2–4). Nevertheless, high concentrations of the cyanobacterium Gloeotrichia in sediment records consistently revealed that the recently reported blooms of Gloeotrichia (Winter et al. 2011 , Carey et al. 2012a ) are likely not a new phenomenon (Fig. 4). Among-lake variation in the correlations among fossil markers of trophic state and their relationship to external drivers and lake morphometry (Figs. 5–7-5–7) underscore the importance of considering how the effects of climate or watershed change may be influenced by watershed-specific characteristics (Blenckner 2005 , Leavitt et al. 2009 ).

Within-lake indicators of trophic change

Carbon, nitrogen, and pigments

While this paleoecological study did not reconstruct numerical values for metrics like Secchi depth, nutrients, or water column chlorophyll concentration that are typically used to specify trophic state (e.g., Carlson 1977 ), all seven lakes had sedimentary evidence of eutrophication. The increases in many lakes in sedimentary %C and %N and concentrations of pigments from green algae, cryptophytes, and cyanobacteria (Figs. 2, 3)—taxa that tend to increase with eutrophication (e.g., Cottingham et al. 1998 )—were the most consistent evidence of lake eutrophication. Stratigraphically constrained cluster analyses identified these changes as having occurred primarily in the last 30–50 yr, consistent with many studies highlighting the last half-century as a period of intense cultural acceleration of biogeochemical cycles (e.g., Taranu et al. 2015 ). The observation of eutrophication itself was not surprising, given the profound landscape modifications that have occurred since European settlement began c. 1750 CE and the continuing and substantial climate change occurring since at least the mid-1800s. However, variation in timing of changes in each proxy also suggested that assessment of the degree of past eutrophication will depend on the proxy used and will be most easily interpreted in a multi-proxy framework (cf. Bunting et al. 2016 ).

The dissimilarities in timing of eutrophication derived from the different proxies are consistent both with studies that focus on the role particular nutrients or assemblages play in a lake, as well as prior assessments of the utility of various taxa as indicators. The stronger associations among C, N, and pigments, rather than between these metrics and Gloeotrichia (Fig. 5), are similar to findings in modern studies of temporal coherence in which aggregated metrics tend to be more synchronous than more taxonomically resolved, species-level parameters (e.g., Vogt et al. 2011 , Angeler and Johnson 2012 ). This pattern might logically result from the co-occurrence of C and N in bulk organic matter and the importance of N for phytoplankton production. Further, the strong correlations between sediment N parameters and the abundance of pigments from cryptophyte and Nostocales cyanobacteria in a number of lakes (Fig. 5) reinforce the finding that these taxa may be particularly good indicators of increased nutrient availability (Cottingham et al. 1998 ).

Gloeotrichia

Patterns of Gloeotrichia fossil abundance varied tremendously through time and among lakes but clearly demonstrated that this taxon is not new to these ecosystems (Fig. 4). Unexpectedly, Gloeotrichia was historically common in lakes of differing current trophic state (e.g., both oligotrophic Sunapee and mesotrophic Panther) and yet rare in other ecosystems (e.g., oligotrophic Pleasant and mesotrophic Long Pond). Among the study lakes, only eutrophic Sabattus Pond exhibited little Gloeotrichia in past centuries (Fig. 4), perhaps because Gloeotrichia’s need for light for germination (e.g., Karlsson-Elfgren et al. 2004 ) cannot be met in turbid, eutrophic ecosystems like Sabattus Pond. Given the long-term abundances of Gloeotrichia in most of these sediment records, we infer that recently observed increases of Gloeotrichia are not due to their recent arrival in these systems.

Although reports of the apparent expansion of Gloeotrichia in low-nutrient lakes (Winter et al. 2011 , Carey et al. 2012a ) led us to expect pronounced increases in its abundance in the most recent decades associated with climate or land-use changes, this pattern occurred only in Long Pond (Fig. 4). Other paleoecological studies have identified Gloeotrichia as an important taxon during intermediate times of ecosystem transition (Bottema and Sarpaki 2003 , Bunting et al. 2007 , Levine et al. 2012 ), but we did not see strong evidence of Gloeotrichia abundance increasing concomitantly with fossil pigment concentrations in recent decades. In fact, we observed fossil Gloeotrichia densities to be correlated consistently with concentrations of algal and cyanobacterial pigments only at Long Pond (Fig. 5). We have good experimental evidence that Gloeotrichia can be associated with increases in the abundance of other phytoplankton (Carey and Rengefors 2010 , Carey et al. 2014a , b ), and modeling results illustrate how Gloeotrichia’s translocation of nutrients to the water column could tip a lake into a more eutrophic state (Cottingham et al. 2015 ). However, our paleoecological data suggest that whole-lake evidence of such facilitation may occur only in particular cases.

The abundance of Gloeotrichia relative to other primary producers during eutrophication appears to differ across lakes. Short-term laboratory experiments have suggested that Gloeotrichia may stimulate the abundance of the diatom Cyclotella sp. (Carey and Rengefors 2010 ), but in these New England lakes, the long-term outcome of interspecific interactions appears more complex. Masalan, Gloeotrichia abundance was not correlated with the diatom pigment diatoxanthin at Long Pond despite significant correlations with other pigments, whereas diatoms changed in concert with Gloeotrichia at Lake Auburn (Fig. 5). Lake Auburn also currently has blooms of Dolichospermum (avval Anabaena) during and following Gloeotrichia blooms (Ewing, unpublished data), a result consistent with the laboratory evidence of enhanced Dolichospermum growth in cultures containing Gloeotrichia (Carey and Rengefors 2010 ). Given that phytoplankton community composition is governed by many different factors, such as zooplankton dynamics, macro- and micronutrient concentrations, light availability, thermal structure, and other factors that vary over multiple temporal scales, it is not surprising that Gloeotrichia’s co-occurrence with other phytoplankton varied both within and among lakes.

Climatic and watershed influence on changes in lake systems

Timing of ice-out

Coeval changes in lake production and ice-out date (Fig. 6) are consistent with process-based studies that demonstrate a synchronizing effect of climate on regional lake phenology (Magnuson et al. 1990 , Arnott et al. 2003 , Vogt et al. 2011 ). Strong correspondence between changes in the ice-out record and the pigment record, rather than between ice-out and Gloeotrichia records, suggests that primary producer abundance estimated from ubiquitous pigments may better reflect the effects of climate change (as ice-free season) than do individual cyanobacterial taxa.

That neither Gloeotrichia nor the cyanobacterial biomarkers canthaxanthin and echinenone were particularly responsive to changes in timing of ice-out in nutrient-poor lakes is unsurprising, as these taxa typically bloom only later in the summer. However, cyanobacteria are predicted to do particularly well in warmer, more thermally stratified lakes (Paerl and Huisman 2008 , Carey et al. 2012b ), conditions that are favored by longer ice-free periods (e.g., O’Reilly et al. 2015 , Woolway and Merchant 2019 ) such as those these lakes are experiencing (Appendix S2: Fig. S5). Importantly, these effects may differ as a function of lake trophic state Rigosi et al. ( 2014 ) suggest that effects of warming temperature on cyanobacteria may occur in eutrophic—but not oligotrophic—lakes. Consistent with this pattern, eutrophic Sabattus Pond exhibited important contributions of cyanobacteria to production, particularly in the most recent decades which also had the shortest periods of ice cover (Fig. 3).

Across most study lakes, vernal and autumnal taxa such as cryptophytes (as alloxanthin), diatoms (diatoxanthin), and secondarily chlorophytes (in part lutein + zeaxanthin) were most responsive to eutrophication (Fig. 3). This pattern suggests that the extended periods of low light, high turbulence, and abundant nutrients in spring and fall resulting from shorter periods of ice duration may be particularly important to overall changes in productivity, including differences in the synchrony of changes among lakes (Dröscher et al., 2009 , Vogt et al. 2011 ). This is also consistent with studies concluding that ice cover plays a key role in composition and abundance of planktonic assemblages (Rioual and Mackay 2005 , Smol et al. 2005 , Katz et al. 2015 , Hampton et al. 2017 ).

The extent of zone-break matches between ice-out and pigment records was strongly associated with the watershed-to-lake area ratio (WA:LA Fig. 7, Appendix S2: Fig. S7). Where WA:LA ratios are high, hydrologic inputs from the watershed can more easily result in either hydrological disturbances (Klug et al. 2012 ) or substantial nutrient influx (Horppilia et al. 2019 and references therein) that may override the effect of ice cover on lake production. In contrast, in lakes with lower WA:LA ratios, the proportional importance of watershed hydrology would be expected to be reduced, favoring closer correspondence between changes in phototrophic production (pigments) and changes in the ice-free period. This scenario is consistent with idea that influxes of energy (irradiance, heat) induce stronger temporal coherence among lakes, whereas influx of mass (water, solutes, particles) can override effects of energy (Leavitt et al. 2009 , Vogt et al. 2011 ). It also further supports arguments from both recent (Brookes and Carey 2011 , Rigosi et al. 2014 ) and paleolimnological (Leavitt et al. 2009 ) perspectives that both temperature and nutrient loading are likely to control lake productivity.

Watershed land use

Changes in anthropogenic drivers related to watershed land use (human population and agricultural activities) sometimes co-occurred with those in sedimentary proxies of trophic state (Fig. 6). In the case of human population, changes were coeval with those of trophic proxies during the 1970s (Figs. 2–4-2–4 and Appendix S2: Fig. S3). During this period, tourism and land subdivision for second homes in Maine increased dramatically (Condon and Barry 1995 ), so these nearshore changes may be particularly important for both N loading and overall productivity as N and pigment proxies most commonly changed in concert with population (Fig. 6 and Appendix S2: Fig. S6). In contrast, correspondence between changes in trophic-state proxies and agricultural activities occurred particularly for C and Gloeotrichia records, supporting other studies pointing to the importance of watershed nutrient additions in regulating primary production (Brookes and Carey 2011 , Rigosi et al. 2014 , Taranu et al. 2015 ). These latter patterns appeared particularly pronounced in currently oligotrophic lakes (Fig. 6) where all trophic-state proxies had some correspondence to changes in agricultural land use, and patterns were even stronger when more allowance was made for uncertainty in dates (Appendix S2: Figs. S6, S7).

Gloeotrichia abundance was greatest in five of our focal lakes around or immediately following the time of maximal European land clearance (c. 1780–1860) and declined as agricultural land use was reduced (Fig. 4). For example, peak abundance of Gloeotrichia in Lake Auburn occurred during initial European land clearance and was followed by a decline coinciding with the end of the most intense period of deforestation in this region (Barton et al. 2012 ) and the initial expansion of sheep production (Connor 1921 ) in Maine’s history (

1780–1810 CE). Watershed clearance, soil disturbance, and introduction of livestock (Appendix S2: Fig. S4) likely resulted in significant nutrient influxes, as seen globally (Carpenter et al. 1998 ), and as suggested as a stimulus for Gloeotrichia in previous paleoecological studies (Van Geel et al. 1996 , Bottema and Sarpaki 2003 , Bunting et al. 2007 ). Consistent with studies in nearby Vermont (Levine et al. 2012 ), the introduction of livestock may be particularly important agents of initial change in lake water quality. Here, the only low-nutrient lake that did not show an increase in Gloeotrichia during European land clearance was Long Pond—also the only site with few sheep and cows in its catchment relative to land area (Appendix S2: Fig. S4).

The extent to which changes in watershed agricultural land use corresponded to those in the Gloeotrichia record was inversely related to WA:LA, as lakes with lower ratios were more likely to exhibit coherence in break patterns (Fig. 7), especially when more allowance was made for possible error in the dating (Appendix S2: Fig. S7). While this observation seems to run counter to the expectation that lakes with high WA:LA are likely to have proportionally larger inputs in times of high flow, it matches recent empirical work showing that cyanotoxin concentrations are higher in lakes with low WA:LA (Hayes and Vanni 2018 ) and that nutrient limitation varies as a function of water input (Hayes et al. 2015 ). In particular, Hayes et al. ( 2015 ) point to the importance of the interaction between precipitation and watershed land use for bloom development and note that lake residence time may be functionally important behind the WA:LA relationships (Hayes and Vanni 2018 ). In our study lakes, water residence times are sufficiently long (Table 1) that it is unlikely that they limit Gloeotrichia bloom development, although it remains possible that pelagic populations are disturbed through mixing resulting from storm events in systems with large WA:LA ratios (as in Klug et al. 2012 ).

We also note that lakes with lower WA:LA ratios have a larger fraction of the watershed land in close proximity to the lake, suggesting that the effects of nearshore agricultural activity—especially those historically involving livestock (Appendix S2: Fig. S4)—may have been particularly important to Gloeotrichia and its recruitment from the littoral zone. The absence of consistent historical data across all sites limits our ability to test this hypothesis. However, the rich historical record of the area around Lake Auburn reveals the close proximity of substantial agricultural activity to the lake (Emil 2017 ), and an oral history describes stocking densities on properties near the lake that were several orders of magnitude greater than that in the county as a whole (L’Hommedieu 2002 ). These historical records and studies documenting greater housing development immediately around lakes than across the landscape as a whole (Schnaiberg et al. 2002 ) support this inference and highlight the importance of future investigation of the impacts of spatially variable patterns of land use on water quality.

Synthesis

Collectively, these paleoecological records demonstrate that regional eutrophication can be variably expressed among individual lakes (cf. Maheaux et al. 2016 ) and yet reveal insights about cyanobacterial populations not easily ascertained from limnological studies spanning shorter time periods. First, the cyanobacterium Gloeotrichia is not new to the New England lakes we studied but rather was present before European settlement c. 1750 yil. Second, while there is evidence in one lake for Gloeotrichia as a potential driver of eutrophication, it appears that Gloeotrichia abundance is more often related to watershed land use, particularly in systems with small ratios of watershed area to lake area (WA:LA). Hence, the recent increase in Gloeotrichia seen in contemporary studies (Winter et al. 2011 , Carey et al. 2012a ) may be a function of intensification of nearshore land uses. Third, various manifestations of trophic change—overall organic matter production, patterns of isotopic fractionation, and the abundance of various taxa or groups of taxa, seen here through different proxies—may differ in the story they tell of the timing of shifts even within a single lake. Further, even with similar regional drivers such as climate and broadly similar land-use changes, lakes differ in both the magnitude and nature of response of individual metrics that are related to trophic change. Fourth, the duration of ice cover and the extent of agricultural activity are important drivers of lake trophic change, particularly in systems with smaller WA:LA. Together, these records suggest that single metrics of change in lake trophic state are insufficient and that even aggregate metrics may respond differently across lakes under similar pressures. Hence, attention to the intersection of changes in climate and watershed land use in the context of basin morphometry is necessary to understand how lakes respond to multiple stressors, and lake management will need to attend to this intersection to keep these low-nutrient lakes in the clear-water state.


Are there any sources of historical land use/land cover data for the United Kingdom and Ireland? - Tarix

  • Environment Agency LIDAR for most of England, free and easy to download.
    • Most of the data is 1m resolution some is 2m, 50cm or 25cm.
    • A blog entry in October 2015 describes the dataset and their intention to put all 10 TB of it online
    • standard tile size is 5km
    • (1-year usage of) the data for the whole country costs £56,250 plus VAT (!) or £25 - £100 per tile per year for smaller areas
    • "Spot heights, breaklines, coastline, lakes, ridges and formlines with a 10 m contour interval. Also available as a gridded DTM with 50 m post spacing"
    • In Ascii Grid and NTF formats, it is a grid of 812 files in 55 folders, each a 401x401 grid (at 50m spacing)
    • 10m/5m DEM of the whole country
    • it was produced using IFSAR, so it will have issue with ground clutter like trees and buildings
    • they provide it in two forms:
      • as-is with the clutter, which they call Digital Surface Model (DSM)
      • a processed version with an attempt at removing the clutter, called "Bald Earth"

      Projects

      Xizmatlar

      • Service company Skape, based in Leicester and launched in 2010, "provides presentational 3D city and mapping data as well as high accuracy building data", focusing on the UK.
        • They claim to be the first to provide "advanced imagery of 3D heighted buildings of the UK's major cities."
        • They appear to have their own proprietary runtime software, but it's not clear from their site.
        • Developed by Infoterra, a GIS and imagery vendor.

        Are there any sources of historical land use/land cover data for the United Kingdom and Ireland? - Tarix

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