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T-72 asosiy jangovar tanki (Rossiya)

T-72 asosiy jangovar tanki (Rossiya)



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T -72 asosiy jangovar tanki (Rossiya) - Tarix

The T-90 [8]-1993 yilda xizmatga kirgan uchinchi avlod rus asosiy jangovar tanki. Bu tank T-72B ning zamonaviy varianti bo'lib, T-80Uda topilgan ko'plab xususiyatlarni o'z ichiga oladi. Dastlab T-72BU deb nomlangan, lekin keyinchalik T-90 deb nomlangan, bu Rossiya Quruqlik kuchlari va Dengiz piyoda qo'shinlari bilan xizmatda bo'lgan zamonaviy tank. T-90 125 mm 2A46 silindrli asosiy qurol, 1A45T o't o'chirish tizimi, takomillashtirilgan dvigatel va miltiqchining termal ko'zini ishlatadi. Standart himoya choralariga po'lat va kompozit zirhlarning aralashmasi, tutun granatalari, Kontakt-5 portlovchi-reaktiv zirhlari va Shtora infraqizil ATGM tormoz tizimi kiradi. U Uralvagonzavod tomonidan, Nijniy Tagil, Rossiyada ishlab chiqilgan va qurilgan.


Tarkibi

Rejalashtirish va rejalashtirish

DRDO, u bilan Jangovar transport vositalarini tadqiq qilish va ishlab chiqish tashkiloti (CVRDE) asosiy laboratoriya sifatida korpus, zirh, minora, yugurish moslamasi va tank uchun qurol ishlab chiqarish vazifasi yuklatilgan. [30]

Tankni ishlab chiqish 1972 yilda CVRDE tomonidan boshlangan bo'lsa-da, faqat 1996 yilda Hindiston hukumati tankni Hindiston qurol-aslaha fabrikasining Avadidagi ishlab chiqarish zavodida ommaviy ishlab chiqarishga qaror qildi. [25] [31]

Birinchi marta armiyada xizmatga qabul qilinganida, Arjun asosan xorijiy komponentlar va texnologiyalarga tayangan. Dastlab, tankning 50% ga yaqin qismlari import qilingan, ular orasida dvigatel, transmissiya, avtomat o'qi, izlar va o't o'chirish tizimi bor edi. [32] Biroq, bu tizimlarning deyarli barchasi mahalliy tizimlar bilan almashtirildi yoki hind kompaniyalari tomonidan ta'minlanmoqda. [33] [34] Armiya manbalaridan olingan so'nggi izohlar shuni ko'rsatadiki, issiq havoda tankning ishlash muammolariga qaramay, Rossiyaning T-90S bo'lajak kuchining tayanchi bo'ladi.

Arjun loyihasi byudjetning jiddiy sarflanishi va takroriy kechikishlarga duch keldi, buning natijasida 37 yildan ortiq ishlab chiqildi. O'tgan yillar mobaynida texnologiya va tahdid muhitining rivojlanishi armiya talablarini bir necha bor qayta ko'rib chiqishga olib keldi. Hukumat 1974 yil may oyida boshlang'ich dizayni uchun 15,5 million yuan (374 milliard yevroga yoki 2019 yilda 52,4 million AQSh dollariga) ruxsat bergan bo'lsa, 1995 yilga kelib, DRDO 300 million ore (14 milliard ₹ yoki 201,7 million AQSh dollariga teng) sarflagan. 2019 yilda) talablarning o'zgarishi va inflyatsion xarajatlar oshishi munosabati bilan rivojlanish. [35]

Biroq, DRDO boshqa mamlakatlarga qaraganda ishlab chiqarish xarajatlari past bo'lgan III avlod tankini ishlab chiqarishda bir necha o'n yillar davomida texnologik bo'shliqni bartaraf etishga muvaffaq bo'ldi.

Ishlab chiqarish va joylashtirish Tahrir

2010 yilda Hindiston armiyasi 124 ta Arjunga buyurtma berdi, [36] 471,2 mln. [1]

Arjunning dastlabki ishlab chiqish versiyalari 43 zirhli polk tomonidan o'tkazilgan bo'lib, ular 2001 yil Respublika bayrami paradida namoyish etilgan. [37] Arjun tanklarining 16 ta ishlab chiqarish versiyasining birinchi partiyasi 2004 yilda qabul qilingan [22] va ular shinavand sifatida taqdim etilgan. 43 -zirhli polk eskadroni. [38] Keyinchalik polk 2009 yil 25 mayda 45 ta tankdan iborat bo'lib, u Hindiston armiyasining birinchi Arjun polkiga aylandi. [22] [39] 2011 yil iyun holatiga ko'ra Hindiston armiyasiga 100 dan ortiq tanklar etkazib berildi. [40]

Arjun tanki bilan to'liq jihozlangan oxirgi polk-75 zirhli polk, bu T-55 tankini ushlab turgan Hindiston armiyasining oxirgi polki edi. Mudofaa vazirligi Hindiston armiyasi zirhli korpusi uchun 118 ta Arjun Mk.1A qurilmasi uchun qurol -yarog 'fabrikasi kengashi (OFB) bilan muzokaralarni yakunladi, taxminan 6,600 crore (888,7 million AQSh dollari). har qanday vaqtda, shuningdek, ekipaj a'zolari uchun parvarishlash, ehtiyot qismlar va simulyatorlar tayyorlash bilan ikki yillik muhandislik va qo'llab-quvvatlash paketini o'z ichiga oladi.

Birinchi Arjun Mk.1A etkazib berish to'rt yildan besh yilgacha etkazib beriladigan barcha 118 ta birlik bilan shartnoma imzolanganidan 30 oy o'tgach boshlanadi. [41] TIV, 2021 yil 12 fevral holatiga ko'ra, 8400 million evroni tashkil etuvchi 118 Arjun Mark 1A indüksiyasini tozaladi. [42]

Yangilanishlarni tahrirlash

Arjunni Mark 2 variantiga takomillashtirish doirasida DRDO MBT Arjun uchun yangi texnologik tizimlarni ishlab chiqishda davom etmoqda, bu maqsadlarni avtomatik aniqlash, kuzatish va yo'q qilish kabi sohalarda ish faoliyatini yaxshilash uchun. [43] Arjun Mk.2 varianti Hindiston armiyasi va uning ishtiroki bilan muvofiqlashtirilgan holda ishlab chiqilmoqda va u bir nechta modifikatsiyalarni o'z ichiga oladi. [6]

DRDO, Arjun -ning lazerli ogohlantirish, IR -jammer va aerozolli tutun granatasi kabi mudofaa vositalarini o'z ichiga olgan shahar sharoitida jangovar qobiliyatini yaxshilashga qaratilgan bir qator takomillashtirilgan Tank Urban Survival Kit -ni ishlab chiqdi. [44] [45]

CVRDE tank simulyatorlarini ishlab chiqdi. [43] MBT Arjun Simulyatori haydovchilar simulyatori va minora simulyatoridan iborat bo'lib, ular qo'shinlar darajasidagi mashg'ulotlar uchun ishlab chiqilgan. [46]

DRDO Isroilning Elbit Limited kompaniyasi bilan birgalikda Arjunda polk darajasida jihozlanish uchun Laser Warning Control System (LWCS) ni ishlab chiqdi. LWCS zikr qilingan himoya vositalarini o'z ichiga oladi va bu jang maydonidagi tanklarning imzosini kamaytirishga va uning omon qolish qobiliyatini yaxshilashga yordam beradi.

DRDO shuningdek, mobil kamuflyaj tizimi (MCS) texnologiyasini Gurgaonda joylashgan xususiy sektor mudofaa ishlab chiqaruvchisi Barracuda Camouflaging Limited bilan birgalikda ishlab chiqmoqda. MCS DRDO tomonidan tankga tank tizimidagi barcha turdagi sensorlar va dushmanning aqlli o'q -dorilarining aralashuvi xavfini kamaytirishga yordam berish uchun ishlab chiqilgan. [ iqtibos kerak ]

Yangilanish 1500 ot kuchiga ega yangi dvigatelni ham o'z ichiga oladi. [47] [48] Vertolyotga qarshi tur ham ishlab chiqilmoqda. [25]

Qurol -yarog 'tahriri

120 mm miltiq miltiq bilan qurollangan Arjun APFSDS (kinetik energiya penetratori) o'qlarini, HE, HEAT, yuqori portlovchi qovoq boshi (HESH), penetratsion-Cum-Blast (PCB) o'qlari, termobarik turlar (sil) o'q otishga qodir. daqiqada 6-8 tur tezligida. Arjun, shuningdek, Isroil tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan, yarim dushman qurollari va dushman jangovar vertolyotlarini mag'lubiyatga mo'ljallangan, LAHAT raketasini ishga soladi.

Bundan tashqari, Arjun 12,7 mm AA avtomat va 7,62 mm koaksiyal avtomat bilan qurollangan. [49] Arjun portlashdan himoyalangan maxsus kanisterlarda 39 ta turni ko'tarishi mumkin.

Arjun qo'lda yuklagichdan foydalanadi va qurolni qayta yuklash uchun ekipaji bor.

120 mm asosiy miltiqli qurol

Arjun 120 mm miltiqli qurol bilan jihozlangan, u turli xil o'qlarni, shu jumladan ATGMni yuqori aniqlikda o'qqa tutishi mumkin. Qurolning amal qilish muddati-500 ta to'liq zaryad, Hindiston armiyasining T-72 va T-90 tanklarining 250 ta to'liq zaryadlanganiga qaraganda. [50] Yo'llar davomida qurol 1,5 m masofada 1 m x 1 m ga tegib aniq aniqlangan. Qurol-yarog 'va termobarik o'q-dorilar bilan juda samarali va aniq ekanligi aniqlandi.

APFSDS o'q -dorilar tahrirlash

Arjun mahalliy volfram qotishmasiga asoslangan APFSDS dumaloq bilan jihozlangan, uning o'tkazuvchanligi 500 mm RHA. [1]

Penetratsiyali-portlovchi (PCB) va termobarik (sil) o'q-dorilar

Penetratsion-cum-Blast (PCB) va Thermobaric (TB) o'q-dorilari Arjun Tanki uchun Punada joylashgan DRDO laboratoriyalari, xususan Qurol-yarog 'tadqiqotlari va ishlab chiqish instituti (ARDE) va Yuqori energiyali materiallar tadqiqot laboratoriyasi (HEMRL) tomonidan maxsus ishlab chiqilgan. Ishlab chiqarish va texnik xizmat ko'rsatish nisbatan arzon bo'lgan bu raketalar an'anaviy HESH va HEAT turlaridan yuqori ko'rsatkichlarni ta'minlaydi.

PCB raketasi nishonning himoya qatlamiga kiradi, so'ngra ichki portlash sodir bo'ladi, bu esa dushmanga garovga olib keladi. U elektromekanik sigortaga ega, u faqat ta'sirni oldindan belgilangan kechiktirishda sezgandan keyingina ishlaydi. PCB raketasi qalinligi 500 mm dan oshadigan temir -beton devorga 1,5 km dan uzoqroq masofaga kirib borish qobiliyatiga ega va qattiq va zirhli nishonlarga qarshi juda samarali. [51]

Sil kasalligi davri, nishonga tekkanida, bir necha yuz millisekunddan oshiq yuqori bosimi va issiqlik energiyasini ishlab chiqaradi, bu esa bunkerlar va binolar kabi dushmanning mustahkam tuzilmalariga zarar etkazadi. U shahar urushiga mos keladi va yumshoq nishonlarga va zirhli nishonlarga qarshi mo'ljallangan. [52]

Rivojlanish jarayonida o'q -dorilarning bu turlari har xil simulyatsiya qilingan nishonlarga - tanklar, zirhli plitalar, beton konstruktsiyalar va istehkomlarga nisbatan keng baholandi. Sinovlar armiya bilan birgalikda o'tkazildi va turli joylarda zarbalarni, portlash bosimi va haroratini o'lchash uchun asbob -uskunalar bilan jihozlangan yaroqsiz tankda o'q -dorilar samaradorligini namoyish etish uchun mo'ljallangan edi. [53] [54] Sinovlar paytida ikkala tur ham zirhli va mustahkamlangan nishonlarga qarshi samarali ekanligi isbotlandi. [52] Raketa [ qaysi? ] shuningdek, 1 m × 1 m (3 fut 3 × 3 fut 3 dyuym) kesimdagi nishonlarni jalb qilishda ham aniqlikka ega edi. [ iqtibos kerak ]

ATGM tahrirlash

Arjun Isroilning "LAHAT" raketasi bilan jihozlanishi rejalashtirilgan bo'lsa -da, keyinchalik uni tankga joylashtirish rejalari tashlab yuborildi, raketa 6000 metrga yaqin masofaga ega, ammo Hindiston armiyasining 1200 dan kam nishonga olish talablariga javob bera olmadi. metr.

SAMHO nomli mahalliy ATGM armiya talabini qondirish uchun ishlab chiqilgan. DRDO 2004 yilga qadar texnik-iqtisodiy asosini tugatdi va 2014 yilda SAMHOni ko'p platformali ishga tushiriladigan LAHAT o'rnini bosuvchi raketalarni ishlab chiqish dasturi doirasida ishlab chiqara boshladi va 1200 metrlik minimal harakatlanish oralig'ini yumshatdi. SAMHO yoki Yarim Faol Mission Homing ARDE tomonidan HEMRL va Instruments Research and Development Institutlishment (IRDE) bilan hamkorlikda ishlab chiqilgan. U 4 km masofani bosib o'tadi va portlovchi reaktiv zirhli himoya vositalarini yo'q qilishga qodir bo'lgan tandemli yuqori portlovchi tankga qarshi o'q-dorilarni ishlatadi. SAMHO ko'rsatma sifatida yarim faol lazerli homingdan foydalanadi va past uchadigan vertolyotlar va qotib qolgan nuqta tuzilmalarini yo'q qila oladi. SAMHO ATGM Arjun Mark 1A uchun asosiy yangilanish xususiyatlaridan biridir. [55] [56] [57] [58]

2020 yil 23 sentyabrda, Hindiston armiyasi uchun texnik baholash sinovlari ostida, DRDO Arjun MBT-dan SAMHO ATGM-ni KK Range, zirhli korpus markazi va maktabda (ACC & ampS), Ahmednagarda muvaffaqiyatli sinovdan o'tkazdi. [59] 2020 yil 1 oktyabrda 1,5 km dan 5 km gacha nishonga oladigan SAMHO ATGM ikkinchi muvaffaqiyatli sinovi o'tkazildi. [60]

Yong'in nazorati va navigatsiya Tahrirlash

Arjun bortidagi yong'inni boshqarishning kompyuterlashtirilgan tizimi DRDO va Isroilning Elbit kompaniyasi bilan birgalikda ishlab chiqilgan. [61] Yong'inni nazorat qilish tizimi ikkita o'qda barqarorlashtirildi va juda katta ehtimollik bilan (dizayn mezonlari 0,9 Pk dan yuqori bo'lishi kerak) qattiq cho'l sharoitida ishlay olmasligi tufayli muammolarga duch kelgan oldingi analogni almashtirdi. shartlar. [31] Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) va termal kamera (sobiq Sagemdan, hozir El-Opdan) birlashgan kunduzgi ko'rish qurolchining asosiy ko'zini tashkil qiladi. To'pponcha 2 -chi avlod termal tasvir kamerasiga ega, bu esa tunda ovchi qotil qobiliyatini beradi. Tankda maksimal masofa 10 km bo'lgan lazer diapazonini topuvchi mavjud. [2]

Armiya tomonidan buyurtma qilingan 124 tanklarining birinchi partiyasi Sagem FCS raqamli raqamli raqamli blokiga ega bo'ladi, ikkinchi blokda esa keyinchalik barcha bo'linmalar uchun ishlatiladigan BEL bo'ladi.

Qo'mondonning stabillashgan panoramik ko'rinishi unga nishonlarni tortish va/yoki ularni qurolchiga topshirish imkonini beradi. U 360 ° ko'rish uchun sakkizta periskop bilan jihozlangan qo'mondonlik punkti bilan panoramik ko'rinishga ega. Qo'mondonning mustaqil termal ko'rish vositasi, qurol -yarog 'stantsiyasi, pozitsiyadagi navigatsiya uskunalari va boshqaruv va displeylarning to'liq to'plami yong'inni boshqarish tizimini takomillashtirish uchun raqamli ma'lumotlar uzatish shinasi bilan bog'langan. [62]

Arjunda qurol tizimlarini jim kuzatuv rejimida ishlatish uchun yordamchi quvvat bloki mavjud. [25] [63] [64]

Kengaytirilgan yong'in nazorati tizimi (AFCS) millimetrli tarmoqli radar tizimi, lazer diapazonini topuvchi va aniqlagich, shamol o'tkazgichi, IQ, kuzatuv tizimlari va datchiklari, real vaqtda buyruq, ko'zdan uzoqqa nishonni jalb qilish va radiometr sensorlar bilan bog'langan. taxta.

Arjun, shuningdek, Isroilning Elbit Systems Limited kompaniyasi bilan birgalikda ishlab chiqilgan yong'inni boshqarish tizimi uchun Lazerdan ogohlantirishning ilg'or o'lchov tizimi (ALWCS) bilan jihozlangan. Tizim yangi yong'inni boshqarish tizimi uchun to'rtta Laser ogohlantiruvchi qabul qilgichni o'z ichiga oladi, bu Arjunga vertolyotlarni urib tushirishga imkon beradi. ALWCS Arjun MBT -ga birlashtirilgan va sinovlar o'tkazilgan. [46] [65]

Arjunning jang maydonlarini boshqarishning zamonaviy tizimi (IBMS), Arjun tarkibiga kirgan, DRDO va Elbit tomonidan ishlab chiqilgan, unga boshqa jangovar bo'linmalar bilan aloqa o'rnatishga imkon beradi.

Shuningdek, u GPS/INS-ga asoslangan navigatsiya tizimlari va murakkab chastotali o'tish radiolarini o'z ichiga oladi. [66] Qidiruv va mashg'ulotlarda bir nechta Arjun tanklari raqibni va uning harakatlarini kuzatishi mumkin va uni ta'qib qilish yoki pistirmada yo'q qilishga urinish mumkin. [25] [63] [64]

Himoya tahrirlash

Arjun asosiy tank sifatida tanklarning ko'pchiligida ishlatiladigan oddiy RHA po'lati o'rniga DMR-1700 yuqori qattiqlashtirilgan po'latdan foydalanadi.Haydarobod mudofaa metallurgiya tadqiqot laboratoriyasi tomonidan ishlab chiqilgan DMR-1700 pastroq og'irlikdagi RHA po'latdan ko'ra ko'proq afzalliklarni ko'rsatdi. Balistik sinovdan ko'rinib turibdiki, DMR-1700 po'latdan yasalgan ballistik ko'rsatkichni 7,62 AP o'qlariga nisbatan 25 foizga, uzun tayoqli zirhli pirsingli stabilizatsiyalangan sabot turlariga nisbatan 20 foizga yaxshilagan. shuningdek, payvandlash oson va RHA po'latining yarmi narxiga ega. [3]

Minora va muzliklar "Kanchan" bilan himoyalangan."oltin") modulli kompozit zirh, u o'z nomini Kanchan Bag, Haydaroboddan oldi, u erda Mudofaa metallurgiya tadqiqot laboratoriyasi (DMRL) joylashgan. [67] Kanchan, bir hil qurol -yarog '(RHA) o'rtasida kompozit panellarni sendvichlash yo'li bilan qilingan. Bu APFDS va HEAT turlarini engishga yordam beradi.

2000 yilda o'tkazilgan sinovlar, Kanchan zirhining tankni himoya qilish qobiliyatini ko'rsatdi, hatto T-72 tomonidan bo'sh masofaga tegsa ham. Shuningdek, u Isroil APFSDS turlarini o'z ichiga olgan HESH va APFSDS turlarini mag'lub etish qobiliyatini namoyish etdi. [67]

Arjun Mk.2 varianti portlamaydigan va energetik bo'lmagan reaktiv zirhli (NERA), yadroviy, biologik va kimyoviy (NBC) himoya uskunalari, minalarni tozalash va yong'inga qarshi avtomatik tizimning yangi chuqurchalar dizayniga ega. [68]

Faol va passiv himoya:

Arjun Barracuda Camouflage Ltd. bilan hamkorlikda ishlab chiqilgan "Himoya yordami tizimini ishlab chiqish" loyihasi doirasida ishlab chiqilgan va Arjun dizayniga qo'shilgan mobil kamuflyaj tizimi bilan jihozlangan, bu avtomobil infraqizil nurlanishining aniqlanishini kamaytiradi. termal va radar va barcha ma'lum sensorlar va aqlli o'q -dorilar. Rejalashtirilgan yaxshilanishlarga elektro-optik/IR "ko'zni qamashtiruvchilar" kiradi. [46]

Turga o'rnatilgan millimetrli tarmoqli radar tizimi raketa yaqinlashuvi haqida ogohlantirish tizimi (MAWS) sifatida ishlashga qodir va radar ogohlantiruvchi qabul qilgich (RWR) va radar tormozi bilan jihozlangan. Tankda infraqizil (IR) jammer ham o'rnatilgan. [69]

Arjun mk.1A, Isroilning Elbit Systems Limited kompaniyasi bilan birgalikda ishlab chiqilgan, yong'inni boshqarish tizimi uchun Lazerdan ogohlantirishga qarshi ilg'or tizim (ALWCS) bilan jihozlangan. [69]

Tizim to'rtta lazerli ogohlantiruvchi qabul qilgichdan (LWR) iborat bo'lib, ular tankni lazer diapazonini ko'rsatganda ogohlantiradi (lazer ogohlantiruvchi qabul qilgich tank orasidagi masofa ma'lumotlarini olishiga to'sqinlik qiladi, bu esa zarba olish ehtimolini kamaytiradi). ATGM yoki dushman tanki tomonidan). Tizim lazer diapazoni yoki lazerli boshqariladigan o'q bilan ko'rsatilganda, u avtomatik ravishda aerozolli tutun granatalarini joylashtiradi, bu esa lazerni to'sib qo'yadi va tankga urilishining oldini oladi. [69]

Arjunda o'q -dorilarni saqlash uchun alohida klapanli o'q -dorilar qutilari bor (Merkava tankiga o'xshash) va Arjunda o'q otish natijasida hosil bo'lgan yuqori bosimni pasaytiradigan panellar bor. [68]

Arjun bir zumda yong'in va portlashni o'chirish tizimi bilan jihozlangan. U yong'in, portlovchi va ekologik xavfsizlik markazi tomonidan ishlab chiqilgan. Ushbu tizimning mahalliy rivojlanishi bu tankning yong'indan/portlashdan himoyalanish sohasidagi yutuq deb hisoblanadi, bu tizim o'q -dorilar qutilari bilan birga tankni ekipaj bo'linmasi ichidagi o'q -dorilar yong'iniga nisbatan kamroq himoyasiz qiladi. Tizim dushmanning tankga tegishi yoki dvigatelning ishlamay qolishi, uzatmalar qutisi yoki elektrning qisqa tutashuvi natijasida kelib chiqqan uglevodorodli yoqilg'i yong'inini/portlashini bostirishga qodir. Tizim jangovar tankning ekipaj bo'linmasida yong'in/portlashni aniqlash uchun infraqizil detektorlarga va dvigatel bo'linmasi uchun yong'in simlari sifatida mashhur bo'lgan uzluksiz chiziqli termal detektorga asoslangan. Halon-1301 yong'inga qarshi vosita sifatida ishlatilgan. Tizim ekipaj bo'linmasida 200 millisekund ichida va dvigatel bo'linmasida 15 soniya ichida uglevodorod yoqilg'isining yonishini/portlashini aniqlash va bostirish imkoniyatiga ega, shu bilan ekipajning omon qolish imkoniyatini va tankning jangovar samaradorligini oshiradi. [70]

Qatlga asoslangan faol himoya tizimi ishlab chiqilmoqda, u 360 ta qamrovga ega va 150 M masofaga qadar tahdidlarni bartaraf etishi mumkin. [4]

Harakatni tahrirlash

Dvigatel va uzatish mos ravishda Germaniyaning MTU va Rank kompaniyalari tomonidan ta'minlangan. [71] Suv bilan sovutilgan dvigatel 1400 ot kuchiga ega va hind turbochargatori va epitsiklik poezd vites qutisi bilan to'rt oldinga va ikkita teskari vites bilan birlashtirilgan. [72] Mahalliy transmissiya sinovdan o'tmoqda va oxir -oqibat Rang bilan ta'minlangan blokni almashtirish rejalashtirilgan. [71] Sovutish to'plami cho'l operatsiyalari uchun mo'ljallangan.

Germaniyaning Diehl kompaniyasi tomonidan etkazib beriladigan treklarni hozirda Larsen & amp Toubro mahalliy ishlab chiqarmoqda. [71]

Arjun og'irroq bo'lishiga qaramasdan, engilroq T-72 va T-90 ga qaraganda er osti bosimiga ega. [71]

Arjun gidro-pnevmatik suspenziyaga ega [73], bu burilish majmuasi yoki spiral buloqli osma tizimlari bo'lgan boshqa MBTlarga qaraganda ancha rivojlangan. [74] Bu Arjunning barqarorlashtirish va yong'inni nazorat qilish tizimi bilan birgalikda tankni harakatlanayotganda nishonlarga qarshi birinchi zarba berish ehtimolini beradi. [73] Uning haydash qulayligi yuqori baholanadi. [73] Salbiy tomoni shundaki, bu ko'plab tanklarda ishlatiladigan oddiy va arzonroq burilish panjarasi osma tizimlaridan ko'ra qobiliyatliroq bo'lishiga qaramay, texnik xizmat talab qiladigan va qimmat tizimdir. [75]

Sinovlar paytida, Arjun 20 daqiqa davomida 1,8 metr suv ostida haydash orqali o'zining to'qish qobiliyatini namoyish etdi. [76]

1500 ot kuchiga ega yangi dvigatel va avtomat uzatma tizimi ishlab chiqilmoqda, u oxir -oqibat Germaniyadan olib kelingan dvigatel va transmissiya tizimini almashtiradi. Loyiha uchun 5 million ₹ (5,6 million AQSh dollari) miqdoridagi byudjet mablag'lari ajratilgan, uni besh yil ichida bajarish rejalashtirilgan. [77]

1988–1989 yillarda ikkita prototipda avtomobil sinovlari o'tkazildi, natijada harakatlanish, dvigatel va transmissiyada katta kamchiliklar aniqlandi. [78]

1996 va 1997 yillarda keng ko'lamli harakatlanish va qurollanish sinovlaridan o'tgan prototiplar, Rajastanning cho'l sahrosida ishlamay qolgan import qilingan yong'inni boshqarish tizimi, dvigateli va uzatish tizimi tufayli qabul qilingan me'yorlardan past bo'lganligi aniqlandi. [78]

Arjun import qilinadigan yong'inga qarshi boshqaruv tizimi (FCS) ning haddan tashqari qizib ketishi bilan bog'liq doimiy muammolarga duch keldi, bu yuqori darajadagi yuqori harorat ta'sirida beqaror va yaroqsiz holga keltirgan termal tasvir va lazer o'lchagichni o'z ichiga olgan to'xtatuvchi tizim. Hindistonda 55 ° C dan yuqori. Keyin import qilinadigan barcha asosiy tizimlar armiya talablariga to'la mos keladigan mahalliy modifikatsiyalangan/litsenziyali tizimlar bilan almashtirildi.

General -mayor H.M. Sinov va baholash uchun mas'ul direktor Singxning aytishicha, foydalanuvchilarning tajriba hisoboti qurol tizimining to'g'riligi va izchilligini tasdiqlagan. [79] [80] [81] [82]

Biroq, armiya kichik kamchiliklarni topdi va tankga yangi talablar qo'shdi va DRDOga Arjun bazasida yangi tank qurishni taklif qildi, bu oxir -oqibat Arjun MBT ning ilg'or versiyasi Arjun Mk.2 ni ishlab chiqishga olib keldi. ]. [26] [84]

2010 yil mart oyida Hindiston armiyasi tomonidan qiyosiy sud o'tkazildi, unda Arjun T-90 ga qarshi qo'yildi. Sud jarayoni Arjunlarning bitta eskadronini teng miqdordagi T-90larga qarshi o'tkazdi. Har bir eskadronga uchta taktik vazifa berildi, ularning har biri 50 kilometrlik cho'l hududini bosib o'tib, so'ngra nishonlarni o'qqa tutdi. Har bir tank statsionar va harakatda kamida o'nta o'q otishi kerak edi, bunda har bir zarba ehtiyotkorlik bilan qayd qilinadi. Hammasi bo'lib, har bir tank 150 km masofani bosib o'tdi va 30-50 ta o'q otdi. Sinovlar, shuningdek, tanklarning 1,5-1,8 metr chuqurlikdagi suv kanallari orqali harakatlanish qobiliyatini tekshirdi. [85]

Mudofaa vazirligining press-relizida aytilishicha, Arjun har xil sharoitlarda, masalan, qo'pol qumtepalar ustidan o'tib ketish, nishonlarni aniqlash, kuzatish va tez tortish, nishonlarni aniq urish-statsionar va harakatlanuvchi, aniq aniqlik bilan ko'rsatgan. U har qanday ob-havo sharoitida kunduzi va kechasi aniq va tez nishonga olish qobiliyatini ko'rsatdi va jangovar mashg'ulotlar paytida mumkin bo'lgan eng qisqa reaktsiya vaqtini ko'rsatdi, bu Rossiyaning T-90 samolyotlari bilan bir xil bo'lsa, yaxshiroq emas. [85] [86]

Hindiston armiyasi zirhli korpusi 2019 yilda Rajastanda o'tkazilgan yakuniy integratsiya sinovlari muvaffaqiyatli yakunlanganidan so'ng Arjun Mk.1A -ni yangilandi va buyurtma berdi. Bu Arjun Mk.1 -ga nisbatan 72 ta yaxshilanish bilan birga keladi, 14 ta asosiy yangilanish. Arjun Mk.1A og'ir avtomobillar zavodida ommaviy ishlab chiqarilmoqda.

Dastlabki operatsiyalar davomida Arjun import qilinadigan ehtiyot qismlar yo'qligi tufayli katta operatsion qiyinchiliklarga duch keldi. [87]

2017 yilda ma'lum bo'lishicha, DRDO avtotransport parkining 75 foizini buzgan nosozliklarni tuzatish uchun import qilinadigan zarur ehtiyot qismlarni olgan. [88]

  • Arjun Mk.1A: (ilgari Arjun MK2 nomi bilan tanilgan) Arjun Mark 1 ning 68 tonnalik takomillashtirilgan varianti, Hindiston armiyasi tomonidan yong'in kuchini yaxshilash, himoya qilish, vazn taqsimotini yaxshilash va harakatlanishni yaxshilash uchun maxsus so'ralgan. Asosiy yangilanishlardan ba'zilari masofadan boshqariladigan qurolli stantsiya (RCWS), avtomatlashtirilgan nishonni kuzatish (ATT) bilan birlashtirilgan Gunner's Main Sight (GMS) tizimi bo'lib, ularning hammasi yong'inni nazorat qilishning kompyuterlashtirilgan tizimiga ulangan bo'lib, bu birinchi turda o'ldirish qobiliyatini yaxshilaydi. noqulay sharoitlarda panoramik ko'rish (CPS Mark II) o'rnatilgan, sovutilmagan termal kamera va dürbünlü diqqatga sazovor joylarga ega tungi ko'rish kamerasi, rivojlangan ovchi qotil qobiliyatini aniqlash uchun lazerli masofani o'lchash moslamasi, mina izining kengligi (TWMP), individual yopiladigan konteynerli o'q -dorilar qutisi (CABIS), Lazerli ogohlantirish va qarshi o'lchash tizimi (LWCMS), infraqizilga qarshi / termal tasvirga qarshi bo'yoqlar, zamonaviy navigatsiya tizimi, quvvati 8,5 kVt bo'lgan qo'shimcha quvvat bloki (APU) va real vaqtda ma'lumotlarni uzatish qobiliyatiga ega bo'lgan rivojlangan aloqa tizimi. Arjun Mk.1A korpusi va minorasi siluetning pastligini aniqlash uchun o'zgartirildi, shu bilan birga u yangi ishlab chiqarilgan Thermo-Baric (TB) va Penetration-cum-Blast (PCB) o'q-dorilarini qo'llab-quvvatlaydi. DRDO tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan LAHAT o'rnini bosadigan boshqariladigan raketa ishlab chiqarildi, ular Arjun Mk.1A bilan birlashtiriladi, ular ishlab chiqarish liniyasidan chiqa boshlaydi. Og'irlikning qo'shimcha o'sishi tufayli harakatchanlikni yaxshilash uchun rivojlangan yugurish mexanizmlari (ARGS) ishlab chiqildi va chaqqonlikni oshirish uchun gidropnevmatik to'xtatib turish tizimi butunlay qayta ishlab chiqildi. Chet elda ishlab chiqarilgan import qilinadigan komponentlar soni 63 foizdan 54 foizgacha kamayadi. [89] [90]
  • Bhim SPH: Arjunning 155 mm o'ziyurar gobitsasi varianti Janubiy Afrikadagi Denel T6 minorasini G5 gaubitsasi bilan Arjun shassisiga o'rnatish orqali prototip qilingan. Bu loyiha Denel Hindistondagi korruptsiya mojarosiga aralashgani uchun kechiktirildi va shuning uchun Hindiston Mudofaa vazirligi Bhimni to'xtatdi.
  • 130 mm katapult: Hindiston armiyasi Arjun shassisiga 130 mm katapult tizimini joylashtirmoqchi. Sinovlar muvaffaqiyatli yakunlandi va yangi tizim Vijayata shassisidagi M-46 katapultidan ko'ra harakatchanligi va zaryadlangan o'qlarni o'qqa tutish paytida zarbalarni yutish qobiliyati jihatidan yaxshiroq ekanligini aniqladi. Tizim shuningdek, Arjunda mavjud bo'lgan tungi ko'rish tizimlari va yong'inga qarshi tizimlar bilan jihozlangan. Hind armiyasi tomonidan 40 ta tizimga buyurtma beriladi. [91] [92]
  • Ko'prikli qatlamli tank Arjun shassisiga asoslangan (BLT) DRDO tomonidan ham ko'rsatildi. [93] Hindiston sanoati bilan hamkorlikda ishlab chiqilgan, bu ko'prik qatlami T-72 asosidagi birliklardan ustun hisoblanadi, chunki u katta yukni ko'tarishi mumkin va ko'prikni balandlikka ko'tarmaydigan "qaychi tipidagi" ko'prik yotqizish usulidan foydalanadi. havo, shuning uchun uni uzoqdan ko'rinadigan qilib qo'ying. R & ampDE (E) buni tank quroli va minorasini ko'prikli ishga tushirgich bilan almashtirish orqali amalga oshirdi. Ko'prik kengligi 4 m bo'lgan 26 m masofani bosib o'tish uchun daryolar ustidan yoki ular bo'ylab konsol bilan o'ralgan. BLT-Arjun ko'prikning ikki yarmini olib yuradi. Nam yoki quruq bo'shliqda, ishga tushirish moslamasi ikki qismni siljitadi va ikkinchi yarmining narigi uchi boshqa qirg'oqqa tegadigan tarzda bir -biriga bog'lab qo'yadi. Keyin BLT ko'prikni kesib o'tadi, orqaga buriladi, ko'prikni ikki qismini olib tashlaganidan keyin qaytarib oladi, uni bukadi va zirhli ustun bilan harakatlanishga tayyor. [94]
  • Zirhli muhandislik mashinasi Arjunga asoslangan (AEV) ham ishlab chiqilmoqda deb taxmin qilinadi, chunki Arjun induksiyasi og'irlik-og'irlik nisbatiga o'xshash birliklarni talab qiladi yoki uni tortish yoki jang maydonida tiklash uchun etarli bo'ladi. [95]
  • Tank EXPrototiplar T-72 shassisi va Arjun minorasini ulash orqali olingan yangi tank uchun yaratilgan.

Arjun Mark-1A (ilgari Arjun MK2 nomi bilan tanilgan)-Arjun MK1-dan ishlab chiqilgan, uchinchi avlod rivojlangan tank. [96] [ iqtibos kerak ] Birinchi versiyani ishlab chiqish tajribasi tufayli uni ishlab chiqish 2 yil ichida yakunlandi. [97] Qiyosiy sinovlar paytida u T-90dan ustun keldi. [98]

Sinovlar to'g'risida Mudofaa vazirligi matbuot bayonotida shunday deyilgan: "Ko'p yillik sinovlar va qayg'u-alamlardan so'ng, u o'zini har xil sharoitlarda, masalan, qo'pol qumtepalarni kesib o'tish, aniqlash, kuzatish va tezkorlik bilan o'zining ajoyib ishlashi bilan isbotladi. Maqsadlarni tortib olish, statsionar va harakatlanuvchi nishonlarni aniq aniqlik bilan aniq urish. Uning yuqori olov kuchi har qanday ob-havo sharoitida kunduzi va kechasi aniq va tezkor nishon olish qobiliyatiga va jangovar operatsiyalarda mumkin bo'lgan eng qisqa reaktsiya vaqtiga asoslangan ". Yangi tankning yong'inga qarshi boshqaruv tizimi, o'qni o'qqa tutganda, 90%dan yuqori zarba berish ehtimoli bor. Yangi tank, shuningdek, takomillashtirilgan aloqa tizimlari va yangi navigatsiya tizimiga ega. [99]

Arjun Mk1-A jami 93 ta yangilanishga ega, shu jumladan 13 ta asosiy yaxshilanish. Asosiy yangilanishlar-bu uzoq masofali nishonlarga raketa otish qobiliyati, tunda nishonlarni samarali tortish uchun tungi ko'rish bilan panoramali ko'rish, o'q-dorilarni konteynerizatsiya qilish, asosiy qurollarning kirib borishi, qo'shimcha o'q-dorilar, portlovchi reaktiv zirhlar, havo hujumiga qarshi mudofaa qurollari. vertolyotlar, mina shudgorlari, zamonaviy navigatsiya tizimi va lazer ko'rsatmasini chalkashtirib yuborish uchun tutun granatalarini o'qqa tutadigan ogohlantirish tizimi bilan shug'ullanish. [100]

Boshqa yangilanishlar - bu 8,5 kVt (4,5 kVt dan) bilan ta'minlangan kengaytirilgan yordamchi quvvat bloki va takomillashtirilgan o'q o'qi, [101] qo'mondonning panoramik ko'rinishini LRF, tunda ko'rish qobiliyati, shu jumladan haydovchiga, raqamli boshqaruv moslamasi, yangi oxirgi haydovchi, trek va tishli. [102]

Arjun Mk1A rivojlangan gidropnevmatik to'xtatib turish tizimiga ega, bu ekipajga juda qulaylik yaratadi. Arjun Mk.2, shuningdek, asosiy dvigatel o'chirilganida barcha tizimlarni quvvatlaydigan yordamchi quvvat bloki bilan jihozlangan. [99]

Yangi variant yuqori darajadagi raketa otish qobiliyatiga ega va raketalarni 2000 metrgacha aniq o'qqa tuta oladi. [103] [104] Oxirgi sinov mahalliy ishlab chiqilgan raketadan iborat bo'lib, u 5000 metr masofaga nishonni ko'rsatdi.

Arjun tank korpusi va minorasi 59-64 tonnadan 55 tonnagacha mo'ljallangan og'irlikka erishish uchun o'zgartirildi. Elbit o'zining qurolli kuchlari va jang maydonlarida omon qolishga yordam beradi, Isroil harbiy sanoati esa Arjun Mk.1A harakatchanligini oshirishga, minorasi va korpusini qayta loyihalashtirishga va ishlab chiqarish jarayonlarini yaxshilashga yordam beradi.

Himoya darajasi yaxshilangan Kanchan zirhlari, shuningdek, minorada mahalliy ishlab chiqilgan portlovchi reaktiv zirhli modullar yordamida oshiriladi. [ iqtibos kerak ]

Tank 2012 yilda Rajastanning Poxran dala otish poligonida 19 parametrga e'tibor qaratib, ikki oy davom etgan sinov sinovlaridan o'tdi. DRDO ushbu sinovlar muvaffaqiyatli o'tgandan so'ng Hindiston armiyasi uchun 124 ta Arjun Mk.2 tankini ishlab chiqarish liniyasini tayyorlay boshladi.

Tank qo'mondonining tungi ko'rish tizimi, tankning "ovchi-qotil" rejimida ishlashi, tankning asosiy qurolidan raketalarni o'qqa tutish qobiliyati va lazerli raketa ogohlantirish va qarshi choralar tizimi sinovdan o'tkaziladigan muhim yangilanishlar qatoriga kiradi. [105]

Mark-II versiyasi 2012 va 2013 yillarda ko'pchilik foydalanuvchilar sinovlarini yakunlab, ta'sirchan ishlashini ko'rsatdi. Arjun Mk.1A ning yangi xususiyatlari ijobiy javob oldi [106] [107]

2014 yil avgust oyida Mudofaani sotib olish bo'yicha yuqori kengash (DAC) 118 Arjun Mark II tanklari uchun 6,600 milliard dollarlik tozalashni yangiladi. Birlashgan Progressiv Alyans (UPA) hukumati 118 Arjun Mk.1A -ni tozalagan edi. Bu ruxsatnoma armiya tank prototipini ikki yildan beri baholab kelganidan keyin tugagan edi.

Yangilanish armiyaga sinovlar tugagandan so'ng, Avadi og'ir avtomobillar fabrikasidan tanklarga buyurtma berishga imkon beradi. Qo'shimcha yordam Arjun tank loyihasiga 820 million evroga teng 40 ta o'ziyurar artilleriya qurolidan tozalash orqali uzatildi. "Katapult" deb nomlangan ushbu qurol tizimi Arjun tank shassisiga o'rnatilgan 130 millimetrli quroldan iborat bo'lib, unga tank ustunlarini ushlab turish va jangda ularga o't o'chirishni ta'minlash imkonini beradi. [108]

Arjun Mk.2 DefExpo 2014 ko'r -ko'rona minalari bilan.

Arjun Mk.2 yonilg'i bak va dvigatel (orqa).

DefExpo 2016 ko'rgazmasida Arjun Mk.2 namoyishi.

Future MBT (FMBT) dastlab yangi tank dizayni bo'lib, u 2025 yilda va undan keyin indüksiya uchun noldan ishlab chiqilishi kerak edi. FMBT va dastur dizayndagi vaznni kamaytirishga qaratilgan bo'lib, 50 tonnalik engilroq tank bo'lishi kerak edi. [109] [110]

FMBT 2020 yilda mudofaa masalalari bo'yicha doimiy komissiya tomonidan texnologiyalarni rivojlantirish bosqichiga qo'yildi. DRDO FMBT loyihasi uchun 5000 kron rupiydan qo'shimcha mablag 'talab qildi. The FMBT awaits Preliminary Staff Qualitative Requirements (PSQR) from the army which is crucial for the design & development of the tank and for sanctioning the project. [111] [112]

One of the concepts of FMBT disclosed by Dr. Avinash Chander (SA-to-RM) is to explore the possibility of a 2-man crew, sub-50 ton tank with higher armour protection than Arjun Mk.2. He said that DRDO is currently doing feasibility study of using the fighter aircraft's digital cockpit & weapons management systems.

The FMBT is set to feature an Bharat power pack which consists of an indigenously developed 1800hp diesel engine and indigenous transmission system. And the FMBT is set to feature an 120mm smooth bore gun which can fire all the types of ammunitions including ATGMS to replace the current 120mm rifled guns used in Arjun series. [113]

It can be assumed that this planned FMBT would have a fully automatic turret, larger ammunition storage, V-hull and smaller dimensions. Driver and commander role would be retained for the 2 crews planned, with duplicated controls, with the Gunner/Loader roles completely automated. [114]


A number of upgrade packages are available for T-72 series tanks. Kharkov Machine Building Design Bureau (KMDB) of the Ukraine is offering the T-72MP with SAGEM SAVAN sights. They are also developing a version fitted with a Nato-standard 120mm smoothbore gun and automatic loader.

Uralvagonzavod of Russia is offering a T-72M1 upgrade that includes new 1,000hp diesel engine, new smoothbore 125mm gun, new fire control system with Sosna-U stabilised day / night sights for gunner and commander and digital ballistic computer, satellite navigation system, explosive reactive armour package and the Arena countermeasures system.

The Czech Republic has upgraded 30 of its fleet of T-72M1 tanks to T-72CZ standard. The first was delivered in January 2004. The upgrade includes ERA, Galileo Avionica TURMS-T computerised fire control system and a new powerpack by NIMDA of Israel with Perkins CV12 engine rated at 1,000bhp and Allison automatic transmission. ZTS Dubnica of Slovenia offer an upgrade for T-72 Moderna tanks.

In June 2002, Polish company Obrum signed a contract with Rheinmetall Landysysteme of Germany to cooperate on the modernisation of Polish Army T-72 tanks, using Leopard 2 technology.

In January 2010, Russia signed a €1.3bn military cooperation deal with Libya to upgrade 200 T-72 tanks of the Libyan Army.

In July 2019, the Polish Ministry of Defence signed a zl1.75bn ($458.13m) agreement with PGZ consortium for the upgrade of T-72 tank fleet by 2025.In August 2020, Iran unveiled the upgraded T-72M1 battle tank which features modified turret, flat armour on the side of the turret and a simplified forward-opening hatch.

A number of companies offer systems to upgrade the fire control system of T-72 series tanks with thermal imaging capability.

These include: SATES from El-Op of Israel, MT-01 from Indra of Spain, TFCS3-72C from Fotona of Slovenia, Tiger from LIW of South Africa, Drawa-T from PCO of Poland and Sanoet-2 from SAGEM of France.


T-72 Russian Production Models

Eslatma: The K in a designation is for a Commanders tank and V was sometimes for those fitted with ERA armour.

T-72 “Ural” (1973)

Original production model with coincidence rangefinder and searchlight. Its understood that the model had the IR searchlight mounted on the left of the main gun.

T-72K (1973)

Command version, fitted with additional radios, these change depending on the rank of commander

T-72A (1979)

First big upgrade. Frontal turret armour improved with composite and a TPD-K1 laser range finder installed. Armoured track skirts covering the upper part of the suspension were added. A new Fire Control System was installed and MB smoke grenade launchers mounted as a row across the turret front. There are further sub-marks for small armour changes.

T-72AK (1979)

Command version, fitted with additional radios, these change depending on the rank of commander

T-72AV (1985)

Fitted with Kontakt-1 Explosive Reactive Armour aka ERA

T-72B (1985)

Improvements in composite armour of front and top of the turret, hull front armour thickness increased, 1A40-1 fire control system installed, modifications made for the firing of laser-guided antitank missile (AT-11 Sniper) and a new 840hp V-84-1 engine was installed. Also noticeable is the smoke grenade launchers had been moved into a single bank on the left side of the turret

T-72BK (1987)

Command version, fitted with additional radios, these change depending on the rank of commander

T-72B1 (1985)

Designation for those T-72B without the modifications to fire AT-11 Sniper ATGM

T-72BA (1999/2000)

Fitted with Kontakt-5 ERA and improved mine protection to the drivers station, other small changes include the tracks of the recent T-90 tank (was recent at the time) and a new wind sensor at the rear of the turret.

T-72B2 “Рогатка” (Slingshot) aka T-72BM (2006)

It is equipped with Relikt” 3rd generation ERA (superior to Kontakt-5) and “Nakidka” camouflage. It has a new fire control system with a thermal gunner’s sight and a new 125 mm 2A46M-5 main gun with a muzzle reference system. Mobility is also improved with the 1000hp V-92S2 diesel engine. This upgrade was not purchased by the Russian Army.

T-72B3 (2013)

Fitted with Kontakt-5 ERA, its quipped with a new fire control system, including a new Gunners thermal sight and new communication systems. The main gun has been modified to fire Refleks ATGM. Mobility has also been improved with a new 1130hp V-92S2F engine. Thus upgrade was implemented through a RESET process and is in Russian Army service.

T-72B3M (2014)

Special edition of T-72B3 made for the Tank biathlon. It is equipped with a panoramic commander sight, has increased engine power, an automatic transmission and a drive control system.


T-72B3M

The T-72B3M, sometimes unofficially referred as T-72B4, is a recent Russian upgrade of the ageing T-72B tank. It is a further development of the T-72B3 with some improvements. It has a new gun, improved fire control system with panoramic commander's sight, improved protection and new engine. This tank was first publicly revealed in 2014. A small batch of these tanks was produced. In 2016 it was announced that Russia is planning to upgrade a total of 150 older T-72B tanks to the T-72B3M standard. Currently Russia is gradually refurbishing and upgrading a number of its ageing T-72B tanks to keep them operational and up to date. The T-72B3M can be seen as a low-cost upgrade of the older T-72B tank. By 2020 a total of 248 Russian tanks were upgraded to the T-72B3M standard. However despite all updates and improvements the T-72B3M is no match for modern Main Battle Tanks (MBTs). In 2017 it was announced that first modernized T-72M3M tanks entered service with Belarus. However Belarusian tanks have some differences.

Early production versions of the T-72B3M had older Kontakt-5 built-in explosive reactive armor. It has been reported that this tank will be fitted with a built-in Relikt explosive reactive armor of 3-rd generation. Such armor if present on the T-90MS demonstrator.

This tank has a new 2A46M5 125 mm smoothbore gun. Autoloader of this tank has some modifications and can use newly-developed munitions. This tank can launch 9M119 Svir or 9M119M Refleks anti-tank guided missiles in the same manner as ordinary projectiles. Western reporting name for both missiles is AT-11 Sniper. A total of 45 rounds are carried, 22 rounds are stored in the autoloader and ready to use, while remaining are stored inside the hull.

There is a coaxial 7.62 mm machine gun, as well as a 12.7 mm roof-mounted machine gun. The last mentioned is manually controlled by the vehicle commander.

The T-72B3M has got an improved fire control system over the previous T-72B3. It is fitted with new panoramic sight with thermal vision, which gives it a hunter-killer engagement capability. Tank commander uses a panoramic sight with thermal vision to search for targets. Once the target is selected the gun is laid on the target automatically and the gunner completes al the aiming and firing process. During that time commander looks for the next target. Such engagement method is present on all modern MBTs. The fire control system comes with a ballistic computer. Gunner uses Sosna-U sight with thermal imager. The T-72B3M has got day/night and all weather combat capability. The tank is also fitted with a digital radio system. So in terms of fire control system and electronics, the T-72B3M outperforms the T-90 tank, used by the Russian Army.

This MBT is operated by a crew of three, including commander, gunner and driver.

This tank is powered by the V-92S2F diesel, developing 1 130 hp. This engine was also fitted on some refurbished and upgraded T-72B3 tanks. It replaced the original 840 hp engine. As a result the T-72B3M is faster than its predecessor. This tank also comes with new tracks. With preparation this MBT can ford water obstacles up to 5 m deep. This deep wading feature is present on all Soviet/Russian MBTs. The T-72B3M also has a built-in blade for self-entrenching. The tank can prepare itself defensive entrenchment within 12-40 minutes, depending on the ground type.


The T-72 is a second-generation main battle tank that entered production in 1971. It was designed by Uralvagonzavod from 1967 to 1973. The T-72 entered service in the Soviet Army in 1973 and was widely produced and exported, with more than 25,000 units seeing service in 40 countries. The Russian Ground Forces continuously updated and modernized the T-72 main battle tanks, producing several variants of it until the T-14 Armata entered service. Other operators of the T-72 have also created their own variants.

Considerably lighter than the M1A2, the T-72 (as the T-72B) weighs 44.5 tonnes (49.1 short tons). It is 9.53 m (31 ft 3 in including main gun length) long, 3.59 m (11 ft 9 in) wide, and 2.23 m (7 ft 4 in) tall. The T-72 is operated by three crew members. The T-72 has stronger armor than its Soviet main battle tank predecessors as well as a powerful 125 mm (4.9 ins) 2A46 series main gun, larger than that of Western main battle tanks. The T-72 can go up to a speed of 80 km/h (50 mph).

The T-72B variant entered service with Russia in 1985 and underwent numerous modifications over the years, one of the most recent of which is the T-72B3 which entered service in 2013. The modernization program brings the tank’s performance near that of the T-90A at a significantly lower cost allowing T-72B3 modernization to replace T-90A production. The outcome of the endeavor is increased firepower, a minor improvement in mobility, and no significant changes to survivability.


T-72B3

The T-72B3 is a recent Russian upgrade of the ageing T-72B tanks. It can be seen as a low-cost alternative to the T-72B2 Rogatka upgrade to keep older T-72B tanks operational. Refurbished and upgraded T-72B3 tanks are fitted with new engine, new gunners sight, new fire control system and have some other improvements. Now this MBT has a limited hunter-killer engagement capability. First upgraded T-72B3 tanks were delivered to the Russian Army in 2013. By 2020 a total of 558 tanks were upgraded to the T-72B3 standard.

During 2014 and 2015 the T-72B3 tanks saw combat during a military conflict in Ukraine. At least a couple of these tanks were destroyer or captured by Ukrainian armed forces. At least one captured tank was pressed into Ukrainian service and used against its former owners. In 2017 the T-72B3 also saw action in Syria.

Protection of the upgraded tank was slightly improved. The T-72B3 is fitted with built-in Kontakt-5 explosive reactive armor. The same armor is used by the T-80U, T-90 and some other main battle tanks. This armor can effectively defeat most older APFSDS rounds as well as anti-tank rockets and guided missiles.

Newer version of the T-72B3, which appeared in 2017, which is better protected than the standard T-72B3. It has an added new add-on explosive reactive armor package, which covers rear part of the turret. This tank is also fitted with cage armor, which covers rear parts of the hull and turret and improved triangular side skirts.

The tank retains its original 125 mm smoothbore-gun. However autoloader of the T-72B3 has some modifications and can use newly-developed munitions. This tank can launch 9M119 Svir or 9M119M Refleks anti-tank guided missiles in the same manner as ordinary munitions. Western reporting names for both missiles are AT-11 or Sniper. A total of 45 rounds are carried, 22 rounds are stored in the autoloader and ready to use, while remaining are stored inside the hull.

There is a coaxial 7.62 mm machine gun and roof-mounted 12.7 mm machine gun. The roof-mounted 12.7 mm machine gun is controlled manually by the vehicle commander.

The tank has new fire control system and new ballistic computer. Gunner uses new Sosna-U sight with thermal imager. This sight has day/night and all weather combat capability. The T-72B3 has a limited hunter-killer capability even though it lacks commander's panoramic sight. Vehicle commander can select a target and lay the gun and let the gunner complete all the aiming and firing process. During that time commander looks for the next target. The tank is also fitted with new digital radio system.

Some T-72B3 demonstrator tanks were fitted with commander's panoramic sight. This sight appeared as standard on the T-72B4 model.

This tank has a crew of three, including commander, gunner and driver.

Initially refurbished and upgraded T-72B3 tanks were powered by original V-84-1 diesel engine, developing 840 hp. However later production tanks were fitted with a new V-92S2F engine, developing 1 130 hp. This tank is also fitted with new tracks.

In 2016 it has been reported that another 150 T-72B tanks will be upgraded to the -B3 or -B3M standard, and additionally fitted with new automatic transmission, similar to that of the T-90MS Tagil demonstrator. This automatic transmission has 7 forward and 1 reverse speeds. The T-72B3 will become the first Russian mass produced tank, fitted with an automatic transmission. It was planned that the first batch of tanks with automatic transmissions will be delivered in 2017.

Newer version of the T-72B3, which appeared in 2017, which is better protected than the standard T-72B3. It has an added new add-on explosive reactive armor package, which covers rear part of the turret. This tank is also fitted with cage armor, which covers rear parts of the hull and turret and improved triangular side skirts.

T-72B3M, is a newer upgrade of the T-72B tank. It is also unofficially referred as the T-72B4. It is a further development of the T-72B3 with some improvements. It has a new 2A46M5 gun, improved fire control system with panoramic commander's sight. It is reportedly fitted with a built-in Relikt 3-rd generation explosive reactive armor. This tank is powered by the V-92S2F diesel, developing 1 130 hp. By 2020 a total of 248 tanks were upgraded to the T-72B3M standard.

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T-72

The T-72 Ural main battle tank was developed as a cheaper and more reliable, however less capable alternative to the T-64. It is a product of a traditional Soviet design philosophy. Its designers used proven components whenever possible, improved existing components where required, and designed new components only when it was necessary. The T-72 entered service with the Soviet army in 1973. A total of 17 831 of T-72 series tanks were produced in Soviet Union until 1990. During the late 1990s Russian Army operated around 9 000 of these main battle tanks. By 2020 only 2 034 of T-72 series tanks of all variants reportedly remained in active service with the Russian Army. Though a large number of these tanks was kept in storage. Over 10 000 of these tanks were license-produced in Czechoslovakia, India, Romania and Yugoslavia. The T-72 was exported to around 30 countries.

The T-72 is protected by composite armor. Some sources claim that front armor of the T-72 is equivalent to 410 mm of Rolled Homogenous Armor (RHA). At the time of its introduction from arc of the T-72 could withstand any 105 mm munitions at ranges greater than 500 m. Mind though that contemporary Western tanks were armed with 105 mm guns. The front armor of the T-72 could not be penetrated by contemporary Dragon or TOW anti-tank guided missiles. Side armor provides protection against IFV and helicopter cannons. Later production models were fitted with side skirts. The T-72 has an NBC protection system. Interior is lined with anti-radiation liner, which also acts as a spall liner. There is also an automatic fire extinguishing equipment.

This main battle tank is completed with a 125 mm smoothbore gun. This gun fired rounds at a much higher muzzle velocity than Western 105 mm rifled guns. The gun is fitted with new carousel-type autoloader. Previous autoloader on the T-64 was unreliable and had a number of other drawbacks. Despite being more reliable, autoloader of the T-72 was slower than that, used on the T-64. Maximum rate of fire is up to 8 rounds per minute. If required, the gun can be loaded manually at a rate of 1-2 rounds per minute. A total of 39 rounds are carried for the main gun. Effective range of fire with APFSDS round is about 2 000-3 000 meters day and 850-1 300 meters at night. Armor penetration is around 590-630 mm of rolled homogenous armor equivalency at 2 000 m range. Germans estimated that the Soviet T-72 could penetrate frontal armor of the early Leopard 2 tanks at a range of 1 500 meters and frontal armor of Leopard 1 tank at more than 3 000 meters.

Secondary armament consists of coaxial 7.62 mm machine gun and 12.7 mm machine gun, mounted on top of the roof in the opened mount.

By Western standards this tank had poor night vision capability, which was a serious drawback.

Vehicle has a crew of three, including commander, gunner and driver.

The T-72 is powered by a V-46 diesel engine, developing 780 horsepower. It has improved suspension over its predecessor. It uses six larger roadwheels, similar to those of the T-55 and T-62 series tanks. This main battle tank is completed with a self-entrenching blade and can dig trench during 12-40 minutes, depending on the ground type. When not in use this self-entrenching blade provides additional protection for the front of the hull. Vehicle is fitted with a deep wading kit and can ford water obstacles up to 5 meters deep.

T-72 Ural-1 with improved armor protection.

T-72 Ural-K command tank with navigation equipment and additional communication equipment.

T-72A had a number of improvements, including improved gun and engine. This tank was fitted with a laser range finder. It could carry 44 rounds of onboard ammunition for the main gun. Side skirts were added. Also it was fitted with smoke grenade dischargers. The T-72A was adopted in 1979. It was produced between 1981 and 1985. A total of 5 264 of these tanks were delivered to the Soviet Army.

T-72AK command version of the T-72A.

T-72AV fitted with Kontakt-1 add-on explosive reactive armor. This armor offers additional protection against HEAT rounds. Some sources claim that its front armor is equivalent to 560 mm of RHA.

T-72M export version of the T-72A with thinner armor and downgraded weapon systems. It was license-produced in Poland and Czechoslovakia.

T-72M1 another export version of the T-72A. Though the T-72M1 has thicker armor than the T-72M. This tank was license-produced in Poland and Czechoslovakia.

T-72B is an improved version of the T-72A with thicker turret armor. It is fitted with Kontakt-1 explosive reactive armor for a higher level of protection. This add-on armor increases protection against HEAT rounds. A total of 227 containers with explosive reactive armor are fitted. This version appeared in 1985. By 2020 it was the most widely used tank in active service with the Russian Army, and the most numerous version of the T-72.

T-72BK command version of the T-72B. It appeared in 1987.

T-72S export version of the T-72B with downgraded NBC protection system. These tanks also lack anti-radiation lining. It has 115 containers with Kontakt-1 explosive reactive armor instead on 227 as on Soviet tanks. Otherwise its armor protection is equivalent to that of the T-72M1. It appeared in 1987. In 1993 after cancellation of some export orders a number of these tanks were adopted by the Russian Army.

T-72B1 has no capability to launch anti-tank guided missiles.

T-72B1MS, also known as T-72MS, is a recent modernized export version of the T-72B1. It was first publicly revealed in 2012. Sometimes it is unofficially nicknamed as Beliy Oriol (White Eagle). This tank has been exported to Laos (delivered in 2018-2019), Nicaragua (50 units delivered in 2016-2017), and possibly some other countries, including Uruguay and Vietnam. A total of 30 of these tanks were planned to be donated to Serbia.

T-72S1 export version of the T-72B1.

T-72BV is an upgraded version with Kontakt-1 explosive reactive armor.

T-72BM is an upgraded version, fitted with Kontakt-5 explosive reactive armor. This version appeared in 1989.

T-72BA is an upgraded version. It was fitted with Kontakt-1 explosive reactive armor. A total of 227 containers with explosive reactive armor were fitted to the hull and turret. Later the T-72BA tanks were fitted with more advanced Kontakt-5 armor. So the T-72BA is often incorrectly identified as the T-72BV and T-72BM. Though this tank can be identified by a presence of a wind sensor. Since 2003 these tanks are fitted by a V-92S2 diesel, developing 1 000 hp. Older T-72B tanks were refurbished and upgraded to the T-72BA standard. It was a low-cost upgrade of the T-72B that allowed to keep older tanks in operational service. Deliveries to the Russian Army commenced in 1999-2000. By 2020 Russian Army had a total of 93 of these tanks in active service.

T-72B2 Rogatka. Upgraded version of the T-72B tanks. It is fitted with Relikt third generation explosive reactive armor, that is much more effective than the previous Kontakt-5. Upgraded tanks also have new main gun with muzzle reference system, upgraded fire control system and gunners thermal sight. It is powered by a V-92S2 engine, developing 1 000 hp. This tank was first revealed in 2006. Russian Army operates about 300 tanks upgraded to this standard.

T-72B3 is a recent upgrade. It can be seen as a low-cost alternative to the T-72B2 Rogatka upgrade. Refurbished and upgraded tanks are fitted with new fire control system and some other improvements. It has a hunter-killer capability. Later production models have a more powerful engine, developing 1 130 hp. First T-72B3 tanks were delivered in 2013. By 2020 a total of 558 of the Russian Army's T-72 tanks were upgraded to this standard.

T-72B3M is a further upgrade with new gun, improved fire control system with panoramic commander's sight and new engine. This version is sometimes unofficially referred as the T-72B4. By 2020 a total of 248 of the Russian Army's T-72 tanks were upgraded to this standard.

T-90 further development of the T-72. After collapse of the Soviet Union production of new main battle tanks was difficult due to disintegrated nature of Soviet military industry. A number of parts for the tanks were produced in former Soviet republics and their acquisition was troublesome. So the new tank was developed, which used a well-proven hull of the T-72 and turret with all weapon systems of the T-80U. Also it had a number of other improvements. It was adopted by the Russian Army in 1993. Low rate production commenced in 1994. The T-90 is the most modern tank currently in service with the Russian Army. It has been widely exported.

PT-91 Twardy improved Polish version of the T-72.

TR-125 Romanian version of the T-72.

M-84 former Yugoslavian version of the T-72.

IMR-2 combat engineering vehicle.

BMPT tank support combat vehicle.

BMO-T specialized heavy armored personnel carrier.

2S19 Msta-S 152 mm self-propelled howitzer. Chassis of this artillery system uses a number of components of the T-72 tank. However its armor is much thinner.

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Engine and mobility

The T-72B3M MBT is powered by a new V-92S2F engine in place of the old 780hp diesel engine. The new engine is coupled to an automatic transmission system and improved drivetrain. It develops a maximum power output of 1,130hp. The power-plant provides a maximum road speed of 60km/h and a maximum range of 550km.

The tank features torsion bar suspension and running gear on either side of the hull, with six road wheels with the idler at forward and drive sprocket at the rear. The inside of the track is supported by three return rollers.

The first, second and sixth road wheel stations are installed with shock-absorbers, while the upper parts of the suspension are protected by rubber skirts. The vehicle can negotiate a gradient of 60% and side slope of 40% and can ford at a maximum depth of 5m with preparation.

The Global Armoured Vehicles and Counter-IED Vehicles Market 2011-2021

This project forms part of our recent analysis and forecasts of the global armoured vehicles and counter-IED vehicles market available from our business information platform Strategic Defence Intelligence. For more information click here or contact us: EMEA: +44 20 7936 6783 Americas: +1 415 439 4914 Asia Pacific: +61 2 9947 9709 or via email.


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