Hikoya

7 Tarixiy yolg'on

7 Tarixiy yolg'on


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1. Dreykning guruch plitasi

Bir paytlar katta arxeologik kashfiyot hisoblangan Dreyk plitasi 1936 yilda Shimoliy Kaliforniyada topilgan misdan yasalgan marker bo'lib, uni 1579 yilda tadqiqotchi Frensis Dreyk va Oltin Hind ekipaji Kaliforniya sohiliga qo'nganida qoldirgan deb taxmin qilishgan. Angliya hududini egallab oldi. Bu artefakt maktab darsliklariga joylashtirildi va butun dunyo bo'ylab ko'rgazmaga qo'yildi. Biroq, 1977 yilda tadqiqotchilar Drayk qo'nganining 400 yilligi oldidan plastinkada ilmiy tahlil o'tkazdilar, bu artefakt zamonaviy davrda ishlab chiqarilgan soxta ekanligini bilib olishdi. Tarixchilar plastinka Kaliforniya universiteti tarix professori Herbert Boltonning tanishlar tomonidan, Berklidagi maktab professori va 1920 yildan maktabning Bancroft kutubxonasi direktori tomonidan 2003 yildan beri yolg'onning orqasida kim turgani noma'lum edi. 1940. Prankerlar haqiqatni ochib berishidan oldin, Dreyk bilan uzoq vaqtdan beri qiziqib kelgan Bolton plastinkani haqiqiy deb topdi va uni kutubxonaga sotib oldi.

2. Arxeoraptor

1999 yilda National Geographic jurnali Archaeoraptor liaoningensis ismli tukli dinozavr qoldig'ining topilishini e'lon qilib, shunday dedi: "Ibtidoiy qushning qo'llari va dinozavrning dumi bilan, Xitoyning Lyaonin provinsiyasida topilgan bu jonzot - haqiqiy yo'qolgan bo'g'in. Dinozavrlarni qushlar bilan bog'laydigan murakkab zanjir. Oradan bir necha oy o'tgach, mashhur arxeoraptor qoldig'i bir -biriga aloqador bo'lmagan qoldiqlardan yasalgan soxta ekanligi ma'lum bo'ldi. Tergov shuni aniqladiki, bu bo'laklar 1997 yilda quduq qazayotgan xitoylik dehqon tomonidan topilgan. U parchalarni bir -biriga yopishtirib, keyin toshbo'ronni xitoylik sotuvchiga sotdi, u 1999 yilda AQShdagi dinozavrlar muzeyining direktoriga 80 ming dollarga sotdi. U erdan National Geographic gazetasi g'oyat muhim tuyulgan qoldiqni esdi va o'z hikoyasini nashr etdi. Arxeoraptorning uydirma ekanligi haqidagi xabarlar paydo bo'lganidan so'ng, ommaviy axborot vositalari uni Piltdaun qushi deb atashdi, bu 1912 yilda Angliyada topilgan, maymun va odam o'rtasidagi evolyutsion bo'g'in, deb taxmin qilingan, Piltdaun odamiga ishora.

3. Saytafern Tiara

1896 yilda Parijdagi Luvr muzeyi rus qadimiy buyumlari sotuvchilariga ellinizm davrining eng yaxshi asari sifatida baholangan oltin taqinchoq uchun 50 ming dollar to'lagan va bu skif podshosi Saytafernesga Olbiya qadimiy yunon koloniyasi sovg'asi bo'lgan deb hisoblangan. Ko'p o'tmay, olimlar "Iliada" sahnalari tasvirlangan tiaraning haqiqiyligini shubha ostiga qo'ydilar, ammo muzey uni sotib olish qalbaki degan ayblovlarni rad etdi. Oxir -oqibat, Luvr rasmiylari tiarani, ehtimol, Ukrainaning Odessa shahridan, Isroil Rouchomovskiydan yasalgan zamonaviy zargar yasaganini bilib olishdi. Dalil izlab, ular uni 1903 yilda Parijga olib kelishdi va unga tiaraning bir qismini takrorlashdi. Rouchomovskiy, muzeyni sotib olishdan bir necha yil oldin, bosh kiyimini unga topshirgan san'at dilerlari firibgarlikni maqsad qilganini bilmasligini aytdi. Rouchomovskiyni vayron qilishning o'rniga, janjalga bo'lgan e'tibor uning karerasini oshirdi va uning ishiga talabni uyg'otdi.

4. Kardiff giganti

1869 yilda Nyu-Yorkning Kardiff shahridagi fermada quduq qazayotgan ishchilar qadimgi 10 metrli toshli odamning jasadini topdilar. Bu kashfiyot tezda jamoatchilikda shov-shuvga sabab bo'ldi va ba'zi ilmiy mutaxassislar "Kardiff giganti" tarixiy ahamiyatga ega deb o'ylashdi. Aslida, gigant Nyu -York shtatining Binghamton shtatida sigaret ishlab chiqaruvchi va ateist bo'lgan Jorj Xallning muallifi edi, u Ayova shtatida ish uchun sayohat qilgan, u vazir bilan Ibtido kitobidan bir parcha haqida bahsga kirgandi: " O'sha paytda er yuzida gigantlar bor edi ». Xull gigantni Muqaddas Kitobni so'zma -so'z talqin qilgan vazir kabi odamlarni masxara qilish uchun o'ylab topishga qaror qildi; u bu jarayonda bir oz pul ishlashini ham o'ylab topdi. 1868 yilda u Chikagodagi haykaltaroshlarni yollab, gipsdan yasalgan katta plastinkadan odam figurasini yasadi. Tayyor mahsulot Uilyam "Stub" Nyuell Xull biladigan odamning Kardiff fermasiga jo'natildi va u erda ko'mildi. Keyingi yili Xall Nyuellga gigant dafn qilingan joyda quduq qazish uchun ishchilar yollashni buyurdi. Raqam topilganidan so'ng, uni ko'rish uchun olomon to'plandi va Nyuell kirish uchun to'lov oldi. Ba'zi olimlar bu topilmani toshga aylangan qadimgi odam deb taxmin qilishgan, boshqalari esa bu nazariyani Iezuit ruhoniylari yasagan ko'p asrlik haykal deb hisoblashgan. Biroq, ko'p o'tmay, hurmatli paleontolog Otniel Charlz Marsh gigantni "yaqinda paydo bo'lgan va eng qaror qilingan kambag'al" deb e'lon qildi va 1870 yilda haykaltaroshlar pok bo'lgach, yolg'on fosh qilindi.

5. Calaveras Boshsuyagi

1866 yilda Kaliforniya shtatining Kalaveras okrugidagi konchilar vulqon konlari ostida, shaxtada 100 futdan oshiqroq ko'milgan odam bosh suyagini topdilar. Boshsuyagi Garvard universiteti professori va Kaliforniya shtati geologi Joziya Uitni bilan jarohatlandi, u buni 5 - 2 million yil oldin, pliosen davrida Shimoliy Amerikada odamlar borligining isboti ekanligini e'lon qildi. Biroq, tez orada Kalaveras okrugi atrofida mahalliy erkaklar bosh suyagini amaliy hazil sifatida ekishgani haqida mish -mishlar tarqala boshladi. Ba'zi ma'lumotlarga ko'ra, Uitni (hozir Kaliforniyadagi eng baland tog 'va AQShning kontinental tog'ining nomdoshi, Uitni tog'i) mahalliy aholi uni g'azablantirgan. 1992 yilda radiokarbon bilan tanishish Kalaveras Boshsuyagi taxminan 1000 yoshda ekanligini ko'rsatdi.

6. Etrusk jangchilari

1915-1921 yillar orasida Nyu-York shahrining Metropolitan san'at muzeyi miloddan avvalgi V asrda yaratilgan deb taxmin qilingan, kattaligidan kattaroq uchta etrusk terakota jangchilarini sotib oldi. Muzey 1933 yilda Etrusk san'atiga bag'ishlangan galereyani ochganda, Italiyada yaqinda topilgan joydan olingan go'yoki haykallarni ko'rgazmaga qo'ydi. Garchi jangchilarning haqiqiyligi ba'zi ekspertlar tomonidan shubha ostiga qo'yilgan bo'lsa -da, boshqalari bu raqamlarni haqiqiy bitim deb hisoblashgan. Biroq, 1960 yilda ilmiy sinovning yangi ishlab chiqilgan usullari jangchilarni ko'rsatdi, ular uchun Met katta miqdorda to'lagan edi, ular zamonaviy kelib chiqishi. Keyingi yili hokimiyat italiyalik bir guruh yigirma yillar oldin soxta buyumlarni boshqa muzeylarda namoyish etilgan Etrusk jangchilarining mayda haykallari suratlariga asoslanib ishlab chiqarganligini bilib oldi.

7. Vannaning tarixi

1917 yilda Nyu -Yorkdagi "Evening Mail" gazetasida hurmatli jurnalist X.L. Menckenning "E'tiborsiz yubiley" nomli hikoyasi chop etildi, unda u amerikaliklar yaqinda zamonaviy vannaning ixtiro qilinganining 75 yilligini nishonlamaganini yozgan. U vanna haqida turli xil taxminiy dalillarni keltirdi, u Tsincinnatida ixtiro qilinganligini va Millard Fillmor 1851 yilda Oq uyga qo'ygan birinchi prezident ekanligini aytdi. AQSh, chunki shifokorlar ularni odamlar salomatligi uchun xavfli deb hisoblashgan. Aslida, Menkenning vannaning tarixi yolg'on bo'lib, Amerika jamoatchiligining ishonchsizligini ta'kidlashga qaratilgan edi. Biroq, keyingi yillarda maqola bir qancha gazetalarda qayta chop etildi va uning uydirilgan faktlari ma'lumotnomalarda ko'rsatildi. Mencken 1926 yilda aldanganini bosma ravishda tan olganidan keyin ham, ko'p odamlar uning vannaning uydirma tarixi haqiqat deb o'ylashda davom etishdi.


Jorj Meyson Universitetining tarixiy yolg'onlari

Jorj Meyson universiteti talabalari, professor T. Mills Kellining "O'tmish haqida yolg'on gapirish" kursi doirasida ikkita mashhur yolg'onni yaratdilar: "Edvard Ouensning hiylasi" va "Reddit seriyali qotil yolg'oni". Kursning maqsadi - Internetda keng tarqalgan yolg'onni yaratish. Professor Kelli kurs dasturida aytganidek:

Bizning maqsadimiz nima? Buzz, albatta! Virusli! Biz hiyla -nayrangimiz o'rmon yong'inlari kabi Internetda tarqalishini xohlaymiz!


Tarixiy yolg'onlarning 7 ta hisobi bilan badiiy adabiyotdan alohida haqiqat

1936 yilda Shimoliy Kaliforniyada topilgan Drake & rsquos Plate, yozilgan guruchdan yasalgan buyum bo'lib, uni tadqiqotchi Frensis Dreyk qoldirgan xazina deb hisoblashadi. Oltin Hind kemasidan uning ekipaji ergashib, ular Kaliforniya sohiliga qo'nganlarida, Angliyaga tegishli hududni egallashga tayyor bo'lgach, buyumni tashlab ketishgan. Ko'p o'tmay, plastinka tarixning bir qismiga aylandi, maktab darsliklarida tilga olinib, butun dunyo bo'ylab namoyish etildi.

Bularning hammasi 1977 yilga kelib, plastinkada ilmiy tahlil qilayotgan tadqiqotchilar artefaktning soxta ekanligini va u aslida zamonaviy davrda ishlab chiqarilganini bilib, tugadi.

Tarixchilar plastinka amaliy hazil sifatida paydo bo'lganini 2003 yilgacha aniq aytishmagan. Berkli universiteti tarix professori Herbert Boltonning hamkasblari, u uzoq vaqtdan beri Drake & rsquos tarixining muxlisi bo'lgani uchun, bunday abadiy asarga qoyil qolishini bilar edi. Shunday qilib, prankerlar bu & acirc € ˜masterpiece va rsquo -ni yaratdilar va sirlarini oshkor qilishdan oldin, Bolton plastinkani haqiqiy deb qabul qilib, uni o'zi ishlagan kutubxonaga sotib oldi.


Tarixni o'zgartira oladigan 6 ta arxeologik soxtalik

Muzey hadya qilingan qadimiy buyumlarning katta to'plamini sotib olganda, kuratorlar ulardan kamida bir nechtasini soxta deb topishi odatiy hol emas. Artefaktlarni qalbakilashtirish odatiy holga aylangan bo'lsa-da, ba'zi soxtaliklar juda mashhur bo'lib ketgan, chunki ularning haqiqiyligi tarixni o'zgartiradigan natijalarga olib kelgan. Yo'qotilgan Atlantis shahridan (yoki musofirlardan) deb da'vo qilingan billur bosh suyaklaridan vikinglar o'yib ishlagan toshga va hatto "yo'qolgan bo'g'in" yolg'oniga qadar, bu erda qalbaki deb hisoblanadigan oltita artefakt, ular o'zgarishi mumkin edi. tarix

Konstantinning sovg'asi

VIII asrdan beri Konstantinning sovg'asi bo'lgan qalbaki hujjat nusxa ko'chirilgan va qayta nusxalangan. Asl nusxasi yo'qolgan, ammo bugungi kungacha saqlanib qolgan hujjatlarda Rim imperatori Konstantin I Papa Silvestr I va uning vorislariga Rim imperiyasi tomonidan boshqariladigan erlar ustidan eng yuqori hokimiyat berilgani aytilgan. "Biz tez-tez tilga olinadigan eng muborak papa, otamiz Silvestrga universal papani, shuningdek, aytilganidek, saroyimizni beramiz, xuddi Rim shahri, Italiyaning barcha viloyatlari, tumanlari va shaharlari. G'arbiy mintaqalar va ularni bizning buzilmas sovg'amizdan foydalanib, o'z hokimiyatiga yoki merosxo'rlariga topshirish to'g'risida qaror qabul qildi ",-deyiladi lotincha hujjatda (Ernest F. Xenderson tarjimasi).

Qachon soxtalashtiruvchi yaratilgani - bu munozarali masala. Ammo, O'rta asrlarda, bu Papaning siyosiy muzokaralarda yordam berib, Evropa hukmdorlari ustidan hokimiyatga ega ekanligiga dalil sifatida ishlatilgan. XV asrda italiyalik olim Lorenso Valla hujjatni qoralab, nima uchun bu qalbakilashtirilganligi haqida uzoq gaplarni nashr etdi.

Valla bu bilan tavakkal qilayotganini bilardi. "Ular menga qanday g'azablanishadi va agar imkoniyat berilsa, ular meni qanchalik jazolaydilar?" u kitobining boshida yozgan (Kristofer B. Koleman tarjimasi). Ammo u Evropadagi hukmdorlardan qo'llab -quvvatladi, ular papadan hujjatlarni o'z ishlariga aralashish uchun sabab sifatida ishlatishdan charchashdi.

1520 -yillarda Rafael ustaxonasida ishlagan rassom tomonidan chizilgan rasm (Rafaelning o'zi shart emas) qalbakilashtirishga asoslangan va Konstantinning barcha erlarini Papa Silvestrga bergani tasvirlangan. Voqea hech qachon sodir bo'lmagan. Rasm Vatikan shahrida joylashgan. (Fotosurat Wikimedia saytidan olingan.)

Tushgan odam

1912 yilda Londondagi Tabiatshunoslik muzeyining paleontologi Artur Smit Vudvord va antiqa havaskor Charlz Douson Angliyadagi Piltdaun shahrida odamzodning yangi turini topilgani haqida xabar berishdi. Ular ismli birinchi odamga ishonishgan Eoanthropus davsoni, 1 million yilga to'g'ri kelishi mumkin.

O'sha paytda, birinchi odamlar Buyuk Britaniyada 1 million yil oldin yashaganmi yoki yo'qmi noma'lum edi va bu kashfiyot bunga dalil bo'lardi.

Topilmalar shubha uyg'otdi va vaqt o'tishi bilan Eoanthropus dawsoni orangutan va zamonaviy odam suyaklari aralashmasidan boshqa narsa emasligi aniqlandi. Bu kashfiyot katta shuhrat qozondi. Tabiiy tarix muzeyi xodimi Kris Stringer va uning hamkasblari tomonidan yangi tergov kim tomonidan va nima uchun qilinganligi haqidagi savolga hozircha javob topilmayapti.

Ajablanarlisi shundaki, zamonaviy arxeologlar Buyuk Britaniyada ilk odamlarning dalillarini topdilar. Britaniya orollari bo'ylab yurgan birinchi odamlar qachon bo'lgani hali aniq emas, lekin bu 1 million yildan ko'proq vaqt oldin bo'lishi mumkin edi.

Bu rasmda suyaklar ustida tikilgan bir guruh olimlar tasvirlangan. (Fotosurat Wikimedia saytidan olingan.)

Kensington yugurish toshi

1898 yilda Olof Ohman ismli fermer Minnesota shtatining Kensington shahri yaqinida runalar o'yilgan toshni topdi. O'tgan asr mobaynida bir qancha olimlar va havaskorlar toshni tahlil qilishdi, ba'zilari Kensington yugurish toshini (bu erda ko'rsatilgan) 14-asr vikinglar guruhi Minnesota shtatiga sayohat qilgan deb o'ylashadi. [Qattiq jangchilar: Viking dengizchilarining 7 ta sirlari]

Garchi vikinglar Grenlandiyada koloniyalar va 11-asrda Nyufaundlenddagi L'Anse Aux Meadowsda qisqa muddatli turar-joy qurgan bo'lsalar-da, bu tosh vikinglar Minnesota shtatiga safar qilganining yagona dalili bo'ladi.

Hozirgi kunda ko'pchilik olimlar tosh 19 -asrda yaratilgan deb hisoblaydilar va shuni ta'kidlaydilarki, tosh ustidagi rinalar XIV asr yoki boshqa o'rta asrlar davriga to'g'ri kelmaydi. Aslida, ular 19-asr Shvetsiyada sayohatchilar ishlatgan runik kod turiga o'xshaydi, deb yozadi Uppsala universiteti professori Xenrik Uilyams 2012 yilda "Shved-Amerika tarixiy chorakligi" da chop etilgan maqolasida. Uilyams ogohlantirganidek, uni kim yozganini va ularning motivlari nima ekanligini aniqlashda ehtiyot bo'lish kerak. Toshni yozuvchilarning maqsadi vikinglar Minnesota shtatiga etib keldi, deb odamlarni aldash emas edi, deb yozadi Uilyams. (Fotosurat Wikimedia saytidan olingan.)

Kristal Boshsuyagi

Go'yoki Markaziy Amerikadan bo'lgan Crystal Skulls antik buyumlar bozorida 19 -asrda paydo bo'la boshladi. Bu bosh suyaklari Olmec, Mayya, Toltek va Aztek tsivilizatsiyalari tomonidan qilingan deb da'vo qilingan. Chegara nazariyotchilarining fikricha, bosh suyaklari qadim zamonlarda Yerga qo'ngan Atlantis shahridan kelgan yoki o'zga sayyoraliklar tomonidan qilingan.

Arxeologik qazishmalarda bu kristall bosh suyaklaridan birortasi ham topilmagan va yaqinda o'tkazilgan tadqiqotlar shuni ko'rsatadiki, ular 19-20 -asrlarda qalbakilardan yaratilgan. Ba'zi firibgarlar, ehtimol, faqat pul ishlashni xohlashgan, boshqalari esa turli xil nazariyalarni ilgari surishgan bo'lishi mumkin, deb taxmin qilmoqda ekspertlar. 2008 yildagi "Indiana Jons va Kristall Boshsuyagi Shohligi" filmida bu bosh suyaklari musofirlar tomonidan yaratilgan degan fikrga qaratilgan.

Bu rasmda Britaniya muzeyida saqlanayotgan billur bosh suyagi ko'rsatilgan. Bu qadimiy emas, lekin 19 yoki 20 -asrda qilingan bo'lar edi. U begona emas, odamlar tomonidan yaratilgan. (Rafa ł Cha łgasiewicz surati, CC Attribution 3.0 nashr qilinmagan.)

Erta xristian qo'rg'oshin kodekslari

2011 yil mart oyida bir guruh shaxslar (shu jumladan ba'zi olimlar) milodiy birinchi asrga to'g'ri kelishi mumkin bo'lgan bir nechta qo'rg'oshin kodekslarini topganliklarini e'lon qilishdi va bu ularni mavjud bo'lgan eng qadimgi nasroniy matnlari deb atashdi. (To'liq press -relizni bu erda ko'rish mumkin.)

Bu da'vo butun dunyo ommaviy axborot vositalarining sarlavhalarini oldi, ammo olimlar bir necha hafta ichida kodekslar soxta ekanligini aniqladilar. "Men qariyb 2500 yil bo'lgan eski oromey shakllari borligini payqadim. Ammo ular yoshroq bo'lgan boshqa shakllar bilan aralashtirilgan edi, shuning uchun men uni sinchkovlik bilan ko'rib chiqdim va o'zim topa oladigan har xil shakllarni chiqarib tashladim. , - deydi oromiy tarjimoni Stiv Karuso Live Science -ga. Caruso (bu erda ko'rsatilgan) kodekslarda ko'plab nomuvofiqliklar va anaxronizmlar, shuningdek, shoshilinch ravishda nusxa ko'chirilganligini ko'rsatuvchi belgilar borligini aniqladi. Olimlar kodekslarni kim yaratganini yoki buning sabablarini bilishmaydi. (Rasm Stiv Karuso tomonidan berilgan.)

Isoning xotini haqida xushxabar

Isoning xotini Xushxabarining kashf qilinishi haqida birinchi marta Garvard universiteti professori Karen King 2012 yil sentyabr oyida e'lon qilgan.

Parcha kopt tilida (Misr tili) yozilgan bo'lib, "Iso ularga:" Xotinim ... "degan tarjima qilingan satrni o'z ichiga oladi va" Maryam "ga, ehtimol Magdalalik Maryamga ishora qiladi. Agar haqiqiy bo'lsa, papirus qadim zamonlarda ba'zi odamlar Iso va Magdalalik Maryam turmush qurgan deb ishonishgan.

Hozir ko'plab olimlar buni soxta deb hisoblaydilar.

Uy egasi noma'lum qolishni talab qildi va 1999 yilda Gans-Ulrix Laukamp ismli odamdan papirusni sotib olganini da'vo qildi, u o'z navbatida uni 1963 yilda Sharqiy Germaniyaning Potsdam shahridan olgan. Live Science tergovi shuni ko'rsatdiki, Laukamp Florida shtatining Venetsiyadagi frez va burg'ulash ishlari bo'yicha ACMB-Amerika korporatsiyasining hozir egasi. Laukamp 2002 yilda Berlinda vafot etgan, uning bolalari yoki qarindoshlari yo'q. O'zining mulkini himoya qilishda ayblangan odam Rene Ernestning aytishicha, Laukamp qadimiy narsalarga qiziqmagan, hech qachon artefakt yig'magan va bu papirusga ega bo'lmagan. Bundan tashqari, Laukamp 1963 yilda G'arbiy Berlində yashagan va Berlin devori orqali Potsdamga o'tolmagan.

Sinovlar shuni ko'rsatadiki, papirusning o'zi taxminan 1200 yilga borib taqaladi va siyoh qadim zamonlarda qilingan bo'lishi mumkin. Papirusning kelib chiqishi va tilini o'rganayotgan olimlar bir qator g'ayrioddiy xususiyatlarni qayd etishgan, bu ularning ko'pchiligining qalbaki degan xulosaga kelishlariga sabab bo'lgan. Shunga qaramay, King va boshqa tadqiqotchilar papirus haqiqiy bo'lishi mumkinligiga ishonishadi va yangi ilmiy testlar nashrga tayyorlanmoqda. (Fotosurat Garvard ilohiylik maktabidan olingan.)


Tarixiy yolg'onlarning 7 ta hisobi bilan badiiy adabiyotdan alohida haqiqat

1869 yilda ishchilar Nyu -Yorkning Kardiff shahridagi fermada quduq qurish bilan band edilar. Ular qazishayotganda, balandligi 10 metrli, toshbo'ron qilingan odamning qadimiy jasadini topdilar.

Tabiiyki, bu kashfiyot jamoatchilikning katta reaktsiyasini qo'zg'atdi va ilmiy ekspertlar & ldquoCardiff Giant & rdquo tarixiy ahamiyatga ega deb da'vo qilishdi. Biroq, gigant aslida sigaret ishlab chiqaruvchi va mag'rur ateist Jorj Xallning yomon ishlari edi. Xull Ayova shtati bo'ylab ish uchun ketayotganida, u vazir bilan Ibtido kitobidan bir parcha haqida qizg'in bahsga qo'shildi: & ldquoO'sha paytlarda er yuzida gigantlar bo'lgan. & Rdquo

Injilni juda jiddiy talqin qiladigan odamlarga ishora qilib, Xull Chikagodagi haykaltaroshlarni gips yordamida odam nusxasini yaratish uchun yolladi. Mahsulot tugagandan so'ng, u do'sti Uilyam va LdquoStub va rdquo Nyuelga jo'natdi va o'z fermasida ko'mdi. Bir yil ichida Nyuell Xull va rsquosdan o'z eridan quduq qazish va jasadni topish bo'yicha maslahat olardi.

& Ldquogiant & rdquo tirilgandan so'ng, Newell & rsquos fermasi sensatsiya bo'lib qoldi va u buni ko'rish uchun pul to'lashni boshladi. Biroq, paleontolog Otniel Charlz Marsh gigantni yolg'on deb e'lon qilganida, kashfiyot qisqa umr ko'rdi. 1870 yilga kelib, haykaltaroshlar, shuningdek, Kardiff gigantining fitnasini tugatib, hazilni tan olishdi.


Tarixdagi eng katta 10 yolg'on

Afsonaga ko'ra, yosh Jorj Vashington gilos daraxtini kesganini tan oldi va "Men yolg'on gapira olmayman", - deb hikoya qiladi amerikaliklar o'zlarining birinchi prezidentiga va umuman halolligiga qanchalik hurmat ko'rsatganidan. Afsuski, tarix yilnomasida Vashington singari har bir sharafli qahramon uchun 10 ta vijdonsiz odam borga o'xshaydi.

Go'yoki, haqiqat sizni ozod qilishi mumkin. Ammo ko'pchilik uchun yolg'on pul, shon -shuhrat, qasos yoki kuchning kalitini o'z ichiga oladi va bu juda jozibali. Tarixda, bu ko'pincha katta dalgalanma ta'siriga ega bo'lgan yolg'on, yolg'on va yolg'onlarga olib keldi.

Keyingi sahifalarda biz tarixdagi eng ulkan va muhim yolg'onlarni ko'rib chiqamiz. Garchi bunday ro'yxat keng qamrovli bo'lishi mumkin bo'lmasa -da, biz siyosatga, fanga va hatto san'atga ta'sir ko'rsatadigan turli xil yolg'onlarni kiritishga harakat qildik. Natijada, odamlar hayotini yo'qotdi, hayotni tejash vayron qilindi, qonuniy tadqiqotlar to'sqinlik qildi va eng muhimi, hamkasbimizga bo'lgan ishonch buzildi.

Kechiktirmasdan, keling, yozilgan eng qadimgi va eng muvaffaqiyatli yolg'onlardan birini ko'rib chiqaylik.

Agar sevgi va urushda hamma narsa adolatli bo'lsa, bu katta yolg'onlarning eng kechirimli bo'lishi mumkin. Troyan Parij Sparta qirolining rafiqasi Xelen bilan qochib qutulgach, urush portladi. 10 yil davomida troyanlar yunonlarni mag'lubiyatga uchratishganiga ishonishgan. Ular bilmas edilar, yunonlarning yenglari yana bir hiyla edi.

Dahshatli zarbada yunonlar qorinlari bo'sh, erkaklar yashirinadigan ulkan yog'och ot yasashdi. Yunonlar dushmanlarini bu tuzilma tinchlik qurbonligi ekanligiga ishontirgandan so'ng, troyanlar buni mamnuniyat bilan qabul qilib, otni mustahkam shaharlariga olib kelishdi. O'sha kecha, troyanlar uxlab yotganida, ichida yashiringan yunonlar tuzoq eshigidan chiqib ketishdi. Keyin ular troyanlarni o'ldirishga va qat'iy ravishda mag'lub etishga kirishdilar.

Bu, shubhasiz, tarixga ma'lum bo'lgan eng katta va eng muvaffaqiyatli fokuslardan biri edi, ya'ni agar rost bo'lsa. Gomer & quot; Iliada & quot; va Virgil hikoyani & quot; Aeneid & quot; dagi voqealarga ishora qiladi. Dalillar shuni ko'rsatadiki, Troya o'zi Gomer ertaklariga bir qancha asoslar berib, mavjud bo'lgan va olimlar bu tafsilotlar tarixiy jihatdan qanchalik to'g'ri ekanligini uzoq vaqtdan buyon o'rganib kelishgan. Troyan otining bir nazariyasi tarixchi Maykl Vuddan kelib chiqqan bo'lib, u shaharga kirib kelgan ot shaklidagi kaltaklangan qo'chqor edi, deb taxmin qiladi [manba: Xoton].

Qanday bo'lmasin, hikoya G'arb tasavvurida doimiy sovg'a olib kelgan dushmanlardan ehtiyot bo'lish uchun doimiy o'rinni egalladi.

9. Xan van Meegeren 's Vermeer soxtaliklari

Bu yolg'on, tanqidchilarni xushnud etishni xohlagan klassik holatdan kelib chiqqan. Xan van Meegeren rassom bo'lib, o'zini kam baholagan va san'at mutaxassislarini aldab, o'z dahosini tan olishiga ishongan.

20 -asrning boshlarida olimlar buyuk Vermeer Injil sahnalari tasvirlangan bir qator asarlar yozganmi yoki yo'qmi, deb janjallashishdi. Van Meegeren bu imkoniyatdan foydalangan va shunday bahsli ishni-"Emmaus shogirdlari" asarini puxta o'ylab ishlab chiqishga kirishgan. U qasddan Vermeerning bu sahnalarni chizganiga ishonishni istagan tanqidchilar tarafkashligi bilan o'ynadi. Bu ishladi: ekspertlar rasmni haqiqiy deb baholadilar va van Meegeren xuddi qaroqchi singari ko'proq soxta Vermeers ishlab chiqaradi va sotadi. Ko'rinib turibdiki, ochko'zlik maqtovga bo'lgan ishtiyoqini engdi, chunki u o'zini tashlamaslikka qaror qildi.

Biroq, 30-40 -yillarda ishlagan van Meegeren bitta katta xatoga yo'l qo'ydi. U rasmni Germaniyadagi fashistlar partiyasining taniqli a'zosiga sotdi. Urushdan keyin ittifoqchilar uni "milliy xazina" ni dushmanga sotish fitnachisi deb hisoblashgan [manba: Uilson]. Voqealar o'zgarganda van Meegeren o'z erkinligi uchun rasm chizishi kerak edi. Rasm milliy boylik emasligini isbotlash uchun u rasmiylar huzurida boshqasini yasagan.

U bir yillik qamoq jazosi bilan qochdi, lekin van Meegeren suddan ikki oy o'tgach, yurak xurujidan vafot etdi.

8. Berni Madoff ' ning Ponzi sxemasi

Berni Madof o'zining sarmoyaviy firmasi "katta yolg'on" ekanligini tan olganida, bu past baho edi [manba: Esposito]. 2008 yilda u o'z jamg'armalariga ishongan sarmoyadorlardan 50 milliard dollarga yaqin mablag 'ajratganini tan oldi. Madoff firibgarlikni o'n yildan ko'proq davom ettirish uchun Ponzi sxemasining formulasidan foydalangan.

Bu klassik yolg'on 20 -asrning boshlarida hiyla ishlatgan mashhur Charlz Ponzi sharafiga nomlangan. Bu shunday ishlaydi: sxemachi investorlarga katta daromad keltirishini va'da qiladi, lekin pulni sarmoya o'rniga, o'zi uchun saqlaydi va yangi investitsiyalar mablag'larini avvalgi investorlarni to'lash uchun ishlatadi.

Madof bu yolg'onni kashf qilmagan bo'lishi mumkin, lekin u buni yangidan boshlagan. Birinchidan, u sxemadan rekord miqdordagi pul ishlab topdi. Ammo u ko'pchilik Ponzi sxemachilariga qaraganda ancha uzoq davom eta oldi. Odatda, hiyla -nayrang tezda qulab tushadi, chunki u sxemachidan tobora ko'proq investor topishni talab qiladi. Bu, ayniqsa, dahshatli yolg'on edi, chunki Madoff NASDAQning sobiq raisi sifatida moliya sohasida tajribali va hurmatli mutaxassis bo'lgan. Buni Chares Ponzi bilan solishtiring, u o'z sxemasini ishga tushirganida, sobiq sobiq odam edi.

7. Anna Anderson, Alias ​​Anastasiya

Rus inqilobining hujumi bilan qirol oilasining mavjudligi bolsheviklar uchun chidab bo'lmas edi. 1918 yilda ular qirol Romanovlar oilasini - podshoh Nikolay II, uning rafiqasi, o'g'li va to'rt qizini qirg'in qilishdi, shundan keyin hech qanday qonuniy merosxo'rlar qayta tirilib, xalqni qo'llab -quvvatlash uchun yig'ishmaydi.

Ko'p o'tmay, qirollik oilasining ba'zi a'zolari qochib, tirik qolgani haqida mish -mishlar tarqaldi. Kutilganidek, da'vogarlar yog'ochdan chiqib ketishdi. & quotAna Anderson & quot; eng mashhuri edi. 1920 yilda Anderson o'z joniga qasd qilishga urinib, kasalxonaga yotqizildi va qirollik oilasining kenja qizi malika Anastasiya ekanligini tan oldi. U boshqa da'vogarlardan ajralib turardi, chunki u rus oilasi va suddagi hayoti bilan juda o'xshash va hayratlanarli ma'lumotga ega edi.

Anastasiya bilan tanish bo'lgan bir nechta qarindoshlar va tanishlar Andersonga ishonishsa -da, ko'pchilik ishonishmagan. 1927 yilga kelib, Andersonning sobiq xonadoshi, uning ismi Anna emas, balki Anastasiya emas, Frantsiska Shanzkovska ekanligini da'vo qildi [manba: Aron]. Bu Andersonni taniqli kishilar bilan shug'ullanishga va qirollik merosini to'lashga urinishdan to'xtatmadi. O'nlab yillar davom etgan sud jarayonlarida u o'z ishini yo'qotdi, lekin u 1984 yilda vafotigacha o'z hikoyasini saqlab qoldi. Bir necha yil o'tgach, qirollik oilasining qoldiqlari topilganida DNK testlari uni tasdiqladi. soxta bo'ling. 2009 yilda ekspertlar barcha qoldiqlar topilganligini va 1918 yilda hech bir oila a'zosi qatl etishdan qochmaganini tasdiqlay olishdi [manba: CNN].

6. Titus Oates va Charlz II ni o'ldirish rejasi

U o'zining mashhur fitnasini uydirgan paytga kelib, Titus Oates allaqachon aldash va umumiy nodonlik tarixiga ega edi. U Angliyaning eng yaxshi maktablari va dengiz flotidan haydalgan edi. Oates hatto yolg'on guvohlik bergani uchun sudlangan va qamoqdan qochgan. Ammo uning eng katta yolg'oni hali oldinda edi.

Anabaptist va'zgo'y tomonidan ko'tarilgan protestant, Oates yoshligida Anglikan buyurtmalarini o'qish uchun Kembrijga kirdi. Noqonuniy xatti -harakatlari uni anglikalik lavozimidan chetlatganidan so'ng, u katolik doiralari bilan muloqot qila boshladi va konvertatsiya qilishni o'ylab topdi [manba: Butler]. Boshqa katoliklarga qarshi Isroil Tongining rag'batlantirishi bilan Oates katolik seminariyasiga kirib, dushman hududiga kirib keldi. Darhaqiqat, u ikkita seminariyaga kirdi - ikkalasi ham uni chiqarib yubordi. Lekin buning deyarli ahamiyati yo'q edi. Bu vaqtga kelib, u juda katta vayronagarchiliklarni keltirib chiqarishi mumkin bo'lgan ichki ma'lumotlar va ismlarni yig'ib olgan edi.

1678 yilda Oates jezvitlar qirol Charlz II ni o'ldirmoqchi bo'lgan fitnani ochib bergandek qildi. Gap shundaki, ular Charlzni uning katolik akasi Jeyms bilan almashtirmoqchi bo'lishgan. Uch yillik vahima vujudga keldi, bu katoliklarga qarshi kayfiyatni kuchaytirdi va 35 ga yaqin odamni qatl qilindi [manba: Britannica ensiklopediyasi].

1685 yilda Charlz vafotidan so'ng, Jeyms shoh bo'ldi va Oates yolg'on guvohlik berishni so'radi. Oates hukm qilindi, o'g'irlandi va qamoqqa tashlandi. U bor -yo'g'i bir necha yil qamoqda o'tirdi, ammo 1688 yilda Shonli inqilob Angliyani bosib o'tdi. Jeyms hokimiyatda bo'lmaganida, Oates kechirim va nafaqa bilan chiqib ketdi.

1859 yilda Charlz Darvin o'zining "Turlarning kelib chiqishi to'g'risida" inqilobiy nashrini nashr etgandan so'ng, olimlar yo'q bo'lib ketgan odamlarning ajdodlarining qoldiqlarini topishga harakat qilishdi. Ular insonlar evolyutsiyasi vaqtidagi bo'shliqlarni to'ldirish uchun "ko'chiriladigan havolalar" ni topdilar. 1910 yilda arxeolog Charlz Douson yo'qolgan bo'g'in deb topganida, u haqiqatan ham tarixdagi eng katta yolg'onlardan biri bo'lgan.

Bu kashfiyot Angliyaning Sasseks shahridagi Piltdaun karerida joylashgan bosh suyagi va jag 'tishlari bo'lgan Piltdaun odami edi. Douson o'zining kashfiyotini taniqli paleontolog Artur Smit Vudvordga olib keldi, u o'zining haqiqiyligini o'lim kunida aytdi.

Garchi kashfiyot dunyoga mashhur bo'lgan bo'lsa -da, Piltdaun odamining orqasidagi yolg'on asta -sekin va izchil ochildi. Keyingi o'n yilliklarda, boshqa yirik kashfiyotlar shuni ko'rsatadiki, Piltdaun odamining evolyutsiyasi haqidagi hikoyaga to'g'ri kelmaydi. 1950 -yillarga kelib, testlar shuni ko'rsatdiki, bosh suyagi atigi 600 yoshda va jag 'orangutandan bo'lgan. Ko'rinib turibdiki, ba'zi bilimdon odamlar bu qismlarni manipulyatsiya qilishgan, shu jumladan tishlarni bo'yash va bo'yash.

Ilmiy dunyo aldanib qoldi. Xo'sh, firibgarlik ortida kim turgan? Ko'p gumonlanuvchilar paydo bo'ldi, jumladan Dawsonning o'zi. Bugungi kunda ko'pgina belgilar kashfiyot vaqtida muzey ko'ngilli bo'lgan Martin A. C. Xintonni ko'rsatadi. Uning bosh harflari tushirilgan magistralda suyaklar bor edi, ular xuddi Piltdaun qoldiqlari singari bo'yalgan. Balki u haftalik maoshini berishdan bosh tortgan xo'jayini Artur Smit Vudvordni sharmanda qilmoqchi edi.

Titus Oates ixtiro qilgan fitna singari, bu janjal ham milliy siyosatga keskin ta'sir ko'rsatgan yolg'onga qurilgan va yillar davomida nafrat bilan davom etgan. Alfred Dreyfus 19 -asrning oxirida frantsuz armiyasida yahudiy ofitseri bo'lib, u xiyonat qilganlikda ayblangan: Germaniyaga harbiy sirlarni sotish.

Ochiq e'lon qilingan sud jarayonidan so'ng, hokimiyat uni Iblislar orolida umrbod qamoq jazosiga hukm qildi va antisemitizm guruhlari uni vatanparvar bo'lmagan yahudiylarning namunasi sifatida ishlatishdi. Biroq, ayblov maktublari haqiqatan ham qalbaki ekanligi va haqiqiy aybdor mayor Esterxazi ekanligi haqida shubha paydo bo'ldi. Frantsiya hukumati bu ayblovlarni bostirganida, roman yozuvchisi Emil Zola armiyani katta yashirishda ayblashga kirishdi.

Bu janjal ish ochilishini ko'rmoqchi bo'lgan Dreyfusardlar bilan ochilmagan Dreyfusardlar o'rtasidagi jangga aylandi. Ikkala tomondan ham munozaralar Dreyfusning aybsizligi va printsipi haqida kamroq bo'ldi. 12 yillik dramatik tortishuvlar davomida, ko'plab zo'ravonlikdagi antisemitizm qo'zg'olonlari boshlandi va Dreyfusardlar islohotlarga chaqirgani uchun siyosiy tanqidlar o'zgardi.

Major Xubert Jozef Genri asosiy hujjatlarni soxtalashtirganini tan olib, o'z joniga qasd qilganidan so'ng, yangi saylangan Vazirlar Mahkamasi nihoyat ishni qayta ochdi. Sud Dreyfusni yana aybdor deb topdi, ammo u tez orada prezidentdan kechirim oldi. A few years later, a civilian court of appeals found Dreyfus innocent, and he went on to have a distinguished army career and fought with honor in World War I. Meanwhile, the scandal had changed the face of politics in France.

In January 1998, citizen journalist Matt Drudge reported a sensational story tha­t turned out to be true. The president of the United States, Bill Clinton, had an affair with a White House intern, Monica Lewinsky. As suspicions mounted, Clinton publicly denied the allegations. As if this lie weren't big enough, it turned out that Clinton had lied under oath about the affair as well -- which was perjury and grounds for impeachment.

Here's how the truth came out. Paula Jones was an Arkansas state employee when then-governor Clinton allegedly propositioned her. She later sued him for sexual harassment. In an effort to prove that Clinton had a pattern of such behavior, lawyers set out to expose his sexual affairs. They found Linda Tripp, a former White House secretary and confidant of Lewinsky. Tripp recorded telephone conversations in which Lewinsky talked of her affair with Clinton. Lawyers then probed Clinton with specific questions and cornered him into denying the affair under oath.

During the highly publicized scandal, prosecutor Kenneth Starr subpoenaed Clinton, who finally admitted to the relationship. Based on Starr's report, the House of Representatives voted to impeach Clinton for not only perjury but obstruction of justice. Despite the scandal, Clinton maintained relatively high approval ratings from the American public, and the Senate acquitted him of the charges. However, in the eyes of many Americans, his legacy remained tarnished.

Two decades before the Clinton scandal, another U.S. president was caught in a web of lies, and the controversy had devastating effects on the country as a whole.

In the summer before President Richard Nixon's successful re-election to a second term, five men were caught breaking into the Democratic National Committee headquarters, housed in the Watergate Hotel. As details emerged over the next year, it became clear that officials close to Nixon gave the orders to the burglars, perhaps to plant wiretaps on the phones there. The question soon became about whether Nixon knew of, covered up or even ordered the break-in.

In response to mounting suspicions, Nixon denied allegations that he knew anything. In front of 400 Associated Press editors, famously proclaimed, "I am not a crook." He was talking about whether he had ever profited from public service, but that one quote came to represent his entire political career.

It was a lie that came back to haunt him. When it was revealed that private White House conversations about the matter were recorded, the investigative committee subpoenaed the tapes. Nixon's refusal on the basis of "executive privilege" brought the matter to the U.S. Supreme Court, which ruled that he had to relinquish the tapes.

The tapes were exactly the smoking gun needed to implicate Nixon in the cover-up of the scandal. They revealed that he obviously knew more about the matter than he claimed. Upon the initiation of impeachment proceedings, Nixon gave up and resigned from office. The scandal left a lasting scar on the American political scene and helped usher Washington outsider Jimmy Carter into the presidency a few years later.

1. The Big Lie: Nazi Propaganda

By the time Nazism arose in Germany in the 1930s, anti-Semitism was nothing new -- not by a long shot. The J­ewish people had suffered a long history of prejudice and persecution. And although Nazis perpetuated centuries-old lies, this time those lies would have their most devastating effects. Like never before, anti-Semitism was manifested in a sweeping national policy known as "the Final Solution," which sought to eliminate Jews from the face of the Earth.

To accomplish this, Adolf Hitler and his minister of propaganda, Joseph Goebbels, launched a massive campaign to convince the German people that the Jews were their enemies. Having taken over the press, they spread lies blaming Jews for all of Germany's problems, including the loss of World War I. One outrageous lie dating back to the Middle Ages claimed that Jews engaged in the ritual killings of Christian children and used their blood in the unleavened bread eaten at Passover [source: Landau].

Using Jews as the scapegoat, Hitler and his cronies orchestrated what they called "the big lie." This theory states that no matter how big the lie is (or more precisely, because it's so big), people will believe it if you repeat it enough. Everyone tells small lies, Hitler reasoned, but few have the guts to tell colossal lies [source: Hoffer]. Because a big lie is so unlikely, people will come to accept it.

This theory helps us understand so many of the lies throughout history. Although we've barely scratched the surface of all those lies that deserve (dis)honorable mentions, you can satiate your historical curiosity by browsing the lists on the next page.


5 Calaveras Skull

Remember that time you needed to make a fast profit and, for reasons that made perfect sense at the time (say, you were staring too hard at the pile of ribs you ordered while getting wasted on tequila), your chosen method of monetary advancement was to create a straight-up archaeological forgery? Don't be ashamed, man -- we've all been there. The point is that whatever hoaxing method you chose, chances are skulls weren't even on the list. They're not exactly easy to fake -- in the time it takes to gain the necessary skill set to manufacture a convincing one, you can sew herring tails on dozens of monkey carcasses and P.T. Barnum your way into drunken glory, or at least a number of interesting watch lists.

Still, there are plenty of people who are fully prepared to give forgin' face bones a go, judging by how often they pop up in the annals of accurate-ish archaeology. Some of these fakes, like crystal skulls and the Piltdown Man, have been decent enough to fool people for a while.


6 John Keeley's Mysterious Machine

In 1872, one John Keeley claimed to have built a machine in Philadelphia that could generate incredible amounts of energy from a comparably infinitesimal amount of water. With only one gallon of water as fuel, Keeley boasted that he could propel a steamship from New York to Liverpool. With this exciting claim, he managed to attract enough investors to set up his own electric company and work on his miraculous device.

It's pretty obvious from the fact that we're still driving gas-guzzling SUVs that Keeley's motor didn't really work. What's amazing is that nobody found out it didn't work until he'd been profiting from it for 24 years.

Why No One Should Have Bought It:

Keeley somehow managed to hide his fraud by keeping everyone confused about what exactly his machine did and how it worked, throwing around terms like "sympathetic equilibrium," "etheric disintegration" and "quadruple negative harmonics." All the while, he was conducting demonstrations of his device, pouring water into it and showing how it could bend iron bars like Superman.

Of course, he never managed to turn his machine into a marketable product, much to the frustration of his investors, and Keeley ultimately died before he could bring his life's work to fruition. Naturally, this was a golden opportunity for scientists to study Keeley's machine and find out how it actually worked.

Javob? It was powered by a generator that Keeley was hiding in his basement, attached to the machine by a system of belts and pulleys that he was hiding behind a false wall. You have to give him credit for gambling on nobody guessing the most obvious explanation for two decades.

Whew, it's a good thing the world has learned its lesson about this sort of thing! And there's no way this next entry is going to prove that statement laughably wrong!

Related: 5 Horrifying Ways the Universe Has Repaid Good Deeds


4 Vrain Lucas


For another take on forgery, let us examine the case of Vrain Lucas, perhaps the most ambitious forger in history. In 1851 Vrain met Michel Chasles, a French mathematician, Chasles was intrigued when shown letters Vrain claimed he had found. He claimed they were written by such noteworthy names as Joan of Arc and Charlemagne. When Chasles offered to buy the documents, the real forgery began. Vrain wrote letters from Julius Caesar, Aristotle, Shakespeare, Mary Magdalene, Alexander the Great and more. The letters shared one thing that kept Chasles buying, they all spoke highly of France. Perhaps being the patriot that he was kept him from realizing some obvious errors, first all the letters were written in French and all were on the same watermarked paper, even ones supposedly written before paper was invented. Thousands of letters and eighteen years later Chasles finally caught on and Vrain was sentenced to 2 years in jail. His greatest forgery would go undelivered, a letter from Jesus, written in French, of course. [7]


Four horrifying medical procedures we’re glad history forgot

In 1969, Vincent Gigante began walking the streets of New York in a bathrobe, urinating on himself and babbling incoherently, behavior that earned him the nickname “The Oddfather.” Turns out, it was just an act to avoid conviction for murder and other crimes attributed to his mafia crime family.

It worked for quite a while. While some suspected Gigante of faking it, others speculated that the former boxer had taken too many hits to the head. Psychiatrists diagnosed him with a number of mental illnesses, including bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. As a result, he avoided a bribery charge in 1973. In 1990, when he was indicted for racketeering, his acting job held off the trial for seven years while the court attempted to determine his mental state.

Even after his 1997 conviction and imprisonment, Gigante continued his fakery. By mumbling to himself and stomping on imaginary cockroaches in his cell, among other antics, he managed to avoid confessing to crimes or testifying against others. Gigante finally admitted to the pretense in 2003, after prosecutors presented a taped conversation in which he talked about his phony insanity bit.

William Hogarth/Wikimedia Commons


1 Naked Came The Stranger

There is no doubt that the American literary scene was crap in the 1960s. Numerous novels were being published that were all about sex, drugs, and more sex. It seemed as though no one was capable of thinking outside of their genital area.

Journalist Mike McGrady saw the problems rather clearly and decided to hoax the publishing industry. He contacted 25 other writers in 1966, all men, and asked them to take part in writing a smutty novel. They were to each write a chapter in the book and were warned that, &ldquoGood writing will be blue penciled into oblivion and there will be an unremitting emphasis on sex.&rdquo

Each writer had no clue what the other writer was doing, but eventually all the chapters were turned in, and McGrady cobbled the book together. He got his sister-in-law to pose as the book&rsquos author, and the manuscript was submitted to publishers under the name of Penelope Ashe.

Amazingly enough, the book, Naked Came The Stranger, got a $135,000 US book contract and has since become a cult classic as one of the biggest hoaxes ever pulled off on the publishing industry. [10]

Elizabeth, a former Pennsylvania native, recently moved to the beautiful state of Massachusetts where she is currently involved in researching early American history. She writes and travels in her spare time.


Videoni tomosha qiling: NOYOB Yolgon (Iyul 2022).


Izohlar:

  1. Kandiss

    Analoglar mavjudmi?

  2. Menzies

    Iltimos, ishni yoping.

  3. Breindel

    Kechirim so'rayman, lekin menimcha, siz adashyapsiz. Keling, buni muhokama qilaylik. Menga kechqurun yozing.

  4. Wulfcot

    siz shunchaki misli ko'rilmagan ertakni orzu qilyapsiz !!! shunchaki yaxshi video!!!

  5. Damien

    Menga birinchisi yoqdi - menimcha, bu yomon emas.



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