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Bolgariya haqida asosiy ma'lumotlar - tarix

Bolgariya haqida asosiy ma'lumotlar - tarix


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Bolgariya haqida asosiy ma'lumotlar - tarix

Bolgariya o'z nomini eramizning 200 -yillarida bu erda yashagan bolgarlardan olgan. Bolgariya erining ilk kunlarida bu hudud Qadimgi Frakiya madaniyati bilan joylashtirilgan.

600 -yillarda birinchi Bolgariya davlati tashkil topdi. Keyinchalik Birinchi Bolgariya Qiroli Simeon I boshqaruvida 893 yildan 927 yilgacha bo'ladi. Bu vaqtni Bolgariyaning Oltin asri deb atashadi. Bu farovonlik, san'at, madaniyat, ta'lim va adabiyot davri edi. Biroq, bu vaqt uzoq davom etmadi, chunki qo'shni davlatlar va imperiyalar keyingi 1000 yil davomida Bolgariyaga ta'sir ko'rsatdi.

Birinchi bo'lib Vizantiya imperiyasi 1018 yilda paydo bo'lgan. Bolgarlar tez orada Vizantiyani qaytarib yuborishgan. Mo'g'ullar tez orada Usmonli imperiyasi bilan kelishgan. Usmonli imperiyasi 500 yildan ortiq hukmronlik qilgan. Ular 1900 -yillarning boshlariga qadar Usmoniylardan ozod bo'la olmasdilar.

Keyinchalik Bolqon urushlari, Ikkinchi jahon urushi va Ikkinchi jahon urushi kabi ko'plab urushlar bo'ladi. Ikkinchi jahon urushidan keyin Bolgariya kommunistik davlat va Sovet Ittifoqining yo'ldoshiga aylandi. 1900 -yillarning oxirida Sovet Ittifoqi qulashi bilan Bolgariya iqtisodiy kurashlar va ijtimoiy tartibsizliklarni boshdan kechirdi. 2007 yil 1 yanvarda Bolgariya Evropa Ittifoqiga a'zo bo'ldi.


Bolgariya qayerda?

Bolgariya - Evropa qit'asining janubi -sharqiy mintaqasida joylashgan, Bolqon yarim orolining sharqiy qismini egallagan davlat. U geografik jihatdan Yerning shimoliy va sharqiy yarim sharlarida joylashgan. Bolgariya 5 davlat bilan chegaradosh: shimolda Ruminiya bilan Turkiya va janubda Gretsiya bilan janubi -g'arbda Shimoliy Makedoniya va g'arbda Serbiya bilan chegaradosh. Sharqda Qora dengiz bilan chegaralangan.

Mintaqaviy xaritalar: Evropa xaritasi


Bolalar uchun Bolgariya faktlari

  • Bolgariya - Evropaning janubi -sharqidagi davlat.
  • Bolgariya - Bolgariya Respublikasi.
  • Bolgariya poytaxti Sofiya.
  • Sofiya - Bolgariyadagi eng katta shahar.
  • Bolgariya Evropa Ittifoqi va NATO a'zosi.
  • Bolgariya Prezidenti - Rosen Plevneliev.
  • Bolgariya Bosh vaziri - Boyko Borisov.
  • Bolgariya 1908 yil 22 sentyabrda Usmonli imperiyasidan mustaqillikka erishdi.
  • Bolgariyada bolgarlar yashaydi.
  • Bolgariyaning umumiy aholisi 7 milliondan oshadi. bu e'lon haqida xabar bering
  • Bolgariyaning rasmiy tili bolgar tili.
  • Bolgar - slavyan tili.
  • Bu rus va serb tillariga o'xshaydi.
  • Bolgariya - parlament demokratiyasi.
  • Ba'zi bolgarlar turk va rim tillarida gaplashadi.
  • Bolgar tilidagi asosiy din bolgar pravoslav xristianidir.
  • Bolgariyada musulmonlar va boshqa turdagi nasroniylar bor.
  • Bolgariya - qadimiy mamlakat. Odamlar Bolgariyada 6000 yildan ortiq yashab kelishgan. Usmonli imperiyasi Bolgariyani 500 yil boshqargan.
  • Bolgariyada pul birligi - Lev (BGL).
  • Bolgariya - Evropaning eng qashshoq davlatlaridan biri.
  • Bolgariyaning asosiy qismi - kiyim -kechak, poyabzal, temir -po'lat, mashinasozlik va yoqilg'i.
  • Bolgariya importi mashinasozlik, metall, kimyo va plastmassa, yoqilg'i, minerallar va xom ashyo hisoblanadi.
  • Bolgariyaning tabiiy boyliklari boksit, mis, qo'rg'oshin, rux, ko'mir, yog'och va haydaladigan erlardir. Bolgariyaning qishloq xo'jaligi mahsulotlari sabzavot, meva, tamaki, sharob, bug'doy, arpa, kungaboqar, shakar va lavlagi hisoblanadi.
  • Bolgariya Ruminiya, Serbiya, Makedoniya Respublikasi, Gretsiya va Turkiya bilan chegaradosh.
  • Qora dengiz bilan chegaradosh.
  • Bolgariya - umumiy maydoni 110 910 kvadrat kilometr.
  • Bolgariya Amerikaning Tennessi shtatidan biroz kattaroqdir.
  • Bolgariya 28 viloyatga bo'lingan.
  • Viloyatlar 264 munitsipalitetga bo'lingan.
  • Bolgariya Bolqonda.
  • Bolgariya hududi tog'lardir.
  • Bolgariyaning shimoli va janubi -sharqida pasttekisliklar bor.
  • Bolgariyadagi eng baland joy Musala - 2925 metr.
  • Bolgariyaning eng past nuqtasi - Qora dengiz, 0 metr.
  • Bolgariyadagi iqlim mo''tadil. Bolgariyada issiq va quruq yoz bor. Bu erda sovuq va nam qish bor.
  • Bolgariya - Evropadagi eng qadimgi mamlakatlardan biri. Bu Rim imperiyasidan ancha oldin.
  • Bolgariya ikkala jahon urushi paytida Germaniya bilan ittifoq tuzgan. Bolgariya Ikkinchi jahon urushi paytida yahudiylarni kontslagerlarga yuborishdan bosh tortdi. Buning o'rniga ularni qutqardi. Bu yahudiy aholisini qutqargan ikkita mamlakatdan biri edi. Boshqa davlat Daniya edi.
  • Bolgariya Sovet Ittifoqi (SSSR) tomonidan bosib olindi. Bu 90 -yillarning boshigacha kommunistik mamlakat edi. Bolgariya uchun demokratiyaga o'tish qiyin kechdi.
  • Bolgariya Evropada o'z nomini saqlab qolgan yagona mamlakatdir. Uning nomi milodiy 681 yilda tashkil etilgan payt bilan bir xil.
  • Bolgar eng qadimgi slavyan tilidir. Kiril alifbosida yozilgan.
  • Bolgariyada rasmiy davlat dini yo'q. Bolgarlarda din erkinligi bor. Bolgarlarning aksariyati Bolgar pravoslav cherkovining a'zolari.
  • Bolgariya davlati barcha bolalarga boshlang'ich va o'rta maktablarda ta'lim beradi. Bolgariyaning milliy savodxonlik darajasi 98%dan yuqori.
  • Bolgariya taomlari kuchli yunon va turk ta'siriga ega. Bolgariya boshqa Evropa mamlakatlariga qaraganda kamroq go'sht iste'mol qiladi. U ko'proq salat iste'mol qiladi.
  • Bolgar xalq musiqasi - an'anaviy san'at. Uning Evropada tengi yo'q. Bu o'ziga xos kengaytirilgan ritmik vaqtga ega. Musiqada ko'plab an'anaviy bolgar asboblari chalinadi.
  • Bolgariyaning milliy cholg'usi - bu gayda yoki sumkalar. Faqat boshqa ikki mamlakat an'anaviy musiqada xaltadan foydalanadi. Ular Irlandiya va Shotlandiya.
  • Yong'in raqsi Bolgariyaning eng qadimiy an'analaridan biridir. U hali ham bir necha tog'li qishloqlarda ijro etiladi. Olovli raqqoslar yalang oyoq bilan raqsga tushishadi.
  • Dunyodagi eng qadimgi oltin xazina Bolgariyadan topilgan. U Varna yaqinida topilgan. Bu eneolit ​​davriga to'g'ri keladi. Yoshi 6000 yildan oshadi. Bu Varna arxeologik muzeyida.
  • Bolgariya poytaxti Sofiya - Evropadagi ikkinchi eng qadimgi shahar. Uning yoshi 7000 yildan oshadi. Sofiyada 250 dan ortiq tarixiy yodgorliklar mavjud.
  • Bolgariyada tug'ilgan kunlar va "Ism kunlari" nishonlanadi. Ism kuni - avliyolar kuni. Ko'p bolgarlar azizlar nomi bilan atalgan. Bolgarlar ism kunini tug'ilgan kunidan ko'ra ko'proq yoki ko'proq qadrlashadi.
  • Bolgarlar 1 -martni qishning o'tishi sifatida nishonlaydilar. Bu Baba Marta. Bolgarlar Martenitsi bilaguzuklarini taqishadi. Ular qizil va oq rangda.
  • Bolgariya - Sharq va G'arb madaniyatining aralashmasi. Bu go'zal sayyohlik joyidir. Bolgariya shahar turmush tarziga ega bo'lgan juda ko'p tarixga ega.

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Bolgariya tarixi

Bolgariya tarixi miloddan avvalgi 3500 yillarda Bolgariya deb nomlanuvchi mintaqada frakiyaliklar yashagan paytdan boshlanadi. Eramizning birinchi asrida ular Rim imperiyasi tarkibiga kirgan. Bolgariya tarixi, shuningdek, Rim imperiyasi parchalana boshlagach, gotlar, hunlar, bolgarlar va avarlar Bolgariyaning hozirgi hududiga bostirib kirganidan boshlanadi. 679 yilda shimoldan Dunayni kesib o'tgan bolgarlar bu hududni o'z nazoratiga oldilar. Garchi mamlakat bolgarlarning nomi bilan atalsa -da, bolgar tili va madaniyati vafot etdi, uning o'rniga til, yozuv va sloven dini keldi. Bolgariya tarixi haqidagi hikoyani davom ettirib aytishimiz mumkinki, 865 yilda Boris I pravoslav xristianlikni din sifatida qabul qilgan. Bolgarlar 893 va 1280 yillar oralig'ida Bolqon yarim orolining ko'p qismini ikki marta bosib olishdi. Ammo Bolgariya tarixi, shuningdek, 1396 yilda Usmonli imperiyasi tomonidan bosib olinganini, bu Bolgariyani 1878 yilgacha Turkiya viloyatiga aylantirganini aytadi. zulmkorga taslim bo'ldi. Bolgariya tarixida aytilishicha, 1878 yil Rossiya-Turkiya urushidan keyin (1877-1878) Rossiya Turkiyani Bolgariyaga mustaqillik berishga majburlagan. Ammo Bolqon hududida Rossiya va Bolgariya hukmronligidan qo'rqib, Evropa kuchlari Berlin Kongressida ishtirok etishdi (1878) va Bolgariya hududi o'zimni rus podshosining jiyani Aleksandr Battenburg boshqaradigan kichik knyazlik bilan cheklab qo'ydi.

1887 yilda Aleksandrning o'rnini 1908 yil 5 oktyabrda Usmonli imperiyasidan mustaqil podsholik deb e'lon qilgan Saxe-Koburg-Gota shahzodasi Ferdinand egalladi. Bolgariya haqidagi hikoyani davom ettirib, Birinchi Bolqon urushi bilan (1912-1913), Bolgariya va Bolqon Ligasining boshqa a'zolari Bolqon hududini qaytarish uchun Turkiyaga qarshi kurashdilar. Bolgariya tarixi bizga aytadiki, Bolgariya jangdan keyin olgan Makedoniyaning ozgina qismidan xafa bo'lgan, chunki u Makedoniyani Bolgariyaning ajralmas qismi deb hisoblagan, keyin mamlakat Ikkinchi Bolqon urushini (agosto-junio. 1913) Turkiyaga va ularning sobiq ittifoqchilar. Bolgariya tarixidagi yana bir muhim va muhim haqiqat shundaki, Bolgariya urushda va Birinchi Bolqon urushida g'olib bo'lgan barcha hududlarda mag'lubiyatga uchradi.
Bolgariya tarixi haqida ko'proq ma'lumot:

Boshqa tomondan aytishimiz mumkinki, Bolgariya Ikkinchi jahon urushida Makedoniya ustidan g'alaba qozonish uchun Germaniyaga qo'shildi. Bolgariya tarixidagi bu ikkinchi muvaffaqiyatsizlikdan so'ng, Ferdinand 1918 yilda o'g'li foydasiga taxtdan voz kechdi. Bolgariya tarixida bu juda og'riqli fakt. Bolgariya Ikkinchi Jahon Urushida fashistlar uchun jang qildi, lekin Rossiya 1944 yil 5 sentyabrda Bolgariyaga qarshi urush e'lon qilganidan so'ng, Bolgariya o'z tarafini o'zgartirdi. Bundan tashqari, bugun Bolgariya tarixida sharmandalik, fashistlarni qo'llab -quvvatlaganini tan olish. Uch kundan so'ng, 1944 yil 9 sentyabrda kommunistik koalitsiya mamlakatni o'z nazoratiga oldi va Kimon Georgiev boshchiligida hukumat tuzdi.

Bolgariya haqidagi hikoyani davom ettirib, biz 1947 yilda Bolgariya xalqida sovet uslubi o'rnatilganligini va Bolgariya Sharqiy Evropaning barcha kommunistik mamlakatlari orasida Moskvaga eng sodiq sodiq bo'lish obro'siga ega bo'lganligini aniqladik. Bolgariya Kommunistik partiyasi bosh kotibi Todor Jikov 35 yil hokimiyatdan so'ng 1989 yilda ketdi. Uning vorisi Piter Mladenov Siyosiy Byuroni tozaladi va hokimiyat ustidan kommunistik monopoliyani tugatdi va 1990 yil may oyida erkin saylovlar o'tkazib, Bolgariya Sotsialistik partiyasi (BSP) deb qayta nomlangan Kommunistik partiyaning g'alabasiga olib keldi. Iyul 1990. Bolgariya tarixida trassedendental yil.

Kalit so'zlar: Bolgariya tarixi. Bolgariya urushlari. Bolgariya hukumatlari. Bolgariya kompaniyalari. Bolgariyada Birinchi jahon urushi. Bolgariyada Ikkinchi jahon urushi. Bolgariyadagi muhim voqealar. Bolgariyaning tarixiy ma'lumotlari.


Bolgariya haqida asosiy ma'lumotlar - tarix

Bu sobiq veb -sayt Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkilotining Taraqqiyot dasturi – Bolgariya (Dastur na OON za razvitie – Bulgariya).

Bizning maqolalarimizdan siz bu haqida bilib olasiz madaniyat va Evropaning eng qadimgi davlati Bolgariya tarixi. Shuningdek, biz hukumat tuzilmasi, sog'liqni saqlash tizimi va imkoniyatlari haqida eng muhim ma'lumotlarni taqdim etamiz Yuqori sifatli tibbiy ta'lim. Bu ajoyib mamlakat haqida hamma narsani o'qing va Bolgariya nima taklif qilayotganini tekshirishni unutmang Turizm.

Ushbu veb -saytlarning oldingi maqsadiga kelsak, biz bu sayt haqida ham ma'lumot beramiz Mingyillik rivojlanish maqsadlari Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkiloti. Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkilotining boshqa mamlakatlarda hali ham mavjud bo'lgan ko'plab dasturlari haqida ma'lumot olish uchun quyidagilarni boshlashni taklif qilaman. BMTTD – Vikipediya

Bizning Bolgariyaning qisqacha tarixi sizga Bolgariyadagi eng muhim voqealar haqida aytib beradi, Bolgariya tashkil etilishidan to hozirgi kungacha. Bu erda siz Bolqonlarning buyuk imperiyalari, bolgarlar qaerdan paydo bo'lganligi va 681 yilda birinchi bolgar davlatini qanday tashkil qilganliklari, ularning imperiyalarining yuksalishi va qulashi va Bolqonda zamonaviy inqiloblar haqida bilib olasiz.

An'anaviy kiyimdagi odam – bu veb -saytning ramzi deb ataladi Hitar Petar (“hitar ” - ayyorlikni anglatadi). U bolgar folklorining eng mashhur hiylasi va bolalar va kattalar sevadigan yuzlab ertak va hikoyalarning bir qismidir. Hitar Petar haqidagi qiziqarli fakt shundaki, u ba'zida zanjabil sochlari bilan tasvirlangan (biz qilganidek), lekin Bolgariyada sochlarning eng tipik rangi qora. (Bolgarlar aslida Osiyodan kelgan, bu haqda ko'proq o'qing Bu yerga).

Bolgariya tarixi

Malumot xabarlari

Qiziqarli joylar

A uchun keyingi ekzotik joyni qidiryapsizmi Yozgi ta'til, yangi biznes imkoniyatlari yoki faqat Bolgariyadan o'tib, bizning veb -saytimiz sizni boshlashingiz va sizga kerakli barcha asosiy ma'lumotlarni taqdim etish joyidir. Bolgariyada, masalan, ta'til kunlarini sog'lig'ingizni saqlashga, bir ajoyib joydan boshqasiga o'tishga sarflashingiz mumkin. U erda ’s asrlar tarixi o'rganish va tushunish uchun. Kimga parhez kerak yoki vazn kuzatuvchilariQachonki, siz piyoda yurish, zinapoyaga chiqish va chindan ham sog'lom taomlarni iste'mol qilishda faol bo'lishingiz bilan sog'lom bo'lishingiz mumkin. Agar siz biron bir katta ishni qilmoqchi bo'lsangiz, lekin doim ishlashga moyil bo'lsangiz, tashrif buyurishingiz mumkin sizning mahalliy shifokoringiz va lap band protsedurasini rejalashtiring.

G'arbda ko'pchilik Bolgariya haqida ko'p ma'lumotga ega emasligi haqiqat. Buning sababi, Sovuq Urush davrida davlatning yakkalanib qolishi va sovet ta'siridan sekin tiklanish jarayonidir. "O'tish davri" 1989 yilda boshlangan va taxminan 15 yil davom etgan, bu haqda ko'proq o'qing. Bu yerga. Bugungi kunda Bolgariya NATO va Evropa Ittifoqining faxrli a'zosi hisoblanadi xorijiy sarmoyadorlar uchun jozibali imkoniyatlarni taklif etadi.

Tarixiy sabablarga ko'ra G'arbiy dunyo va Sharqiy Evropa o'rtasida turmush darajasi bo'yicha katta farq paydo bo'ldi. Bu Bolgariyaga sobiq sotsialistik mamlakatlardan biri sifatida ta'sir qiladi. Nima demoqchiman, garchi davlat Evropa Ittifoqiga etib kelgan bo'lsa -da, so'nggi 26 yil ichida Bolgariyada ish haqi ham, yashash xarajatlari ham Evropa Ittifoqi o'rtacha ko'rsatkichidan ancha past bo'lgan.

Bolgariya o'zining yuqori malakali olimlari, aqlli matematiklari va so'nggi yillarda mukammal dasturiy ta'minot va veb-ishlab chiqaruvchilari bilan mashhur. Bugungi kunda yuzlab IT -kompaniyalar o'z bizneslarini Bolgariyaga eksport qilmoqdalar, chunki ular har qanday sohada kerakli mutaxassislarni yarmi narxida topishadi. Bir qarashda, bu biroz noto'g'ri tuyulishi mumkin, lekin aslida bunday kompaniyalar o'z kompaniyalaridan ko'ra ko'proq narsani va o'z xodimlariga eng yaxshi ish sharoitlarini taklif qilishadi. Bu hikoya haqida ko'proq ma'lumot beradi Bolgariyadagi hayot va shu xorijiy kompaniyalardan biri tufayli hayotini yaxshilagan yosh.

Mualliflik huquqi va#x000A9 2021 Wordpress yordamida - Genesis -Dynamik - Moose Chat mavzusi · Kirish


Tarkibi

Hozirgi Bolgariyada vaqt o'tishi bilan ko'p odamlar va turli madaniyatlar yashagan. Bunga neolit, Hamangiya madaniyati, Vincha madaniyati, eneolit, Varna madaniyati (miloddan avvalgi 5 -ming yillik) va bronza davri Ezero madaniyati kiradi. Frakiyaliklar zamonaviy Bolgariya hududida yashagan. King Tere miloddan avvalgi 500 va 160 yillar atrofida Odrisiya qirolligidagi odamlarni birlashtirgan. Iskandar Zulqarnayn 4 -asrda va keyinchalik Masih davrida Rim imperiyasi tomonidan odamlarga ta'sir ko'rsatgan. VI asrda Evrosiyo avarlari, janubiy slavyanlar va xunlar zamonaviy Bolgariyaning butun hududiga joylashdilar.

Birinchi Bolgariya imperiyasi 681 va 160 -yillarda tashkil etilgan. Ikkinchi Bolgariya imperiyasi taxminan 1185 va 1606 yillarda boshlangan, poytaxti Turnovo edi. 1396 yilda Usmonli imperiyasi hokimiyatni egalladi va Bolgariyani taxminan 500 yil boshqargan. Usmonlilarda juda qattiq qoidalar bor edi va bolgarlar azob chekdilar. Bolgarlar turk hukmdorlariga qarshi bir necha bor isyon ko'tarishdi. Birinchi Bolqon urushidan so'ng (1876), Bolgariya Usmonlilar bilan urushayotgan Rossiya imperiyasi yordamida Usmonli imperiyasining ta'siridan chiqib ketdi. Faqat 1908 yilgacha butun Bolgariya mamlakati zamonaviy Bolgariya kabi birlashdi.

Birinchi jahon urushida Bolgariya Germaniya tomoniga qo'shildi va mag'lubiyatga uchradi.

Ikkinchi jahon urushining birinchi yilida Bolgariya neytral ekanligini aytdi va fashistlar Germaniyasi yoki Sovet Ittifoqiga qo'shilishdan bosh tortdi. Ammo urushda keskinlik kuchaygani uchun rahbarlar 1941 yil mart oyida Germaniya bilan Uch tomonlama shartnomani imzoladilar. Bu esa nemis kuchlariga Bolgariya orqali Gretsiyaga etib borish imkonini berdi. Biroq, Bolgariya Gitlerning xohishlariga amal qilmadi. Bolgariya qo'shinlari harbiy to'ntarishlarda qatnashishdan bosh tortdilar, shuningdek yahudiylarni Xolokostdagi kontslagerlarga yuborishdan bosh tortdilar. Bu Adolf Gitlerni juda shubhali qildi va Bolgariya qiroli Boris III Gitler bilan gaplashganidan bir kun o'tib vafot etdi.

1944 yilda Ittifoq kuchlari urushda g'alaba qozonishi aniq bo'lgach, Bolgariya boshqa echim topishga majbur bo'ldi. Ularning rahbarlari Axis qo'shinlarini tark etishganini va ular Sovetlarga kirishga ruxsat berishganini e'lon qilishdi. Lekin Sovet Ittifoqi Bolgariyaning betaraf bo'lish istagini hurmat qilmadi. 1947 yilda Bolgariyadan chiqib ketishidan oldin ular qirol monarxiyasini kommunizm bilan almashtirdilar. 40 yil davomida, ularning lideri Todor Jivkov davrida, Bolgariya Sovet Ittifoqiga juda yaqin bo'lgan va ularning ko'rsatmalariga amal qilgan.

Berlin devori qulaganidan ko'p o'tmay, 1989 yil 10 -noyabrda Kommunistik partiya o'z hukmronligidan voz kechdi va mamlakatga o'z xohishiga ko'ra rahbarlarni saylashga ruxsat berdi. Ammo bir necha yil ichida Bolgariya yangi sotsialistik hukumat davrida jiddiy pul muammolariga duch keldi. O'shandan beri Bolgariya ko'p jihatdan tiklandi va ancha barqaror. Lekin bu hali Evropaning eng qashshoq mamlakatlaridan biri. Ma'muriyatdagi muammolar, zaif sud tizimi va uyushgan jinoyat Bolgariya uchun eng katta muammo. Ζ ]


Ijtimoiy ta'minot va o'zgarish dasturlari

Bolgariyaning sotsializm davrida ijtimoiy xavfsizlik tarmog'iga pensiyalar, sog'liqni saqlash, tug'ruq ta'tillari va kafolatlangan bandlik kiradi. Ba'zi xizmatlarning mafkuraviy maqsadlari bor edi, masalan, kunduzgi parvarish, bu ayollarning ishchi kuchiga kirishiga yordam berdi. Ko'p uy xo'jaliklarining iqtisodiy holati postsotsializm davrida ishsizlik, ish haqi va pensiyalarning xarid qobiliyatining pasayishi tufayli sezilarli darajada tushib ketdi. Ayni paytda, hukumatning moliyaviy ahvoli yomonligi avvalgi xizmatlarni saqlashni qiyinlashtirdi. Bolgariya Qizil Xoch kabi nodavlat tashkilotlar (NNT) bolalar uylarini qo'llab -quvvatlash va uysiz bolalarni boqish kabi faoliyat bilan shug'ullanadi. Boshqalar fuqarolik huquqlari yoki etnik va diniy bag'rikenglikni targ'ib qiladi. Shunga qaramay, nodavlat notijorat tashkilotlari faoliyati iqtisodiy sharoitlari va chet el mablag'lariga tayanishi bilan cheklangan. Nodavlat notijorat tashkilotlarining ba'zi chet ellik qo'llab -quvvatlashlari ularning sotsializm davrida etishmayotgan va shuning uchun qo'llab -quvvatlashga muhtoj bo'lgan fuqarolik jamiyatining bir qismi bo'lgan demokratik institutlar maqomidan kelib chiqadi.


Tarkibi

Ism Bolgariya dan olingan Bolgarlar, Birinchi Bolgariya imperiyasiga asos solgan turkiy qabilalar. Ularning ismi to'liq tushunilmagan va miloddan avvalgi 4-asrdan oldin uni izlab topish qiyin [10], lekin u prototurk so'zidan kelib chiqqan bo'lishi mumkin. bulha ("aralashtirish", "silkitish", "aralashtirish") va uning hosilasi bulg'oq ("qo'zg'olon", "tartibsizlik"). [11] Ma'noni "isyonchi", "qo'zg'atuvchi" yoki "tartibsizlik holatini keltirib chiqaruvchi" va shu sababli, lotincha "bezovtalanuvchilar" uchun ham kengaytirish mumkin. [12] [13] [14] Ichki Osiyodagi fonologik jihatdan yaqin nomlarga ega bo'lgan qabilalar guruhlari 4 -asrda ikkalasi sifatida tasvirlangan "beshta vahshiy" guruhining tarkibiy qismi bo'lgan Buluoji kabi tez -tez o'xshash so'zlar bilan ta'riflangan: a. "aralash irq" va "tartibsizliklar". [15]

Tarixdan oldingi va antik davr

Neandertal qoldiqlari taxminan 150 000 yil oldin yoki O'rta paleolitga tegishli bo'lib, zamonaviy Bolgariya erlarida inson faoliyatining dastlabki izlaridan biridir. [16] dan qolgan Homo sapiens sanalari topilgan v. 47,000 yil BP. Bu natija zamonaviy odamlarning Evropaga ilk bor kelishlarini ko'rsatadi. [17] [18] Karanovo madaniyati eramizdan avvalgi 6500 yillarda paydo bo'lgan va qishloq xo'jaligida rivojlangan mintaqadagi neolit ​​jamiyatlaridan biri bo'lgan. [19] Mis davridagi Varna madaniyati (miloddan avvalgi beshinchi ming yillik) oltin metallurgiyani ixtiro qilgan. [20] [21] Varna nekropolining xazinasi dunyodagi eng qadimgi oltin zargarlik buyumlarini o'z ichiga oladi, ularning yoshi 6000 yildan oshadi. [22] [23] Xazina eng qadimgi Evropa jamiyatlarida ijtimoiy ierarxiya va tabaqalanishni tushunish uchun qimmatli bo'lgan. [24] [25] [26]

Frakiyaliklar, zamonaviy bolgarlarning uchta asosiy ajdodlar guruhidan biri, miloddan avvalgi 12 -asrdan oldin Bolqon yarim orolida paydo bo'lgan. [27] [28] [29] Frakiyaliklar metallurgiyada ustunlik qilib, yunonlarga orfey va dionis kultlarini berishgan, lekin qabila va fuqaroligi bo'lmagan. [30] Fors Axamaniylar imperiyasi miloddan avvalgi VI asrda hozirgi Bolgariyaning katta qismini bosib olgan va miloddan avvalgi 479 yilgacha bu hudud ustidan nazoratni saqlab qolgan. [31] [32] Bosqin Frakiya birligining katalizatoriga aylandi va ularning qabilalarining asosiy qismi miloddan avvalgi 470 -yillarda Odris shohligini tuzish uchun qirol Terez ostida birlashdilar. [30] [32] [33] Miloddan avvalgi 341 yilda Makedoniya Filippi II tomonidan zaiflashtirilgan va vassal qilingan, [34] III asrda Keltlar hujumiga uchragan [35] va nihoyat eramizning 45 yilida Rim imperiyasi viloyatiga aylangan. [36]

Miloddan avvalgi I asrning oxiriga kelib, butun Bolqon yarim orolida Rim boshqaruvi o'rnatildi va IV asrda bu hududda xristianlik tarqala boshladi. [30] Gotika Injili - birinchi german tilidagi kitob - 381 -yil atrofida Bolgariyaning shimolida gotik episkopi Ulfilas tomonidan yaratilgan. [37] 476 -yilda Rim qulaganidan keyin mintaqa Vizantiya nazorati ostiga o'tdi. Forsga qarshi uzoq davom etgan urush va Bolqon hududlarini vahshiylik hujumlaridan himoya qila olmadi. [38] Bu slavyanlarga, birinchi navbatda, Dunay daryosi va Bolqon tog'lari orasidagi Moesiya deb nomlanuvchi hudud orqali Bolqon yarim oroliga qaroqchi sifatida kirishga imkon berdi. [39] Asta -sekin, yarim orolning ichki qismi demokratiya sharoitida yashagan Janubiy slavyanlar mamlakatiga aylandi. [40] [41] Slavlar qishloqlarda qisman ellin, rim va gotika frakiyaliklarini o'zlashtirdilar. [42] [43] [44] [45]

Birinchi Bolgariya imperiyasi

Slavyanlarning hujumidan ko'p o'tmay, Moeziya yana bir bor bosqinchilikka uchradi, bu safar bolgarlar Xon Asparux boshchiligida. [46] Ularning qo'shini Qora dengizning shimolida, hozirgi Ukraina va Rossiyaning janubida joylashgan, eski Buyuk Bolgariyaning qoldiqlari edi. Asparux Moeziyadagi Vizantiya hududlariga hujum qilib, 680 yilda u erdagi slavyan qabilalarini zabt etdi. [28] 681 yilda Vizantiya imperiyasi bilan tinchlik shartnomasi imzolandi, bu birinchi Bolgariya imperiyasining asosini belgilab berdi. Ozchilik bolgarlar bir-biriga yaqin bo'lgan hukmron kastani tuzdilar. [47]

Muvaffaqiyatli hukmdorlar VIII -IX asrlar davomida Bolgariya davlatini mustahkamladilar. Krum yozma qonun kodeksini [48] kiritdi va Pliska jangida Vizantiyaning katta hujumini tekshirdi, bunda Vizantiya imperatori Nefor I o'ldirildi. [49] Boris I 864 yilda sharqiy pravoslav xristianlik foydasiga butparastlikni bekor qildi. Konvertatsiyadan keyin Bolgariya cherkovi Vizantiya tomonidan tan olindi [50] va poytaxt Preslavda ishlab chiqilgan kirill alifbosi qabul qilindi. [51] Umumiy til, din va yozuv markaziy hokimiyatni mustahkamladi va asta -sekin slavyanlar va bolgarlarni yagona slavyan tilida so'zlashadigan birlashgan xalqga aylantirdi. [52] [51] Oltin asr 34 yillik Buyuk Shimo'n hukmronligi davrida boshlandi, u davlatning eng katta hududiy kengayishini nazorat qildi. [53]

Shimo'n vafotidan so'ng, Bolgariya Magyarlar va Pecheneglar bilan bo'lgan urushlar va Bogomil bid'atining tarqalishi tufayli zaiflashdi. [52] [54] Preslav 971 yilda Vizantiya armiyasi tomonidan Rossiya va Vizantiya ketma -ket bosqinlaridan so'ng bosib olindi. [52] Imperiya qisqa vaqt ichida Samuil ostidagi hujumlardan qutuldi, [55] lekin bu Vizantiya imperatori Basil II 1014 yilda Klyuchda Bolgariya qo'shinini mag'lub etishi bilan tugadi. Samuil jangdan ko'p o'tmay vafot etdi [56] va 1018 yilga kelib Vizantiyaliklar bosib olindi. Birinchi Bolgariya imperiyasi. [57] Fathdan keyin Basil II mahalliy zodagonlar hukmronligini saqlab, qo'zg'olonlarning oldini oldi, ularni Vizantiya byurokratiyasi va aristokratiyasiga qo'shib, o'z erlarini oltinga soliq to'lash majburiyatidan ozod qilib, o'rniga natura bo'yicha soliq solishga ruxsat berdi. [58] [59] Bolgariya Patriarxiyasi arxiyepiskoplikka aylantirildi, lekin avtosefal maqomini va yeparxiyasini saqlab qoldi. [59] [58]

Ikkinchi Bolgariya imperiyasi

Vizantiya ichki siyosati Basil vafotidan keyin o'zgardi va bir qator muvaffaqiyatsiz qo'zg'olonlar boshlandi, ularning eng kattasi Piter Delyan edi. Imperiya hokimiyati Manzikertda saljuqiy bosqinchilariga qarshi halokatli harbiy mag'lubiyatdan so'ng pasayib ketdi va salib yurishlari uni yanada bezovta qildi. Bu Vizantiyaning ellinizatsiyaga urinishlariga to'sqinlik qildi va keyingi qo'zg'olon uchun qulay zamin yaratdi. 1185 yilda Asen sulolasi zodagonlari Ivan Asen I va Pyotr IV katta qo'zg'olon uyushtirib, Bolgariya davlatini qayta tiklashga muvaffaq bo'lishdi. Ivan Asen va Butrus poytaxti Tarnovo shahrida Ikkinchi Bolgariya imperiyasining asosini qo'yishdi. [60]

Asen monarxlarining uchinchisi bo'lgan Kaloyan o'z hukmronligini Belgrad va Ohridga kengaytirdi. U papaning ruhiy ustunligini tan oldi va papa merosidan qirollik tojini oldi. [61] Imperiya Ivan Asen II (1218–1241) davrida o'z cho'qqisiga chiqdi, uning chegaralari Albaniya, Serbiya va Epirus sohillariga qadar kengayib, tijorat va madaniyat rivojlandi. [61] [60] Ivan Asen hukmronligi diniy masalalarda ham Rimdan uzoqlashishi bilan ajralib turardi. [62]

Asen sulolasi 1257 yilda yo'q bo'lib ketdi. Ichki to'qnashuvlar, Vizantiya va Vengriyaning tinimsiz hujumlari natijasida mo'g'ullar Bolgariya davlati ustidan hukmronlik qilishdi. [61] [62] 1277 yilda cho'chqachi Ivaylo katta dehqon qo'zg'olonini boshqarib, mo'g'ullarni Bolgariyadan quvib chiqarib, qisqa vaqt ichida uni imperator qilib oldi. [63] [60] U 1280 yilda feodal yer egalari tomonidan ag'darildi, [63] ularning fraktsion nizolari 14 -asrga kelib Ikkinchi Bolgariya imperiyasi mayda feodal hukmronliklariga parchalanishiga olib keldi. [60] Bu tarqoq davlatlar - Vidin va Tarnovodagi ikkita podshohlik va Dobrudja despotasi - janubi -sharqdan keladigan yangi tahdid: Usmonli turklari uchun oson o'ljaga aylandi. [61]

Usmonli hukmronligi

Usmonlilar 1340 -yillarda Vizantiyaliklar tomonidan yollanma askar sifatida yollangan, lekin keyinchalik o'z -o'zidan bosqinchilarga aylangan. [64] Sultonmurod I Adrianopolni 1362 yilda Vizantiyadan oldi, 1382 yilda Sofiya yiqildi, 1388 yilda Shumen. [64] Usmonlilar Bolgariya erlarini bosib olishni 1393 yilda Tarnovo uch oylik qamal va jangdan keyin ishdan bo'shatilganida yakunladilar. 1396 yilda Vidin podshohligining qulashiga olib kelgan Nikopolis. Sozopol 1453 yilda bolgarlar qulagan oxirgi aholi punkti edi. [65] Bolgar zodagonlari keyinchalik yo'q qilindi va dehqonlar Usmonli xo'jayinlariga berildi. [64] bilimli ruhoniylar boshqa davlatlarga qochib ketishdi. [66]

Bolgarlarga og'ir soliqlar (shu jumladan devshirme yoki qon solig'i), ularning madaniyati bostirildi [66] va ular qisman islomlashtirishni boshdan kechirdilar. [67] Usmonli hukumati Rum Millet deb nomlangan diniy ma'muriy jamoani tuzdi, u millatidan qat'i nazar barcha pravoslav xristianlarni boshqargan. [68] O'shanda mahalliy aholining ko'pchiligi asta -sekin o'ziga xos milliy ongini yo'qotib, faqat o'z e'tiqodidan kelib chiqqan. [69] [70] Ayrim monastirlarda qolgan ruhoniylar etnik identifikatsiyasini saqlab qolishdi, bu uning uzoq qishloqlarda [71] va mamlakat shimoli -g'arbidagi jangari katolik jamoasida omon qolishiga imkon berdi. [72]

Usmonli hokimiyati zaiflasha boshlagach, Avstriya va Rossiyaning Xabsburg shahri bolgar xristianlarini potentsial ittifoqchilar sifatida ko'rdi. Avstriyaliklar birinchi bo'lib 1598 yilda Tarnovodagi qo'zg'olonni, keyin 1686 yilda ikkinchi qo'zg'olonni, 1688 yildagi Chiprovtsi qo'zg'olonini va 1689 yildagi Karposh qo'zg'olonini qo'llab -quvvatladilar. [73] Rossiya imperiyasi, shuningdek, shartnoma bilan Usmonli erlaridagi nasroniylarning himoyachisi sifatida o'zini ko'rsatdi. 1774 yildagi Kichik Kaynarca. [73]

18 -asrda G'arbiy Evropa ma'rifati Bolgariyaning milliy uyg'onishining boshlanishiga ta'sir ko'rsatdi. [64] U milliy ongni tikladi va ozodlik kurashining mafkuraviy asosini yaratdi, natijada 1876 yil aprel qo'zg'oloni bo'ldi. Usmonli hukumati isyonni bostirgani uchun 30 minggacha bolgar o'ldirilgan. Qirg'inlar buyuk davlatlarni harakatga undadi. [74] Ular 1876 yilda Konstantinopol konferentsiyasini chaqirishdi, lekin ularning qarorlari Usmonlilar tomonidan rad etildi. Bu Rossiya imperiyasiga, Qrim urushida bo'lgani kabi, boshqa buyuk davlatlar bilan to'qnashuvni xavf ostiga qo'ymasdan, harbiy echim izlashga imkon berdi. [74] 1877 yilda Rossiya Usmonlilarga urush e'lon qildi va bolgar qo'zg'olonchilarining yordami bilan ularni mag'lub etdi, ayniqsa Shipka dovonidagi muhim jang paytida, bu Rossiya Konstantinopolga boradigan asosiy yo'l ustidan nazoratni ta'minladi. [75] [76]

Uchinchi Bolgariya davlati

1878 yil 3 martda San -Stefano shartnomasi Rossiya va Usmonli imperiyasi tomonidan imzolandi. Bu taxminan Ikkinchi Bolgariya imperiyasi [77] [78] hududlarida, Moeziya, Makedoniya va Frakiya hududlarini o'z ichiga olgan muxtor bolgar knyazligini tashkil qilish edi [77] [78] va bu kun hozirda Milliy ozodlik kuni deb nomlanadi. [79] Boshqa Buyuk Davlatlar Bolqon yarim orolidagi bunday yirik davlat ularning manfaatlariga tahdid solishi mumkinligidan qo'rqib, shartnomani darhol rad etishdi. U 13 iyulda imzolangan Berlin shartnomasi bilan almashtirildi. Bu Bolgariya Knyazligi, faqat Moziya va Sofiya viloyatini o'z ichiga olgan va etnik bolgarlarning katta aholisini yangi mamlakat tashqarisida qoldiradigan ancha kichik davlatni nazarda tutgan. [77] [80] Bu 20 -asrning birinchi yarmida Bolgariyaning tashqi ishlar bo'yicha militaristik yondashuviga katta hissa qo'shdi. [81]

Bolgariya knyazligi Serbiyaga qarshi urushda g'alaba qozondi va 1885 yilda Usmonlilarning yarim avtonom hududini Sharqiy Rumeliya tarkibiga qo'shib, 1908 yil 5 oktyabrda o'zini mustaqil davlat deb e'lon qildi. [82] Mustaqillikdan keyingi yillarda Bolgariya tobora militarizatsiya qilindi va uni tez-tez shunday deb atashdi. "Bolqon Prussiyasi". [83] U 1912-1918 yillar oralig'idagi ketma -ket uchta to'qnashuvda qatnashdi - ikkita Bolqon urushi va Birinchi jahon urushi, Ikkinchi Bolqon urushidagi halokatli mag'lubiyatdan so'ng, Bolgariya ittifoqchi bo'lgani uchun yana mag'lubiyatga uchradi. Birinchi jahon urushidagi markaziy kuchlar 1.200.000 kishilik armiyada [84] [85] aholining to'rtdan biridan ko'prog'ini to'plaganiga qaramay, mamlakat 1918 yilda taslim bo'lgan. Doiran va Monastirda bir qancha hal qiluvchi g'alabalarga erishgan. yo'qotishlar va jami 87500 askar halok bo'ldi. [86] Yo'qotilgan hududlardan 253 mingdan ziyod qochqin 1912 yildan 1929 yilgacha Bolgariyaga hijrat qilib, [87] allaqachon vayron bo'lgan milliy iqtisodiyotga qo'shimcha yuk tushirdi. [88]

Natijada yuzaga kelgan siyosiy tartibsizliklar Tsar Boris III (1918–1943) tomonidan qirol avtoritar diktaturasini o'rnatishga olib keldi. Bolgariya Ikkinchi Jahon Urushiga 1941 yilda "Axis" a'zosi sifatida kirdi, lekin Barbarossa operatsiyasida qatnashishdan bosh tortdi va yahudiy aholisini kontslagerlarga deportatsiyadan qutqardi. [89] 1943 yil o'rtalarida Boris III ning to'satdan vafot etishi mamlakatni siyosiy tartibsizlikka olib keldi, chunki Germaniya bilan urush boshlandi va kommunistik partizanlik harakati kuchayib ketdi. Keyinchalik Bogdan Filov hukumati ittifoqchilar bilan tinchlikka erisha olmadi. Bulgaria did not comply with Soviet demands to expel German forces from its territory, resulting in a declaration of war and an invasion by the USSR in September 1944. [90] The communist-dominated Fatherland Front took power, ended participation in the Axis and joined the Allied side until the war ended. [91] Bulgaria suffered little war damage and the Soviet Union demanded no reparations. But all wartime territorial gains, with the notable exception of Southern Dobrudzha, were lost. [92]

The left-wing coup d'état of 9 September 1944 led to the abolition of the monarchy and the executions of some 1,000–3,000 dissidents, war criminals, and members of the former royal elite. [93] [94] [95] But it was not until 1946 that a one-party people's republic was instituted following a referendum. [96] It fell into the Soviet sphere of influence under the leadership of Georgi Dimitrov (1946–1949), who established a repressive, rapidly industrializing Stalinist state. [92] By the mid-1950s standards of living rose significantly and political repressions eased. [97] [98] The Soviet-style planned economy saw some experimental market-oriented policies emerging under Todor Zhivkov (1954–1989). [99] Compared to wartime levels, national GDP increased five-fold and per capita GDP quadrupled by the 1980s, [100] although severe debt spikes took place in 1960, 1977 and 1980. [101] Zhivkov's daughter, Lyudmila, bolstered national pride by promoting Bulgarian heritage, culture and arts worldwide. [102] Facing declining birth rates among the ethnic Bulgarian majority, in 1984 Zhivkov's government forced the minority ethnic Turks to adopt Slavic names in an attempt to erase their identity and assimilate them. [103] These policies resulted in the emigration of some 300,000 ethnic Turks to Turkey. [104] [105]

The Communist Party was forced to give up its political monopoly on 10 November 1989 under the influence of the Revolutions of 1989. Zhivkov resigned and Bulgaria embarked on a transition to a parliamentary democracy. [106] The first free elections in June 1990 were won by the Communist Party, now rebranded as the Bulgarian Socialist Party. [107] A new constitution that provided for a relatively weak elected president and for a prime minister accountable to the legislature was adopted in July 1991. [108] The new system initially failed to improve living standards or create economic growth—the average quality of life and economic performance remained lower than under communism well into the early 2000s. [109] After 2001 economic, political and geopolitical conditions improved greatly, [110] and Bulgaria achieved high Human Development status in 2003. [111] It became a member of NATO in 2004 [112] and participated in the War in Afghanistan. After several years of reforms it joined the European Union and single market in 2007 despite Brussels' concerns about government corruption. [113] Bulgaria hosted the 2018 Presidency of the Council of the European Union at the National Palace of Culture in Sofia. [114]

Bulgaria is a small country situated in Southeastern Europe, in the east of the Balkans. Its territory covers an area of 110,994 square kilometres (42,855 sq mi), while its land borders with its five neighbouring countries have a total length of 1,808 kilometres (1,123 mi), and its coastline has a length of 354 kilometres (220 mi). [115] Bulgaria's geographic coordinates are 43° N 25° E. [116] The most notable topographical features of the country are the Danubian Plain, the Balkan Mountains, the Thracian Plain, and the Rila-Rhodope massif. [115] The southern edge of the Danubian Plain slopes upward into the foothills of the Balkans, while the Danube defines the border with Romania. The Thracian Plain is roughly triangular, beginning southeast of Sofia and broadening as it reaches the Black Sea coast. [115]

The Balkan mountains run laterally through the middle of the country from west to east. The mountainous southwest has two distinct alpine type ranges—Rila and Pirin, which border the lower but more extensive Rhodope Mountains to the east, and various medium altitude mountains to west, northwest and south, like Vitosha, Osogovo and Belasitsa. [115] Musala, at 2,925 metres (9,596 ft), is the highest point in both Bulgaria and the Balkans. The Black Sea coast is the country's lowest point. [116] Plains occupy about one third of the territory, while plateaux and hills occupy 41%. [117] Most rivers are short and with low water levels. The longest river located solely in Bulgarian territory, the Iskar, has a length of 368 kilometres (229 mi). The Struma and the Maritsa are two major rivers in the south. [118] [115]

Bulgaria has a varied and changeable climate, which results from being positioned at the meeting point of the Mediterranean, Oceanic and Continental air masses combined with the barrier effect of its mountains. [115] Northern Bulgaria averages 1 °C (1.8 °F) cooler, and registers 200 millimetres (7.9 in) more precipitation, than the regions south of the Balkan mountains. Temperature amplitudes vary significantly in different areas. The lowest recorded temperature is −38.3 °C (−36.9 °F), while the highest is 45.2 °C (113.4 °F). [119] Precipitation averages about 630 millimetres (24.8 in) per year, and varies from 500 millimetres (19.7 in) in Dobrudja to more than 2,500 millimetres (98.4 in) in the mountains. Continental air masses bring significant amounts of snowfall during winter. [120]

Biodiversity and environment

The interaction of climatic, hydrological, geological and topographical conditions has produced a relatively wide variety of plant and animal species. [121] Bulgaria's biodiversity, one of the richest in Europe, [122] is conserved in three national parks, 11 nature parks, 10 biosphere reserves and 565 protected areas. [123] [124] [125] Ninety-three of the 233 mammal species of Europe are found in Bulgaria, along with 49% of butterfly and 30% of vascular plant species. [126] Overall, 41,493 plant and animal species are present. [126] Larger mammals with sizable populations include deer (106,323 individuals), wild boars (88,948), jackals (47,293) and foxes (32,326). Partridges number some 328,000 individuals, making them the most widespread gamebird. [127] A third of all nesting birds in Bulgaria can be found in Rila National Park, which also hosts Arctic and alpine species at high altitudes. [128] Flora includes more than 3,800 vascular plant species of which 170 are endemic and 150 are considered endangered. [121] A checklist of larger fungi in Bulgaria by the Institute of Botany identifies more than 1,500 species. [129] More than 35% of the land area is covered by forests. [130]

In 1998, the Bulgarian government adopted the National Biological Diversity Conservation Strategy, a comprehensive programme seeking the preservation of local ecosystems, protection of endangered species and conservation of genetic resources. [131] Bulgaria has some of the largest Natura 2000 areas in Europe covering 33.8% of its territory. [132] It also achieved its Kyoto Protocol objective of reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 30% from 1990 to 2009. [133]

Bulgaria ranks 30th in the 2018 Environmental Performance Index, but scores low on air quality. [134] Particulate levels are the highest in Europe, [135] especially in urban areas affected by automobile traffic and coal-based power stations. [136] [137] One of these, the lignite-fired Maritsa Iztok-2 station, is causing the highest damage to health and the environment in the European Union. [138] Pesticide use in agriculture and antiquated industrial sewage systems produce extensive soil and water pollution. [139] Water quality began to improve in 1998 and has maintained a trend of moderate improvement. Over 75% of surface rivers meet European standards for good quality. [140]

Bulgaria is a parliamentary democracy where the prime minister is the head of government and the most powerful executive position. [110] The political system has three branches—legislative, executive and judicial, with universal suffrage for citizens at least 18 years old. The Constitution also provides possibilities of direct democracy, namely petitions and national referenda. [141] Elections are supervised by an independent Central Election Commission that includes members from all major political parties. Parties must register with the commission prior to participating in a national election. [142] Normally, the prime minister-elect is the leader of the party receiving the most votes in parliamentary elections, although this is not always the case. [110]

Unlike the prime minister, presidential domestic power is more limited. The directly elected president serves as head of state and commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and has the authority to return a bill for further debate, although the parliament can override the presidential veto by a simple majority vote. [110] Political parties gather in the National Assembly, a body of 240 deputies elected to four-year terms by direct popular vote. The National Assembly has the power to enact laws, approve the budget, schedule presidential elections, select and dismiss the prime minister and other ministers, declare war, deploy troops abroad, and ratify international treaties and agreements. [143]

Overall, Bulgaria displays a pattern of unstable governments. [144] Boyko Borisov served three terms as prime minister since between 2009 and 2021, [145] when his centre-right, pro-EU party GERB won the general election and ruled as a minority government with 117 seats in the National Assembly. [146] His first government resigned on 20 February 2013 after nationwide protests caused by high costs of utilities, low living standards, corruption [147] and the perceived failure of the democratic system. The protest wave was notable for self-immolations, spontaneous demonstrations and a strong sentiment against political parties. [148]

The subsequent snap elections in May resulted in a narrow win for GERB, [149] but the Bulgarian Socialist Party eventually formed a government led by Plamen Oresharski after Borisov failed to secure parliamentary support. [150] [151] The Oresharski government resigned in July 2014 amid continuing large-scale protests. [152] [153] [154] A caretaker government took over [155] and called the October 2014 elections [156] which resulted in a third GERB victory, but a total of eight parties entered parliament. [157] Borisov formed a coalition [158] with several right-wing parties, but resigned again after the candidate backed by his party failed to win the 2016 Presidential election. The March 2017 snap election was again won by GERB, but with 95 seats in Parliament. They formed a coalition with the far-right United Patriots, who hold 27 seats. [145] Borisov's last cabinet saw a dramatic decrease in freedom of the press, and a number of corruption revelations that triggered yet another wave of mass protests in 2020. [159] [160] GERB came out first in the regular April 2021 election, but with its weakest result so far. [161] All other parties refused to form a government, [162] and after a brief deadlock, another elections were called for July 2021, with Stefan Yanev serving as an interim Prime Minister of a caretaker cabinet until then. [163]

Freedom House has reported a continuing deterioration of democratic governance after 2009, citing reduced media independence, stalled reforms, abuse of authority at the highest level and increased dependence of local administrations on the central government. [164] Bulgaria is still listed as "Free", with a political system designated as a semi-consolidated democracy, albeit with deteriorating scores. [164] The Democracy Index defines it as a "Flawed democracy". [165] A 2018 survey by the Institute for Economics and Peace reported that less than 15% of respondents considered elections to be fair. [166]

Legal system

Bulgaria has a civil law legal system. [167] The judiciary is overseen by the Ministry of Justice. The Supreme Administrative Court and the Supreme Court of Cassation are the highest courts of appeal and oversee the application of laws in subordinate courts. [142] The Supreme Judicial Council manages the system and appoints judges. The legal system is regarded by both domestic and international observers as one of Europe's most inefficient due to pervasive lack of transparency and corruption. [168] [169] [170] [171] [172] Law enforcement is carried out by organisations mainly subordinate to the Ministry of the Interior. [173] The General Directorate of National Police (GDNP) combats general crime and maintains public order. [174] GDNP fields 26,578 police officers in its local and national sections. [175] The bulk of criminal cases are transport-related, followed by theft and drug-related crime homicide rates are low. [176] The Ministry of the Interior also heads the Border Police Service and the National Gendarmerie—a specialized branch for anti-terrorist activity, crisis management and riot control. Counterintelligence and national security are the responsibility of the State Agency for National Security. [177]

Administrative divisions

Bulgaria is a unitary state. [178] Since the 1880s, the number of territorial management units has varied from seven to 26. [179] Between 1987 and 1999 the administrative structure consisted of nine provinces (oblasti, singular oblast). A new administrative structure was adopted in parallel with the decentralization of the economic system. [180] It includes 27 provinces and a metropolitan capital province (Sofia-Grad). All areas take their names from their respective capital cities. The provinces are subdivided into 265 municipalities. Municipalities are run by mayors, who are elected to four-year terms, and by directly elected municipal councils. Bulgaria is a highly centralized state where the Council of Ministers directly appoints regional governors and all provinces and municipalities are heavily dependent on it for funding. [142]

Largest cities and towns

Foreign relations and security

Bulgaria became a member of the United Nations in 1955 and since 1966 has been a non-permanent member of the Security Council three times, most recently from 2002 to 2003. [182] It was also among the founding nations of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) in 1975. Euro-Atlantic integration has been a priority since the fall of communism, although the communist leadership also had aspirations of leaving the Warsaw Pact and joining the European Communities by 1987. [183] [184] Bulgaria signed the European Union Treaty of Accession on 25 April 2005, [185] and became a full member of the European Union on 1 January 2007. [113] In addition, it has a tripartite economic and diplomatic collaboration with Romania and Greece, [186] good ties with China [187] and Vietnam [188] and a historical relationship with Russia. [189] [190] [191] [192]

Bulgaria deployed significant numbers of both civilian and military advisors in Soviet-allied countries like Nicaragua [193] and Libya during the Cold War. [194] The first deployment of foreign troops on Bulgarian soil since World War II occurred in 2001, when the country hosted six KC-135 Stratotanker aircraft and 200 support personnel for the war effort in Afghanistan. [25] International military relations were further expanded with accession to NATO in March 2004 [112] and the US-Bulgarian Defence Cooperation Agreement signed in April 2006. Bezmer and Graf Ignatievo air bases, the Novo Selo training range, and a logistics centre in Aytos subsequently became joint military training facilities cooperatively used by the United States and Bulgarian militaries. [195] [196] Despite its active international defence collaborations, Bulgaria ranks as among the most peaceful countries globally, tying 6th alongside Iceland regarding domestic and international conflicts, and 26th on average in the Global Peace Index. [166]

Domestic defence is the responsibility of the all-volunteer Bulgarian armed forces, composed of land forces, navy and an air force. The land forces consist of two mechanized brigades and eight independent regiments and battalions the air force operates 106 aircraft and air defence systems in six air bases, and the navy operates various ships, helicopters and coastal defence weapons. [197] Active troops dwindled from 152,000 in 1988 [198] to 31,300 in 2017, supplemented by 3,000 reservists and 16,000 paramilitary. [199] Inventory is mostly made up of Soviet equipment like Mikoyan MiG-29 and Sukhoi Su-25 jets, [200] S-300PT air defence systems [201] and SS-21 Scarab short-range ballistic missiles. [202]

Bulgaria has an open, upper middle income range market economy where the private sector accounts for more than 70% of GDP. [203] [204] From a largely agricultural country with a predominantly rural population in 1948, by the 1980s Bulgaria had transformed into an industrial economy with scientific and technological research at the top of its budgetary expenditure priorities. [205] The loss of COMECON markets in 1990 and the subsequent "shock therapy" of the planned system caused a steep decline in industrial and agricultural production, ultimately followed by an economic collapse in 1997. [206] [207] The economy largely recovered during a period of rapid growth several years later, [206] but the average salary of 1,036 leva ($615) per month remains the lowest in the EU. [208] More than a fifth of the labour force are employed on a minimum wage of $1.16 per hour. [209]

A balanced budget was achieved in 2003 and the country began running a surplus the following year. [210] Expenditures amounted to $21.15 billion and revenues were $21.67 billion in 2017. [211] Most government spending on institutions is earmarked for security. The ministries of defence, the interior and justice are allocated the largest share of the annual government budget, whereas those responsible for the environment, tourism and energy receive the least amount of funding. [212] Taxes form the bulk of government revenue [212] at 30% of GDP. [213] Bulgaria has some of the lowest corporate income tax rates in the EU at a flat 10% rate. [214] The tax system is two-tier. Value added tax, excise duties, corporate and personal income tax are national, whereas real estate, inheritance, and vehicle taxes are levied by local authorities. [215] Strong economic performance in the early 2000s reduced government debt from 79.6% in 1998 to 14.1% in 2008. [210] It has since increased to 28.7% of GDP by 2016, but remains the third lowest in the EU. [216]

The Yugozapaden planning area is the most developed region with a per capita gross domestic product (PPP) of $29,816 in 2018. [217] It includes the capital city and the surrounding Sofia Province, which alone generate 42% of national gross domestic product despite hosting only 22% of the population. [218] [219] GDP per capita (in PPS) and the cost of living in 2019 stood at 53 and 52.8% of the EU average (100%), respectively. [220] [221] National PPP GDP was estimated at $143.1 billion in 2016, with a per capita value of $20,116. [222] Economic growth statistics take into account illegal transactions from the informal economy, which is the largest in the EU as a percentage of economic output. [223] [224] The Bulgarian National Bank issues the national currency, lev, which is pegged to the euro at a rate of 1.95583 levа per euro. [225]

After several consecutive years of high growth, repercussions of the financial crisis of 2007–2008 resulted in a 3.6% contraction of GDP in 2009 and increased unemployment. [226] [227] Industrial output declined 10%, mining by 31%, and ferrous and metal production marked a 60% drop. [ iqtibos kerak ] Positive growth was restored in 2010 but intercompany debt exceeded $59 billion, meaning that 60% of all Bulgarian companies were mutually indebted. [228] By 2012, it had increased to $97 billion, or 227% of GDP. [229] The government implemented strict austerity measures with IMF and EU encouragement to some positive fiscal results, but the social consequences of these measures, such as increased income inequality and accelerated outward migration, have been "catastrophic" according to the International Trade Union Confederation. [230]

Siphoning of public funds to the families and relatives of politicians from incumbent parties has resulted in fiscal and welfare losses to society. [231] [232] Bulgaria ranks 71st in the Corruption Perceptions Index [233] and experiences the worst levels of corruption in the European Union, a phenomenon that remains a source of profound public discontent. [234] [235] Along with organized crime, corruption has resulted in a rejection of the country's Schengen Area application and withdrawal of foreign investment. [236] [237] [238] Government officials reportedly engage in embezzlement, influence trading, government procurement violations and bribery with impunity. [168] Government procurement in particular is a critical area in corruption risk. An estimated 10 billion leva ($5.99 billion) of state budget and European cohesion funds are spent on public tenders each year [239] nearly 14 billion ($8.38 billion) were spent on public contracts in 2017 alone. [240] A large share of these contracts are awarded to a few politically connected [241] companies amid widespread irregularities, procedure violations and tailor-made award criteria. [242] Despite repeated criticism from the European Commission, [238] EU institutions refrain from taking measures against Bulgaria because it supports Brussels on a number of issues, unlike Poland or Hungary. [234]

Structure and sectors

The labour force is 3.36 million people, [243] of whom 6.8% are employed in agriculture, 26.6% in industry and 66.6% in the services sector. [244] Extraction of metals and minerals, production of chemicals, machine building, steel, biotechnology, tobacco, food processing and petroleum refining are among the major industrial activities. [245] [246] [247] Mining alone employs 24,000 people and generates about 5% of the country's GDP the number of employed in all mining-related industries is 120,000. [248] [249] Bulgaria is Europe's fifth-largest coal producer. [249] [250] Local deposits of coal, iron, copper and lead are vital for the manufacturing and energy sectors. [251] The main destinations of Bulgarian exports outside the EU are Turkey, China and the United States, while Russia and Turkey are by far the largest import partners. Most of the exports are manufactured goods, machinery, chemicals, fuel products and food. [252] Two-thirds of food and agricultural exports go to OECD countries. [253]

Although cereal and vegetable output dropped by 40% between 1990 and 2008, [254] output in grains has since increased, and the 2016–2017 season registered the biggest grain output in a decade. [255] [256] Maize, barley, oats and rice are also grown. Quality Oriental tobacco is a significant industrial crop. [257] Bulgaria is also the largest producer globally of lavender and rose oil, both widely used in fragrances. [25] [258] [259] [260] Within the services sector, tourism is a significant contributor to economic growth. Sofia, Plovdiv, Veliko Tarnovo, coastal resorts Albena, Golden Sands and Sunny Beach and winter resorts Bansko, Pamporovo and Borovets are some of the locations most visited by tourists. [261] [262] Most visitors are Romanian, Turkish, Greek and German. [263] Tourism is additionally encouraged through the 100 Tourist Sites system. [264]

Fan va texnologiya

Spending on research and development amounts to 0.78% of GDP, [265] and the bulk of public R&D funding goes to the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (BAS). [266] Private businesses accounted for more than 73% of R&D expenditures and employed 42% of Bulgaria's 22,000 researchers in 2015. [267] The same year, Bulgaria ranked 39th out of 50 countries in the Bloomberg Innovation Index, the highest score being in education (24th) and the lowest in value-added manufacturing (48th). [268] Chronic government underinvestment in research since 1990 has forced many professionals in science and engineering to leave Bulgaria. [269]

Despite the lack of funding, research in chemistry, materials science and physics remains strong. [266] Antarctic research is actively carried out through the St. Kliment Ohridski Base on Livingston Island in Western Antarctica. [270] [271] The information and communication technologies (ICT) sector generates three per cent of economic output and employs 40,000 [272] to 51,000 software engineers. [273] Bulgaria was known as a "Communist Silicon Valley" during the Soviet era due to its key role in COMECON computing technology production. [274] The country is a regional leader in high performance computing: it operates Avitohol, the most powerful supercomputer in Southeast Europe, and will host one of the eight petascale EuroHPC supercomputers. [275] [276]

Bulgaria has made numerous contributions to space exploration. [277] These include two scientific satellites, more than 200 payloads and 300 experiments in Earth orbit, as well as two cosmonauts since 1971. [277] Bulgaria was the first country to grow wheat and vegetables in space with its Svet greenhouses on the Mir space station. [278] [279] It was involved in the development of the Granat gamma-ray observatory [280] and the Vega program, particularly in modelling trajectories and guidance algorithms for both Vega probes. [281] [282] Bulgarian instruments have been used in the exploration of Mars, including a spectrometer that took the first high quality spectroscopic images of Martian moon Phobos with the Phobos 2 probe. [277] [280] Cosmic radiation en route to and around the planet has been mapped by Liulin-ML dosimeters on the ExoMars TGO. [283] Variants of these instruments have also been fitted on the International Space Station and the Chandrayaan-1 lunar probe. [284] [285] Another lunar mission, SpaceIL's Beresheet, was also equipped with a Bulgarian-manufactured imaging payload. [286] Bulgaria's first geostationary communications satellite—BulgariaSat-1—was launched by SpaceX in 2017. [287]

Infratuzilma

Telephone services are widely available, and a central digital trunk line connects most regions. [288] Vivacom (BTC) serves more than 90% of fixed lines and is one of the three operators providing mobile services, along with A1 and Telenor. [289] [290] Internet penetration stood at 69.2% of the population aged 16–74 and 78.9% of households in 2020. [291] [292]

Bulgaria's strategic geographic location and well-developed energy sector make it a key European energy centre despite its lack of significant fossil fuel deposits. [293] Thermal power plants generate 48.9% of electricity, followed by nuclear power from the Kozloduy reactors (34.8%) and renewable sources (16.3%). [294] Equipment for a second nuclear power station at Belene has been acquired, but the fate of the project remains uncertain. [295] Installed capacity amounts to 12,668 MW, allowing Bulgaria to exceed domestic demand and export energy. [296]

The national road network has a total length of 19,512 kilometres (12,124 mi), [297] of which 19,235 kilometres (11,952 mi) are paved. Railroads are a major mode of freight transportation, although highways carry a progressively larger share of freight. Bulgaria has 6,238 kilometres (3,876 mi) of railway track [288] and currently a total of 81 kilometres (50 miles) of high-speed lines are in operation. [298] [299] Rail links are available with Romania, Turkey, Greece, and Serbia, and express trains serve direct routes to Kyiv, Minsk, Moscow and Saint Petersburg. [300] Sofia and Plovdiv are the country's air travel hubs, while Varna and Burgas are the principal maritime trade ports. [288]

The population of Bulgaria is 7,364,570 people according to the 2011 national census. The majority of the population, 72.5%, reside in urban areas. [301] As of 2019 [update] , Sofia is the most populated urban centre with 1,241,675 people, followed by Plovdiv (346,893), Varna (336,505), Burgas (202,434) and Ruse (142,902). [219] Bulgarians are the main ethnic group and constitute 84.8% of the population. Turkish and Roma minorities account for 8.8 and 4.9%, respectively some 40 smaller minorities account for 0.7%, and 0.8% do not self-identify with an ethnic group. [302] [303] Former Statistics head Reneta Indzhova has disputed the 2011 census figures, suggesting the actual population is smaller than reported. [304] [305] The Roma minority is usually underestimated in census data and may represent up to 11% of the population. [306] [307] Population density is 65 per square kilometre, almost half the European Union average. [308]

In 2018 the average total fertility rate (TFR) across Bulgaria was 1.56 children per woman, [309] below the replacement rate of 2.1, it remains considerably below the high of 5.83 children per woman in 1905. [310] Bulgaria subsequently has one of the oldest populations in the world, with the average age of 43 years. [311]

Bulgaria is in a state of demographic crisis. [312] [313] It has had negative population growth since the early 1990s, when the economic collapse caused a long-lasting emigration wave. [314] Some 937,000 to 1,200,000 people—mostly young adults—left the country by 2005. [314] [315] The majority of children are born to unmarried women. [316] Furthermore, a third of all households consist of only one person and 75.5% of families do not have children under the age of 16. [313] The resulting birth rates are among the lowest in the world [317] [318] while death rates are among the highest. [319]

High death rates result from a combination of an ageing population, a high number of people at risk of poverty and a weak healthcare system. [320] More than 80% of all deaths are due to cancer and cardiovascular conditions nearly a fifth of those are avoidable. [321] Although healthcare in Bulgaria is nominally universal, [322] out-of-pocket expenses account for nearly half of all healthcare spending, which significantly limits access to medical care. [323] Other problems disrupting care provision are the emigration of doctors due to low wages, understaffed and under-equipped regional hospitals, supply shortages and frequent changes to the basic service package for those insured. [324] [325] The 2018 Bloomberg Health Care Efficiency Index ranked Bulgaria last out of 56 countries. [326] Average life expectancy is 74.8 years compared with an EU average of 80.99 and a world average of 72.38. [327] [328]

Public expenditures for education are far below the European Union average as well. [329] Educational standards were once high, [330] but have declined significantly since the early 2000s. [329] Bulgarian students were among the highest-scoring in the world in terms of reading in 2001, performing better than their Canadian and German counterparts by 2006, scores in reading, math and science had dropped. By 2018, Programme for International Student Assessment studies found 47% of pupils in the 9th grade to be functionally illiterate in reading and natural sciences. [331] Average basic literacy stands high at 98.4% with no significant difference between sexes. [332] The Ministry of Education and Science partially funds public schools, colleges and universities, sets criteria for textbooks and oversees the publishing process. Education in primary and secondary public schools is free and compulsory. [330] The process spans through 12 grades, where grades one through eight are primary and nine through twelve are secondary level. Higher education consists of a 4-year bachelor degree and a 1-year master's degree. [333] Bulgaria's highest-ranked higher education institution is Sofia University. [334] [335]

Bulgarian is the only language with official status and native for 85% of the population. [336] It belongs to the Slavic group of languages, but it has a number of grammatical peculiarities, shared with its closest relative Macedonian, that set it apart from other Slavic languages: these include a complex verbal morphology (which also codes for distinctions in evidentiality), the absence of noun cases and infinitives, and the use of a suffixed definite article. [337] Other major languages are Turkish and Romani, which according to the 2011 census were spoken natively by 9.1% and 4.2% respectively.

The country scores high in gender equality, ranking 18th in the 2018 Global Gender Gap Report. [338] Although women's suffrage was enabled relatively late, in 1937, women today have equal political rights, high workforce participation and legally mandated equal pay. [338] In 2021, market research agency Reboot Online ranked Bulgaria as the best European country for women to work. [339] Bulgaria has the highest ratio of female ICT researchers in the EU, [340] as well as the second-highest ratio of females in the technology sector at 44.6% of the workforce. High levels of female participation are a legacy of the Socialist era. [341]

Din

More than three-quarters of Bulgarians subscribe to Eastern Orthodoxy. [342] Sunni Muslims are the second-largest religious community and constitute 10% of Bulgaria's overall religious makeup, although a majority of them are not observant and find the use of Islamic veils in schools unacceptable. [343] Less than 3% of the population are affiliated with other religions and 11.8% are irreligious or do not self-identify with a religion. [342] The Bulgarian Orthodox Church gained autocephalous status in AD 927, [344] [345] and has 12 dioceses and over 2,000 priests. [346] Bulgaria is a secular state with guaranteed religious freedom by constitution, but Orthodoxy is designated as a "traditional" religion. [347]

Contemporary Bulgarian culture blends the formal culture that helped forge a national consciousness towards the end of Ottoman rule with millennia-old folk traditions. [348] An essential element of Bulgarian folklore is fire, used to banish evil spirits and illnesses. Many of these are personified as witches, whereas other creatures like zmey and samodiva (veela) are either benevolent guardians or ambivalent tricksters. [349] Some rituals against evil spirits have survived and are still practised, most notably kukeri and survakari. [350] Martenitsa is also widely celebrated. [351] Nestinarstvo, a ritual fire-dance of Thracian origin, is included in the list of UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage. [352] [353]

Nine historical and natural objects are UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Pirin National Park, Sreburna Nature Reserve, the Madara Rider, the Thracian tombs in Sveshtari and Kazanlak, the Rila Monastery, the Boyana Church, the Rock-hewn Churches of Ivanovo and the ancient city of Nesebar. [354] The Rila Monastery was established by Saint John of Rila, Bulgaria's patron saint, whose life has been the subject of numerous literary accounts since Medieval times. [355]

The establishment of the Preslav and Ohrid literary schools in the 10th century is associated with a golden period in Bulgarian literature during the Middle Ages. [355] The schools' emphasis on Christian scriptures made the Bulgarian Empire a centre of Slavic culture, bringing Slavs under the influence of Christianity and providing them with a written language. [356] [357] [358] Its alphabet, Cyrillic script, was developed by the Preslav Literary School. [359] The Tarnovo Literary School, on the other hand, is associated with a Silver age of literature defined by high-quality manuscripts on historical or mystical themes under the Asen and Shishman dynasties. [355] Many literary and artistic masterpieces were destroyed by the Ottoman conquerors, and artistic activities did not re-emerge until the National Revival in the 19th century. [348] The enormous body of work of Ivan Vazov (1850–1921) covered every genre and touched upon every facet of Bulgarian society, bridging pre-Liberation works with literature of the newly established state. [355] Notable later works are Bay Ganyo by Aleko Konstantinov, the Nietzschean poetry of Pencho Slaveykov, the Symbolist poetry of Peyo Yavorov and Dimcho Debelyanov, the Marxist-inspired works of Geo Milev and Nikola Vaptsarov, and the Socialist realism novels of Dimitar Dimov and Dimitar Talev. [355] Tzvetan Todorov is a notable contemporary author, [360] while Bulgarian-born Elias Canetti was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1981. [361]

А religious visual arts heritage includes frescoes, murals and icons, many produced by the medieval Tarnovo Artistic School. [362] Like literature, it was not until the National Revival when Bulgarian visual arts began to reemerge. Zahari Zograf was a pioneer of the visual arts in the pre-Liberation era. [348] After the Liberation, Ivan Mrkvička, Anton Mitov, Vladimir Dimitrov, Tsanko Lavrenov and Zlatyu Boyadzhiev introduced newer styles and substance, depicting scenery from Bulgarian villages, old towns and historical subjects. Christo is the most famous Bulgarian artist of the 21st century, known for his outdoor installations. [348]

Folk music is by far the most extensive traditional art and has slowly developed throughout the ages as a fusion of Far Eastern, Oriental, medieval Eastern Orthodox and standard Western European tonalities and modes. [363] Bulgarian folk music has a distinctive sound and uses a wide range of traditional instruments, such as gadulka, gaida, kaval and tupan. A distinguishing feature is extended rhythmical time, which has no equivalent in the rest of European music. [25] The State Television Female Vocal Choir won a Grammy Award in 1990 for its performances of Bulgarian folk music. [364] Written musical composition can be traced back to the works of Yoan Kukuzel (c. 1280–1360), [365] but modern classical music began with Emanuil Manolov, who composed the first Bulgarian opera in 1890. [348] Pancho Vladigerov and Petko Staynov further enriched symphony, ballet and opera, which singers Ghena Dimitrova, Boris Christoff, Ljuba Welitsch and Nicolai Ghiaurov elevated to a world-class level. [348] [366] [367] [368] [369] [370] [371] Bulgarian performers have gained acclaim in other genres like electropop (Mira Aroyo), jazz (Milcho Leviev) and blends of jazz and folk (Ivo Papazov). [348]

The Bulgarian National Radio, bTV and daily newspapers Trud, Dnevnik va 24 Chasa are some of the largest national media outlets. [372] Bulgarian media were described as generally unbiased in their reporting in the early 2000s and print media had no legal restrictions. [373] Since then, freedom of the press has deteriorated to the point where Bulgaria scores 111th globally in the World Press Freedom Index, lower than all European Union members and membership candidate states. The government has diverted EU funds to sympathetic media outlets and bribed others to be less critical on problematic topics, while attacks against individual journalists have increased. [374] [375] Collusion between politicians, oligarchs and the media is widespread. [374]

Bulgarian cuisine is similar to that of other Balkan countries and demonstrates strong Turkish and Greek influences. [376] Yogurt, lukanka, banitsa, shopska salad, lyutenitsa and kozunak are among the best-known local foods. Meat consumption is lower than the European average, given a cultural preference for a large variety of salads. [376] Bulgaria was the world's second-largest wine exporter until 1989, but has since lost that position. [377] [378] The 2016 harvest yielded 128 million litres of wine, of which 62 million was exported mainly to Romania, Poland and Russia. [379] Mavrud, Rubin, Shiroka melnishka, Dimiat and Cherven Misket are the typical grapes used in Bulgarian wine. [380] Rakia is a traditional fruit brandy that was consumed in Bulgaria as early as the 14th century. [381]

Sport

Bulgaria appeared at the first modern Olympic games in 1896, when it was represented by gymnast Charles Champaud. [382] Since then, Bulgarian athletes have won 52 gold, 89 silver, and 83 bronze medals, [383] ranking 25th in the all-time medal table. Weight-lifting is a signature sport of Bulgaria. Coach Ivan Abadzhiev developed innovative training practices that have produced many Bulgarian world and Olympic champions in weight-lifting since the 1980s. [384] Bulgarian athletes have also excelled in wrestling, boxing, gymnastics, volleyball and tennis. [384] Stefka Kostadinova is the reigning world record holder in the women's high jump at 2.09 metres (6 feet 10 inches), achieved during the 1987 World Championships. [385] Grigor Dimitrov is the first Bulgarian tennis player in the Top 3 ATP Rankings. [386]

Football is the most popular sport in the country by a substantial margin. The national football team's best performance was a semi-final at the 1994 FIFA World Cup, when the squad was spearheaded by forward Hristo Stoichkov. [384] Stoichkov is the most successful Bulgarian player of all time he was awarded the Golden Boot and the Golden Ball and was considered one of the best in the world while playing for FC Barcelona in the 1990s. [387] [388] CSKA and Levski, both based in Sofia, [384] are the most successful clubs domestically and long-standing rivals. [389] Ludogorets is remarkable for having advanced from the local fourth division to the 2014–15 UEFA Champions League group stage in a mere nine years. [390] Placed 39th in 2018, it is Bulgaria's highest-ranked club in UEFA. [391]


Bulgaria History

A Soviet-style People's Republic was established in 1947 and Bulgaria acquired the reputation of being the most slavishly loyal to Moscow of all the East European Communist countries. The general secretary of the Bulgarian Communist Party, Todor Zhikov, resigned in 1989 after 35 years in power. His successor, Peter Mladenov, purged the Politburo, ended the Communist monopoly on power, and held free elections in May 1990 that led to a surprising victory for the Communist Party, renamed the Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP). Mladenov was forced to resign in July 1990.

In Oct. 1991, the Union of Democratic Forces won, forming Bulgaria's first non-Communist government since 1946. Power shifted back and forth between the pro-Western Union of Democratic Forces (UDF) and the BSP during the 1990s. The economy continued to deteriorate amid growing concern over the spread of organized crime. A new UDF government, led by Prime Minister Ivan Kostov, was elected in 1997 to overhaul the economic system and institute reforms aimed at stemming corruption. Progress on both fronts remained slow. As a result, the UDF lost the July 2001 election to the former king of Bulgaria, leader of the Simeon II National Movement (SNM). The new prime minister, Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (Simeon II), had been dethroned 55 years earlier (at age nine) during the Communist takeover of the country. Bulgaria became a member of NATO in 2004. In 2005, the EU approved its membership for 2007, subject to the implementation of reforms, especially the cleaning up of corruption and organized crime.

In June 2005 general elections, no party received a clear majority, and a coalition government was formed with Socialist Party leader Sergei Stanishev as the new prime minister. In 2007, Bulgaria joined the EU.

On July 23, 2008, the European commission suspended about 500 million euros of EU aid to Bulgaria due to suspicion of organized crime and corruption.

2009 yil yanvar oyida bir necha hafta davomida kuchli energiya tanqisligi Rossiya-Ukraina gaz mojarosi tufayli yuzaga keldi va hukumatning energetika siyosatiga nisbatan g'azabini keltirib chiqardi.


Videoni tomosha qiling: Bulgarien urlaub. Albena, Burgas, Varna, Nessebar, Goldstrand, Sonnenstrand. 4K Video. Bulgarien (Iyul 2022).


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