Hikoya

Dunyodagi birinchi suv osti kemasi hujumi

Dunyodagi birinchi suv osti kemasi hujumi


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

1776 yil 7 sentyabrda, inqilobiy urush paytida, Amerika suv osti kemasi Toshbaqa britaniyalik admiral Richard Xouning kema korpusiga vaqt bombasini o'rnatishga urinish Burgut Nyu -York portida. Bu suv osti kemasini urushda birinchi marta ishlatish edi.

Suv osti kemalari birinchi marta 17 -asr boshlarida Gollandiyalik ixtirochi Kornelius van Drebel tomonidan qurilgan, biroq 150 yildan keyin ular birinchi marta dengiz janglarida ishlatilgan. Devid Bushnell, amerikalik ixtirochi, Yel universiteti talabasi paytida suv osti konlarini qurishni boshladi. Suv osti kemasi o'z minalarini urushda etkazib berishning eng yaxshi vositasi bo'ladi deb qaror qilib, suvga cho'mdirilgan sakkiz metr uzunlikdagi yog'ochdan yasalgan suv osti kemasini qurdi. Toshbaqa shakli uchun. Suv osti kemasi bitta operatorni sig'dira oladigan darajada katta bo'lib, qo'lda ishlaydi. Qo'rg'oshin balasti mahoratni muvozanatlashtirdi.

1775 yilda Buyuk Britaniya bilan urush boshlanganidan keyin Patriotlar uchun xayriya qilgan Ezra Li, bu qurolni 64 qurolli HMSga sezdirmasdan uchirdi. Burgut 1776 yil 7 sentyabrda Nyu -York portida. Li vaqtli bombani korpusga mahkamlash uchun ishlayotganda, yuqoridagi kemada ingliz dengizchilarini ko'rdi, lekin ular er osti g'aroyib hunarini payqashmadi. Li bomba xavfsizligini deyarli ta'minlagan edi, chunki uning zerikarli asboblari temir qobiq qatlamiga kira olmadi. U orqaga chekindi va bomba yaqin atrofda portlab ketdi va hech kimga zarar etkazmadi Burgut yoki Toshbaqa.

Keyingi hafta davomida Toshbaqa Britaniya kemalarini Gudzon daryosiga cho'ktirishga yana bir necha bor urinib ko'rdi, lekin har safar operatorning mahoratining etishmasligi tufayli muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchradi. Faqat Bushnell suv osti kemasining murakkab vazifalarini chindan ham bajara oldi, lekin jismoniy ojizligi tufayli uchuvchini boshqarolmadi. Toshbaqa har qanday jangovar missiyalarda. Fort Li jangi paytida Toshbaqa uni tashiyotgan amerikalik shpal inglizlar tomonidan cho'ktirilganda yo'qolgan.

Muvaffaqiyatsizlikka qaramay Toshbaqa, General Jorj Vashington Bushnellga armiya muhandisi sifatida topshiriq berdi va u qurgan minalar ingliz fregatini vayron qildi. Sereberus va boshqa ingliz kemalariga katta zarar etkazdi. Urushdan keyin u AQShning West Pointda joylashgan muhandislar korpusi qo'mondoni bo'ldi.

KO'PROQ O'QING: 9 Er osti suv osti kemasi


Harbiy kema cho'kayotgan birinchi suv osti kemasi ortidagi hikoya

Yangi harbiy texnologiyani sinovdan o'tkazishda operatorlar uchun har doim xavf tug'iladi. Sinov uchuvchilari reaktiv samolyotlarning dastlabki kunlarida dahshatli o'lim ko'rsatkichlarini boshdan kechirishdi va MV-22 Osprey ishlab chiqish jarayonida bir qator halokatli baxtsiz hodisalarni boshdan kechirdi, shu jumladan 2000 yilda bitta halokatda dengiz piyodalari.

Amaliy suv osti kemasini qurishga urinish paytida Konfederatsiyaning boshiga tushgan bir qator baxtsizliklar, urush paytida xavfsizlik standartlari derazadan qanchalik uzoqqa chiqib ketishini ko'rsatadi.

Fuqarolik urushi paytida, 1864 yilda Charlston portining tashqarisida, suyak-sovuq sovuq kechada, Ittifoq Harbiy-dengiz flotining eng yirik kemalaridan biri blokadani ushlab turish bilan shug'ullanadigan to'xtovsiz patrullik qilardi. USS Housatonic, 1260 tonna, 11 qurolli, Charleston portini blokirovka qilish va vaqti-vaqti bilan qirg'oq nishonlarini bir yildan ko'proq bombardimon qilish vazifasini olgan.

Odatdagidek, eng monoton vazifalar, tarixiy burilish yasadi, soatlar ofitseri qirg'oqdan Housatonicga yaqinlashib kelayotgan g'alati pastda suzuvchi narsani ko'rdi. Qorong'ida ob'ekt nima ekanligi haqida chalkashlikdan so'ng, signal signal berildi va shpal kechiktirildi.

Dengiz osti kemasi CSS H.L. Hunley tomonidan dunyodagi birinchi jangovar kemaga qarshi muvaffaqiyatli hujum davom etmoqda.

Blokadani buzmoqchi bo'lgan janub

Fuqarolar urushi boshlanganidan boshlab, janubdagi barcha portlar general Uinfild Skottning Anakonda rejasi bo'yicha blokadaga olindi, u ham janubiy savdoni bo'g'ib tashlashga, ham oxir -oqibat Missisipi daryosi nazorati orqali janubni ikkiga bo'lishga intildi.

Janubiy iqtisodiyotni blokadaga olish keskin edi va Ittifoq flotini buzish uchun mo'ljallangan Konfederatsiya qurollarini ishlab chiqarishga olib keldi. Hampton yo'llaridagi jangda Konfederatsiyaning Merrimack bilan Union Monitor o'rtasidagi mashhur to'qnashuvi Konfederatsiyaning Virjiniyaning Chesapeake ko'rfazi ustidan bo'g'ozliklarini buzish harakatining bir qismi edi.

To'qnashuv birinchi marta to'liq zirhli jangovar kemalar bilan jangda yuzma -yuz keldi va natijalar noaniq bo'lsa -da, ular G'arbiy dunyo bo'ylab dengiz strategiyasida katta o'zgarishlarni ko'rsatdi. Dengiz texnologiyasidagi boshqa yangiliklar, suv osti kemasi kabi edi, bu g'oya hech bo'lmaganda Leonardo Da Vinchigacha bo'lgan.

Agar dastlab muvaffaqiyatsiz bo'lsa, qaytadan urinib ko'ring

Er osti kemalarini olib chiqish uchun suv osti kemasidan foydalanish g'oyasi yangi emas edi. Amerika inqilobi paytida, Yel bakalavri Devid Bushnell ingliz kemalariga vaqtli bombalar bilan hujum qilish uchun bir nechta urinishda kichik rulda va tutqichli vintli, bir barrelga o'xshash, bir kishilik kichik konvertatsiyadan foydalangan, ammo har bir urinish muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchragan. Yoki oqim hujumni bartaraf etdi, yoki oddiy bomba portlay olmadi.

Fuqarolar urushi boshlanganidan keyingina, nisbatan samarali, odamlar tomonidan yaratilgan dizaynlar paydo bo'ldi. Frantsuz Brutus de Villeroy tomonidan ishlab chiqilgan USS Alligator Ittifoq tomonidan sotib olingan. Dastlab, temir to'siqni yo'q qilish bilan keraksiz bo'lib qolgan Merrimackni yo'q qilish vazifasi qo'yilgan edi, u Charlestonga hujum qilish uchun olib ketilayotganda, yomon ob -havoda cho'kdi.

Hujumni muvaffaqiyatli amalga oshirgan birinchi suv osti kemasi Xonli konfederatsiyasiga topshirildi.

Suv osti kemasining ismi Horace L. Xunli urush boshlangunga qadar advokat, ekuvchi, Luiziana shtati qonun chiqaruvchisi va Nyu -Orlean tadbirkorligi bo'yicha turli kasblarga ega edi. 1861 yilda u muhandislar Jeyms R. Makklintok va Bakster Uotson bilan birlashib, Konfederatsiyaning birinchi uchta suv osti kemasini qurdi: Pioner, Amerika sho'ng'uvchisi va Xunli.

Dastlabki ikkita konstruktsiya joylashtirilgunga qadar yo'qoldi, Pioner Ittifoqni qo'lga kiritmasligi va yomon ob -havoda cho'kib ketmasligi uchun skutt qilindi. Xunli - bu uchinchi va oxirgi urinish.

Bug 'qozonidan yasalgan Hunley 40 fut uzunlikda edi va yetti kishi qo'l krankini aylantirdi, ofitser uchuvchi edi. Qayiq nihoyatda tor edi, korpusining balandligi to'rt futdan oshdi va lyuklari shu qadar tor ediki, qochib qutulish qiyinlashdi. Balast nasoslarning barchasi qo'lda boshqarilgan va sho'ng'in boshqaruvi eng yaxshi holatda edi.

Maqsadli barjani ajoyib tarzda yo'q qilish uchun tortilgan torpedo yordamida istiqbolli sinovdan so'ng, Xunli tezda blokadada va muntazam bombardimon qilinayotgan Charlestonga jo'natildi. Suv osti kemasi Konfederatsiya garnizoni tomonidan xususiy egalaridan tortib olingan va harbiylar tomonidan boshqarilgan, ammo Xunli va uning sheriklari maslahatchi bo'lib qolishgan. Suv osti kemasini joylashtirishga shoshilish bir qancha fojialarga olib keldi.

Sinov chog'ida Xunli cho'kib ketayotganda, kapitan tasodifan sho'ng'in boshqaruvini urdi va beshta erkak hayotdan ko'z yumdi. Qo'rqmaslik uchun, qayiq ko'tarildi va sinov yana boshlandi.

Oddiy kapitan, podpolkovnik Jorj Dikson bir nechta muvaffaqiyatli sho'ng'ishni tugatgandan so'ng, ta'tilda bo'lmaganida, Xunlining o'zi mashg'ulotlarga qatnashdi. Suv osti kemasi cho'kib ketdi va yana ochilmadi, ehtimol yana bir ochiq lyuk tufayli.

Konfederativ general P.G.T.Boregard bundan keyin shunday deb yozgan edi: "Qayiq kashf etilganda, ko'tarilganda va ochilganda, tomoshani tasvirlab bo'lmaydi va dahshatli tarzda baxtsiz odamlar har xil dahshatli munosabatlarga tushib qolishgan". Xunli o'z ijodi bilan o'ldirilgan edi.

Baxtsiz hodisadan dahshatga tushgan Beauregard dastlab suv osti kemasi dasturini davom ettirishdan bosh tortdi, lekin Dikson uni boshqacha ishontirdi. "Bu fojiali voqeadan keyin men qayiqni qayta ishlatishga ruxsat berishdan bosh tortdim, lekin dadil va qat'iyatli leytenant Dikson Charlstonga qaytib kelib, uni federal harbiy gumbazli" Housatonic "ga qarshi ishlatish huquqini so'radi."

Er ostidan o'lim

Qurol-yarog '125 kilogrammli jangovar kallakni o'rnatadigan shpal torpedasi bilan almashtirildi. U o'zini kemaning yon tomoniga yopishtirish uchun mo'ljallangan, keyin suv osti kemasi orqaga chekinayotganda tortilgan arqon bilan portlatilgan. 1864 yil 17 -fevralda Xunli Charlston portining qirg'og'idan ikki yarim mil uzoqlikdagi Housatonic -ga birinchi va yagona hujumini boshladi.

Hunlini 100 metr narida soat qo'riqchisi ko'rganidan so'ng, dahshatli signal paydo bo'ldi. Kema ekipaji suvda past bo'lgan va o'z kema yaqinidagi ob'ektni nishonga olmasligini aniqladi va langar zanjirini siljitib, hujumdan qochish uchun dvigatelni qo'llab -quvvatladi.

Xunley torpedani Housatonic -ga qarshi qo'yishga muvaffaq bo'ldi va portlash uchun orqaga chekinishni boshladi. Tushkunlikka tushib, kemaning ekipaji orqaga chekinayotgan suv osti kemasini miltiq va to'pponcha bilan o'qqa tuta boshladi, lekin juda kech va juda kech edi. "Housatonic" da kuchli portlash sodir bo'ldi va besh daqiqa ichida kema butunlay suv ostida qoldi. Uning ekipajining besh a'zosi hujumda halok bo'ldi, 150 kishi qutqarildi.

Xunliga nima bo'lgani noma'lum. Ko'pchilik u torpedaning portlashi natijasida cho'kib ketganiga ishonishgan bo'lsa -da, suv osti kemasi dastlabki hujumdan omon qolgan va noma'lum sabablarga ko'ra cho'kib ketgan deb taxmin qilinadi. Suv osti kemasidan kelishilgan ko'k chiroq, bazaga qaytish belgisi sifatida, qirg'oqdan ko'rindi, lekin Xunli qaytmadi.

Xunleyni topish

2000 yil 8 -avgust, Charleston bandargohidan sog'ayib ketganda, kranni to'xtatib qo'ygan konfederativ suv osti kemasi XL Xunli.

Hunley cho'kib ketganidan keyin uni topishga ko'p urinishlar qilingan. Taniqli shoumen P.T. Barnum hatto topa oladigan har bir kishiga 100 ming dollar mukofot taklif qilgan. Dengizga oid ko'plab trillerlar muallifi, yozuvchi Kliv Kussler 15 yil davomida o'z suv osti dengiz milliy agentligi bilan uni qidirganidan so'ng, uning joylashuvi 1995 yilgacha aniq tasdiqlanmagan. Suv osti kemasi loy bilan qoplangan edi va uni topish uchun magnitometr kerak bo'ldi.

Qayta tiklash operatsiyasidan so'ng, kema nihoyat 2000 yilda ko'tarildi. U Janubiy Karolina shtatiga sovg'a qilingan va hozirda sobiq Charleston Navy Yardidagi Uorren Laschni saqlash markazida istiqomat qiladi, u erda u hali o'rganilmoqda.

"Hunley" kashshof kemasi bo'lib, birinchi marta suv osti kemasi dushman kemasiga muvaffaqiyatli hujum qilib, uni cho'ktirdi. Rivojlanish davrida hayot uchun to'langan narx juda og'ir edi, Horace Xunli o'zi ham yumshoq va ibtidoiy texnologiya qurboniga aylandi.

Ammo, suzuvchi temir tobutdan ko'ra, yana va yana o'zlarini cho'ktirishga tayyor bo'lgan erkaklar ko'rsatgan jasoratni inkor etib bo'lmaydi va bo'g'ib qo'yilgan blokadani yiqitish uchun fojia oldida ko'rsatgan qat'iyat, eng innovatsion va qiziquvchanlardan biridir. fuqarolar urushidan keyingi epizodlar.


Kaplumbağani qurish

Via: Dive Master King, Wikimedia Commons - https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0

Amerika inqilobining boshlanishiga yaqin, Devid Bushnell ismli ixtirochi amerikalik turli militsionerlar Britaniya kemalarini himoya qilishda o'ta qiyinchiliklarga duch kelganini tan oldi. Bu muammolarning sababi shundaki, Britaniya dengiz floti mojaro boshlanganda cho'qqisida bo'lgani uchun har qanday dengiz janglarida g'alaba qozonish juda qiyin bo'lgan.

Natijada, Bushnell, Buyuk Britaniyaning kemalarini olib tashlashning eng yaxshi usuli, yashirin operatsiyalar orqali amalga oshiriladi, deb qaror qildi. Bu muhim vazifani bajarish uchun Bushnell suv osti portlashlari haqidagi tajribasini va suv osti kemalari haqidagi bilimini birlashtirdi.

Yakuniy natija-g'aroyib shaklidagi suv osti kemasi bo'lib, u (amalda) Angliyaning eng yaxshi kemalariga portlovchi moddalarni biriktira oladi. Eksperimental kemani qurish uchun Bushnell tar bilan bo'yalgan ikkita po'lat qobiqdan foydalangan va ularni temir qavslar bilan mustahkamlagan. Suv osti kemasini ishlatish uchun parvona va qo'lda nasos o'rnatildi, bu esa suv osti suv osti kemasini ko'tarish va tushirish imkonini berdi.


Tarkibi

Amerikalik ixtirochi Devid Bushnell Amerikaning Mustaqillik urushi paytida Britaniya dengiz blokadasini olib tashlash uchun ishlatiladigan suv osti kemasi g'oyasini ilgari surdi. Bushnell Yel kollejida suv osti portlashlarini o'rganishni boshlagan bo'lishi mumkin. 1775 yil boshiga kelib, u suv osti portlovchi moddalarini portlatish uchun ishonchli usulni yaratdi, bu maqsadga moslashtirilgan, miltiqli o'q otish mexanizmiga ulangan, ehtimol. [1]

1775 yil aprelda Lexington va Konkord janglaridan so'ng, Bushnell Old Saybruk yaqinida, dushman kema korpusiga portlovchi zaryad biriktirish uchun mo'ljallangan, yakka o'zi boshqariladigan suv osti kemasida ish boshladi. Katta soddaligi va tabiiy falsafa tamoyillari asosida qurilgan ". [2]

Bushnell ixtirosining kelib chiqishi, ilhomi va ta'siri haqida kam narsa ma'lum. Ko'rinib turibdiki, Bushnell Gollandiyalik ixtirochi Kornelius Drebbelning ishi haqida bilgan. [3]

Yel shahrida dars bergan doktor Benjamin Geylning so'zlariga ko'ra, suv osti kemasining ko'plab guruch va mexanik (harakatlanuvchi) qismlari Nyu-Xeyven soati ishlab chiqaruvchisi, o'ymakor, kumush ustasi, guruch ishlab chiqaruvchi va ixtirochi Isaak Dulitl tomonidan qurilgan [4]. uning do'koni Yel shahridan atigi yarim blok narida edi. [5] Bushnellga umumiy dizayn krediti berilgan bo'lsa -da Toshbaqa Geyl va boshqalar tomonidan, Doolittle "mohir mexanik" (ya'ni muhandis), o'yma va metallsoz sifatida yaxshi tanilgan. [4] U murakkab guruchli soatlar, 1769 yilda maunli matbaa dastgohlarini ishlab chiqardi va ishlab chiqardi (birinchi bo'lib Amerikada, Doolittle temir vintni muvaffaqiyatli takrorlaganidan keyin), [6] [7] guruchli kompas va geodeziya asboblari. U, shuningdek, guruch quyish zavodini qurdi va unga egalik qildi, u erda qo'ng'iroq qildi. Amerika inqilobi boshlanganda, boy va vatanparvar Doolittle Nyu -Xeyvenda ikkita sherigi bilan qurol -yarog 'tegirmonini qurdi va Konnektikut hukumati tomonidan qo'rg'oshin qidirish uchun yuborildi. [8]

Garchi dizayn Toshbaqa Mashina muhandisligi tajribasi va dizayn va ishlab chiqarish sohasidagi oldingi tajribasiga asoslanib, maxfiylik kafolatlangan edi [10], Doolittle guruch va uning harakatlanuvchi qismlarini loyihalashtirgan va yasagan (va ehtimol moliyalashtirilgan). Toshbaqa, [11] shu jumladan harakatlantiruvchi tizim, [12] navigatsiya asboblari, [13] guruchli oyoqli suv balasti va majburiy nasoslar, [14] chuqurlik o'lchagichi va kompas, [15] guruchli toj lyuki, [16] ] mina uchun soat ishi detonatori, [17] va qo'lda ishlaydigan pervaneli krank va oyoq bilan boshqariladigan yugurish. [18] Doktor Benjamin Geylning Benjamin Franklinga yozgan maktubiga ko'ra, Doolittle shuningdek, "kukunni etkazib beradigan va kemaning pastki qismiga mahkamlaydigan qismlar" konini biriktirish mexanizmini ham ishlab chiqqan. [19] tarixidagi eng muhim yangilik Toshbaqa bu pervanel edi, chunki u suv kemasida birinchi marta ishlatilgan: u "oldinga yoki orqaga eshkak eshish uchun", "hech qanday misoli bo'lmagan" dizayn bilan tasvirlangan [20] va doktor Benjamin Geylning maktubida. Silas Din "shamol tegirmonining qarama -qarshi ikki qo'li kabi mahkamlangan eshkaklar" [21] va "shamol tegirmonining qo'llariga o'xshash. Uzunligi o'n ikki dyuym va kengligi taxminan to'rtta" kabi "ikkita eshkak yoki belkurak" kabi. [22] Bu, ehtimol, guruch bo'lgani uchun, ehtimol Doolittle tomonidan ishlab chiqilgan va soxtalashtirilgan. [23] Doolittle, ehtimol, porox va qo'rg'oshin balastining kam ta'minlangan mahsulotlarini ham ta'minlagan. [24] Boy Dyulitl, Yellik talaba Bushnelldan qariyb 20 yosh katta, Yashilda Trinity episkop cherkovining asoschisi va uzoq vaqt qo'riqchisi bo'lgan, [25] va Nyu-Xeyven portlarini tekshirish va mayoq-signalizatsiya tizimlari uchun mas'ul bo'lgan. 26] [27] - Dulitlit binoni qurishda ko'p siyosiy va moliyaviy etakchilikni ta'minlaganligini ko'rsatadi Toshbaqa shuningdek, uning guruch va harakatlanuvchi qismlari.

Korpusni yasashda Bushnell bir nechta malakali hunarmandlarning xizmatlarini ko'rsatdi, ular orasida akasi dehqon Ezra Bushnell va kemachi duradgor Phineas Pratt ham bor edi, ikkalasi ham Devid Bushnell singari Saybrukdan. [28] Kema "qandaydir barrelga o'xshash va og'ir temirdan yasalgan halqalar bilan bog'langan emandan yasalgan". [29] Geylning aytishicha, korpusning shakli bir -biriga bog'langan toshbaqaning ikkita yuqori qobig'iga eng yaqin o'xshaydi. [30]

Uning shakli bilan nomlangan, Toshbaqa Uzunligi taxminan 10 fut (3,0 m), balandligi 6 fut (1,8 m) va kengligi 3 fut (0,9 m) bo'lgan toshbaqaga o'xshab, katta yog'ochga o'xshardi va ikkita yog'ochdan iborat edi. chig'anoqlar tar bilan qoplangan va po'lat bantlar bilan mustahkamlangan. [31] U suvni idishning pastki qismidagi mo''jaz tankga qo'yib, qo'l nasosi orqali suvni chiqarib ko'tarildi. U vertikal va gorizontal ravishda qo'lda kranklar yordamida harakatlantirildi. Bundan tashqari, bortida 200 funt (91 kg) qo'rg'oshin bor edi, uni bir lahzada qo'yib yuborish qobiliyatini oshirish mumkin edi. Bir kishi boshqaradigan va boshqariladigan kema taxminan o'ttiz daqiqaga etarlicha havoni o'z ichiga olgan va tinch suvda tezligi soatiga 3 mil (2,6 kn 4,8 km) bo'lgan. [31]

Suv osti kemasining yuqori qismidagi qalin shisha oltita bo'lak tabiiy yorug'likni ta'minladi. [31] Ichki asboblar qorong'uda o'z pozitsiyalarini bildirish uchun ignalarga yopishtirilgan bioluminescent foxfire kichik bo'laklari bor edi. 1775 yil noyabr oyida o'tkazilgan sinovlar paytida, Bushnell, harorat juda past bo'lganda, bu yorug'lik ishlamay qolganligini aniqladi. Mumkin bo'lgan alternativalar uchun Benjamin Franklinga qayta -qayta so'rovlar qilingan bo'lsa -da, hech kim kelmadi va Toshbaqa qishga chetda qoldi. [32]

Bushnellning asosiy dizayni oldingi eksperimental suv osti suvlarida mavjud bo'lgan ba'zi elementlarni o'z ichiga olgan. Kemani ko'tarish va tushirish usuli Nathaniel Simons tomonidan 1729 yilda ishlab chiqilganiga o'xshardi va ichki va tashqi boshqaruv elementlari orasidagi suv o'tkazmaydigan ulanish uchun ishlatiladigan qistirmalar, shuningdek, suv osti kemasini qurgan Simonsdan kelgan bo'lishi mumkin. Jovanni Alfonso Borellining 17-asrdagi Italiya dizayni. [33]

Bushnellni rejalashtirgan va qurganida asosiy tashvishlardan biri Toshbaqa moliyalashtirish edi.

Bu potentsial urush aktivining mavjudligini inglizlardan sir saqlashga qaratilgan mustamlakachilik sa'y -harakatlari tufayli Toshbaqa ko'pincha qisqa va sirli bo'ladi. Mavjud yozuvlarning aksariyati Bushnellning mablag 'so'rashiga tegishli. [34] Bushnell 1771 yil Konnektikut shtati gubernatori Jonatan Trumbull bilan moliyaviy yordam so'rab uchrashdi. Trumbull, shuningdek, Jorj Vashington va Tomas Jeffersonga so'rov yubordi. O'zini ixtirochi bo'lgan Jeffersonning imkoniyatlari qiziqtirgan, Vashington esa moliyalashtirish allaqachon cho'zilgan Kontinental Armiya mablag'larini ajratishga shubha bilan qaragan. Oxir -oqibat, Vashington, Trumbullning ta'siri tufayli, ba'zi mablag'larni berishga muvaffaq bo'ldi.

Dizayn jarayoniga bir qator nosozliklar sabab bo'ldi. Ayniqsa, kon 1771 yildan 1776 yilgacha qurilishi kutilganidan bir necha marta kechiktirildi Toshbaqa, bundan tashqari, katta jismoniy chidamlilik va muvofiqlashtirishni talab qildi. Operator suv osti kemasining old tomonida joylashgan pervaneli krank yordamida o'z yurishini ta'minlayotganda, cho'kib ketmaslik uchun oqsilni sozlab qo'yishi kerak edi. orqada rul. Xabar qilinishicha, salonda faqat o'ttiz daqiqa foydalanish uchun havo bor edi. Shundan so'ng, operator ventilyator orqali havoni to'ldirishi va to'ldirishi kerak bo'ladi. Shubhasiz, mashinaning murakkab tabiati tufayli loyihaning muvaffaqiyatini ta'minlash uchun o'qitish kerak bo'ladi. "Qayiq Uestbruk yo'lidagi Ezra fermasidan Konnektikut daryosidagi Old Saybrukdagi hozirgi Ayer punktiga ko'chirildi", deb yozadi tarixchi Linkoln Diamant. [35] Bushnellning Yel aloqasi bor edi, bu unga maxfiylik bilan sinovlarni o'tkazishga imkon berdi. Bushnell suv osti kemasining dastlabki sinovini shu erda o'tkazdi, uchuvchi sifatida akasi Ezrani tanladi. Bushnell o'z ishining maxfiyligini talab qilsa -da, bu xabar tezda inglizlarga yo'l oldi, bu Nyu -York Kongress a'zosi Jeyms Dueynda ishlaydigan sodiq josus.

1776 yil avgustda Bushnell general Samuel Xolden Parsonsdan ko'ngillilarning ishlashini so'radi Toshbaqa, chunki Konnektikut daryosidagi Ayer punktida oldingi sinovlar paytida uning operatori bo'lgan akasi Ezra kasal bo'lib qoldi. [36] Uch kishi tanlab olindi va suv osti kemasi mashg'ulot va boshqa sinovlar uchun Long -Aylend -Saundga olib ketildi. [37] Bu sinovlar davom etar ekan, inglizlar 27 avgust kuni Long -Aylend jangida g'arbiy Long -Aylendni nazoratga oldilar. Hozir inglizlar portni nazorat qilishgan, Toshbaqa quruqlikdan Nyu -Rocheldan Gudzon daryosiga ko'chirildi. Ikki haftalik mashg'ulotlardan so'ng, Toshbaqa Nyu -Yorkka olib ketildi va uning yangi operatori serjant. Ezra Li, blokadadagi eskadron floti HMSga hujum qilishga tayyor Burgut. [38]

Suv osti kemasi yordamida Britaniya dengiz kuchlarining bu belgisini yo'q qilish, hech bo'lmaganda, Britaniya ruhiyatiga zarba bo'lardi va, ehtimol, inglizlarning Nyu -York portini blokadasi va nazoratiga tahdid solardi. Rejaga ko'ra, Li sirtida bo'lishi kerak edi Burgut ning ruli va vint yordamida kema korpusiga portlovchi moddasini ulang. Li biriktirilgach, yana suvga kirib, qochib ketardi. [39]

1776 yil 6 sentyabr kuni soat 23:00 da serjant. Li suv osti kemasini Admiral Richard Xou flagmaniga uchirdi. Burgut, keyin Gubernatorlar oroliga burildi.

O'sha kuni Li kichik kema bilan manevr qildi. Manzilga etib borish uchun ikki soat vaqt kerak bo'ldi, chunki qo'lda boshqariladigan boshqaruv va oyoq pedallarini boshqarib, suv osti kemasini joyiga qo'yish juda qiyin edi. Uning qiyinchiliklariga juda kuchli oqim va tepada qorong'ilik aylanib yurishi ko'rinishni qiyinlashtirdi.

Reja muvaffaqiyatsiz tugadi. Li o'z missiyasini faqat yigirma daqiqalik havo bilan boshladi, hattoki kemani boshqarishning asoratlari haqida ham. Qorong'ulik, oqimlar tezligi va qo'shilgan murakkabliklar Lining rejasini barbod qildi. Bir marta paydo bo'lganida, Li portlovchi qurilmadagi sigortani yoqdi va qurilmani kema ostiga sanchishga bir necha bor urinib ko'rdi. Afsuski, bir necha urinishlardan so'ng Li teshib o'tolmadi Burgut uning korpusi va operatsiyani tark etdi, chunki portlovchi qurilmaning taymeri o'chishi kerak edi va u tong otishidan qo'rqardi. Ommabop hikoyada aytilishicha, u kema korpusini qoplagan mis qoplamasi tufayli muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchragan. Qirollik floti yaqinda o'tin qurtlari va boshqa dengiz hayoti shikastlanishidan himoya qilish uchun harbiy kemalari tagiga mis qobiq o'rnatishni boshlagan edi, lekin astar qog'ozdan yupqa edi va Lining burg'ulashini to'xtata olmasdi. Bushnell, Lining muvaffaqiyatsizligi, ehtimol, kemaning rulli menteşesine ulangan temir plastinka tufayli bo'lgan deb hisoblaydi. [40] Li korpusning boshqa joyiga urinib ko'rganida, u kema ostida qololmadi va oxir -oqibat urinishdan voz kechdi. Ko'rinishidan, u charchagan va karbonat angidrid inhalatsiyasidan aziyat chekkan, bu uni chalkashtirib yubordi va burg'ulash jarayonini to'g'ri o'tkaza olmadi. Burgut korpusi. Li, Gubernatorlar orolidagi ingliz askarlari suv osti kemasini payqab qolganini va tergovga chiqqanini aytdi. Keyin u ayblovni (uni "torpedo" deb atadi, taxminan 1890 yilgacha suv osti portlovchi moslamalari uchun hukmron), "ular ham xuddi shunday qo'lga kiritilishini va shu tariqa atomlarga uchib ketishini kutgan holda". [40] Angliya zaryadning uzilishidan shubhalanib, orolga qaytib ketdi. Li xabar berishicha, ayblov Sharqiy daryoga tushgan va u "katta zo'ravonlik bilan suvning katta ustunlarini va yog'och bo'laklarini havoga tashlagan". [40] Bu suv osti kemasidan kemaga hujum qilish uchun birinchi marta ishlatilgan edi [33], ammo uni hujjatlashtirgan yagona yozuv - bu Amerika. Britaniya yozuvlarida suv osti kemasining hujumi yoki hujum uyushtirilgan kuni portlashlar haqida hech qanday ma'lumot yo'q Burgut. [41]

Britaniyalik dengiz tarixchisi Richard Kompton-Xollning so'zlariga ko'ra, neytral suzishga erishish muammolari vertikal pervanelni yaroqsiz holga keltirgan bo'lar edi. Yo'nalish Toshbaqa hujumga o'tishi kerak edi Burgut to'lqin oqimi bo'ylab bir oz edi, bu, ehtimol, Li charchab qolishiga olib kelishi mumkin edi. [41] Bu va boshqa muammolarga qaramay, Kompton-Xoll butun hikoyani dezinformatsiya va ruhiy targ'ibot sifatida uydirilgan deb hisoblaydi, agar Li hujum uyushtirgan bo'lsa, u qayiqda emas, balki yopiq qayiqda bo'lgan. Toshbaqa. [41]

Shunga qaramay Toshbaqa Muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchragan Vashington Bushnellni "buyuk mexanik qudratli odam, ixtiro unumdor va ijro ustasi" deb atadi. Orqaga qarab, Vashington Tomas Jeffersonga yozgan maktubida shunday dedi: "[Bushnell] menga 1776 yilda gubernator Trumbull (hozir o'lik) va boshqa obro'li shaxslar tomonidan tavsiya etilgan ... Men o'zimga ishonishni xohlagan bo'lsam -da, unga pul va boshqa yordam ko'rsatdim. U bir muncha vaqt samarasiz ishladi va garchi uning rejasini himoya qiluvchilar davom etsa -da, u hech qachon muvaffaqiyat qozonmagan. U yoki bu voqea har doim aralashgan. Men o'sha paytda daholarning urinishi deb o'yladim va hali ham o'ylayman. lekin juda ko'p narsalarning kombinatsiyasi zarur edi ... "[42]

Toshbaqa ning hujumi Burgut Nyu -York qulaganidan keyin amerikalik kuchlarning zukkoligi va kuchsizroq jangchilarning yangi, ba'zan radikal texnologiyalarni o'zlashtirish va qabul qilish tendentsiyasi aks etdi. "Bu qanday hayratga soladi va qanday afzalliklarga ega bo'lishi mumkin ... agar u muvaffaqiyat qozonsa, siz tasavvur qila olmaysiz, men tasvirlab berishimdan ko'ra osonroq", - deb yozgan shifokor Benjamin Geyl Silas Dinga bir yil oldin. Toshbaqamissiyasi.

Suv osti kemasining yakuniy taqdiri noma'lum, garchi inglizlar Nyu -Yorkni egallab olishganiga ishonishsa -da Toshbaqa uni dushman qo'liga tushishining oldini olish uchun vayron qilingan.

5 -oktabr kuni serjant Li ayblovni Manxetten langariga o'rnatilgan frigatga biriktirish uchun yana chiqib ketdi. U kema soati uni payqab qolganini aytdi, shuning uchun u urinishdan voz kechdi. Suv osti kemasi bir necha kundan keyin inglizlar tomonidan Nyu -Jersi shtatining Fort Li yaqinidagi o'zining nozik kemasida cho'kib ketgan. Bushnell qutqarish haqida xabar berdi Toshbaqa, lekin uning oxirgi taqdiri noma'lum. [43] Vashington urinishni "daholarning urinishi" deb atadi, lekin bunday muvaffaqiyatga erishish uchun "juda ko'p narsalarning kombinatsiyasi zarur edi". [44]

Kuzatilmoqda ToshbaqaNyu -York portida sodir bo'lgan abort hujumi, Bushnell o'z ishini suv ostidagi portlovchi moddalarda davom ettirdi. 1777 yilda u HMSga hujum qilish uchun minalarni tortib olishni o'ylab topdi Cerberus Nyu -London bandargohi [45] yaqinida va Filadelfiya yaqinidagi Britaniya flotini to'xtatishga urinish uchun Delaver daryosi bo'ylab suzish uchun. [46] Ikkala urinish ham muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchradi va ikkinchisi urush adabiyotida qisqa, agar bema'ni bo'lsa ham, o'z o'rnini egalladi. Frensis Xopkinsonning "Keglar jangi" she'ri hayratlanarli, ammo befoyda tashabbusni tasvirlab berdi: "Askar uchdi, dengizchi ham, vafotidan qo'rqib, janob, yangiliklarni tarqatish uchun poyabzalini kiyib, yugurib chiqib ketdi" nafas ol, ser. "

Konnektikut hukumati boshqa suv osti loyihasini moliyalashtirishdan bosh tortganida, Bushnell kontinental armiyaga sapyorlar va konchilarning kapitan-leytenanti sifatida qo'shildi va bir necha yil Nyu-Yorkdagi Gudzon daryosi bilan ajralib turdi. [47] Urushdan so'ng, Bushnell noma'lum bo'lib qoldi. U bir necha yil Frantsiyaga tashrif buyurdi, keyin 1795 yilda Devid Bush nomi bilan Gruziyaga ko'chib o'tdi, u erda maktabda dars berdi va tibbiyot bilan shug'ullandi. U 1824 yilda deyarli noma'lum Gruziyada vafot etdi. Urushdan keyin Robert Fulton kabi ixtirochilar Bushnellning suv ostidagi portlovchi moddalarni ishlab chiqishda yaratgan ta'siridan ta'sirlanishdi.

Shunga qaramay Toshbaqakamchiliklari, Bushnellning ixtirosi suv osti kemalari texnologiyasida muhim bosqich bo'ldi. Amerikalik ixtirochi Robert Fulton o'zining suv osti kemasini o'ylab topdi Nautilus XIX asrning birinchi yillarida va Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari dizaynga umuman qiziqmaganligini isbotlaganida, uni Evropaga olib ketdi. Amerika fuqarolar urushi paytida, Amerika Konfederativ Shtatlari, Mustaqillik urushidagi koloniyalarga o'xshash vaziyatga duch kelib, CSS operatsion suv osti kemasini ishlab chiqdi. XL Xunli, USSni yo'q qilish Uy -joy 1864 yil fevral oyida Charleston portida, suv osti kemalari tarixidagi birinchi muvaffaqiyatli hujum. Yigirmanchi asrning boshlarida dunyo dengiz flotlari suv osti kemalarini ko'proq qabul qila boshladilar. Bushnellning dizayniga o'xshab, bu qayiqlar korpus dizaynida dengiz hayvonlarining tabiiy shakllariga taqlid qilgan. 1901 yilda kuzatilgan suv osti kemalari tarixchilaridan biri sifatida, zamonaviy suv osti kemasining evolyutsiyasi kitdan kelib chiqqan bo'lib, u "tabiatdan sutemizuvchilardan yaratilgan suv osti kemasi" deb hisoblagan.

Bushnellning ismi umuman taniqli bo'lmasa-da, u ko'pincha pastdan dengiz urushida inqilob qilgan. Bushnellniki Toshbaqa U inqilobiy urushdan oldin ko'rinmaydigan harbiy nuqtai nazarni yaratdi-bu urushga uchragan suvlar ostidan. Tarixchi Aleks Roland ta'kidlaganidek, Bushnellning ixtirochi sifatida qoldirgan merosini XIX asr boshlarida Bushnell va uning suv osti kemasini sherlagan amerikalik yozuvchilar va tarixchilar yoqib yuborgan. Urushdan keyingi amerikaliklarning yangi avlodi uchun u "inglizlarni qo'rqitgan suv osti kemasini ixtiro qilgan mohir vatanparvar" bo'lib tuyuldi. Bushnell Eli Uitni va Robert Fulton kabi davrning amerikalik ixtirochilari qatoriga qo'shildi. Bu odamlar texnologik yutuqlarni ilgari surgan amerikaliklarga milliy qahramonlar sifatida xizmat qilgan va ularni yaratgan odamlarni butparast qilgan. "Sabablari harbiy mag'rurlikmi yoki ilmiy millatchilikmi, - deydi Roland, - inqilobdan keyingi birinchi yarim asrda amerikaliklar uchun Bushnellning suv osti kemasiga amerikalik asl nusxa sifatida qarash muhim edi.

Shunga qaramay, Toshbaqa Texnologiya va harbiy tarix tarixida ko'zga ko'ringan o'rinni egallaydi, Roland stipendiyasi Bushnell dizayniga deyarli ta'sir ko'rsatgan boshqa texnologik ustunlikka ishora qiladi. Roland frantsuz shifokori, fizigi, Qirollik jamiyati va Fanlar akademiyasi a'zosi Denis Papinga ishora qiladi, ularning ikkita suv osti kemasi Bushnell uchun namuna bo'lib xizmat qilgan bo'lishi mumkin. "Bushnell suv osti kemasi loyihalashtirilgan va qurilgan. Papinning har ikkala versiyasiga xos xususiyatlarga ega edi." Texnologiya tarixchisi Kerol Purcell ta'kidlaganidek, bu davrda trans-Atlantik texnologiyasi o'zaro urug'lantirilishi deyarli istisno edi.

Beri ToshbaqaIkki asr oldin paydo bo'lganida, xalqaro o'yin maydoni tenglashdi. Dunyo bo'ylab boshqa dengiz flotlari suv osti kemalari urushini modernizatsiya qilib, Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari tomonidan boshqariladigan suv osti texnologiyasi ustidan monopollik vaqt o'tishi bilan yo'qoldi. Yigirmanchi asrning boshlarida Jon Gollandning yangiliklaridan tortib, Germaniyaning Ikkinchi jahon urushi kampaniyalarigacha va Sovuq Urushning yadroviy ICBM suv osti kemalari, zamonaviy dengiz flotlari, birinchi navbatda, razvedka va tijorat missiyalari uchun suv osti kemasini quchoqlab oldi. reydlar, lekin tobora hujumkor rollarda. Urushdan keyingi davrda suv osti kemasi zamonaviy flotlarning markaziy komponentiga aylandi. Suv osti kemalaridan foydalanish Bushnellning mamlakatni importidan qon ketishiga mo'ljallangan dengiz blokadalarini olib tashlash kontseptsiyasidan ancha oshib ketdi.

The Toshbaqa was the first submersible vessel used for combat and led to the development of what we know today as the modern submarine, forever changing underwater warfare and the face of naval warfare. As such, the Toshbaqa has been replicated many times to show new audience the roots of submarine technology, how much it has changed, and the influence it has had on modern submarines. By the 1950s, historian of technology Brooke Hindle credited the Toshbaqa as "the greatest of the wartime inventions." [48] Toshbaqa remains a source of national as well as regional pride, which led to the construction of several replicas, a number of which exist in Bushnell's home state of Connecticut. As Benjamin Gale noted in 1775, the vessel was "constructed with great simplicity," and it has thus inspired at least four replicas. [49] Many of these followed the designs set down by Bushnell, with "precise and comprehensive descriptions of his submarine," which aided the replication process. [50]

The vessel was a source of particular pride in Connecticut. In 1976, a replica of Toshbaqa was designed by Joseph Leary and constructed by Fred Frese as a project marking the United States Bicentennial. It was christened by Connecticut's governor, Ella Grasso, and later tested in the Connecticut River. This replica is owned by the Connecticut River Museum.

In 2002, Rick and Laura Brown, two sculptors from Massachusetts, along with Massachusetts College of Art and Design students and faculty, constructed another replica. The Browns set out to gain a better understanding of human ingenuity while keeping Bushnell's design, materials, and technique authentic. "With it, Yankee ingenuity was born," observed Rick Brown, referring to the latest in a long line of commemoration that perceived the Toshbaqa as something authentically American. Of the temptation to use synthetic and ahistorical materials, Rob Duarte, a MassArts student observed, "It was always a temptation to use silicone to seal the thing," says Rob Duarte, a MassArt student. "Then you realized that someone else had to figure this out with the same limited resources that we were using. That's just an interesting way to learn. You can't do it any other way than by actually doing it." The outer shell of the replica was hollowed, using controlled fire, from a twelve-foot Sitka Spruce. The log was seven feet in diameter and shipped from British Columbia. This replica took twelve days to build and was successfully submerged in water. In 2003, it was tested in an indoor test tank at the United States Naval Academy. Lew Nuckols, a professor of Ocean Engineering at USNA, made ten dives, noting "you feel very isolated from the outside world. If you had any sense of claustrophobia it would not be a very good experience." [51]

In 2003, Roy Manstan, Fred Frese, and the Naval Underwater Warfare Center partnered with students from Old Saybrook High School in Connecticut on a four-year project called The Turtle Project, to construct their own working replica, which they completed and launched in 2007. [52] [53]

On August 3, 2007 three men were stopped by police while escorting and piloting a replica based on the Toshbaqa within 200 feet (61 m) of RMS Queen Mary 2, then docked at the cruise ship terminal in Red Hook, Brooklyn. The replica was created by New York artist Philip "Duke" Riley and two residents of Rhode Island, one of whom claimed to be a descendant of David Bushnell. Riley claimed that he wanted to film himself next to the Queen Mary 2 for his upcoming gallery show. Riley's was not an exact replica, however, measuring eight feet tall and made of cheap plywood then coated with fiberglass. Its portholes and hatch were collected from a marine salvage company. He also installed pumps to allow him to add or remove water for ballast. Riley christened his vessel Acorn, to note the deviation from Bushnell's original design. The vessel, reported the New York Times, "resembled something out of Jules Verne by way of Huck Finn, manned by cast members from 'Jackass.' The Coast Guard issued Riley a citation for having an unsafe vessel, and for violating the security zone around Queen Mary 2. The NYPD also impounded the submarine. Police Commissioner Raymond W. Kelly, calling this an incident of "marine mischief" assured the public that this was simply an art project and did not, in fact, represent a terrorist threat to the passenger ship. [54]

In 2015, the replica built by Manstan and Frese in 2007 for The Turtle Project was acquired by Privateer Media and used in the television series TURN: Washington's Spies. [55] [56] The submarine was shipped to Richmond, VA where it underwent a full refit and was relaunched for film use in the water. Additional full-scale interior and exterior models were also made by AMC as part of the production.

Also in 2015, Privateer Media used The Turtle Project replica for the Travel Channel series Follow Your Past, hosted by Alison Stewart. Filming took place in August where the submarine was launched with a tether in the Connecticut River in the town of Essex, CT.


Turtle – World’s first submarine attack 1776

On this day in 1776, during the Revolutionary War, the American submersible craft Toshbaqa attempts to attach a time bomb to the hull of British Admiral Richard Howe’s flagship Burgut in New York Harbor. It was the first use of a submarine in warfare.

Submarines were first built by Dutch inventor Cornelius van Drebel in the early 17th century, but it was not until 150 years later that they were first used in naval combat. David Bushnell, an American inventor, began building underwater mines while a student at Yale University. Deciding that a submarine would be the best means of delivering his mines in warfare, he built an eight-foot-long wooden submersible that was christened the Toshbaqa for its shape. Large enough to accommodate one operator, the submarine was entirely hand-powered. Lead ballast kept the craft balanced.

Donated to the Patriot cause after the outbreak of war with Britain in 1775, Ezra Lee piloted the craft unnoticed out to the 64-gun HMS Burgut in New York Harbor on September 7, 1776. As Lee worked to anchor a time bomb to the hull, he could see British seamen on the deck above, but they failed to notice the strange craft below the surface. Lee had almost secured the bomb when his boring tools failed to penetrate a layer of iron sheathing. He retreated, and the bomb exploded nearby, causing no harm to either the Burgut yoki Toshbaqa.

During the next week, the Toshbaqa made several more attempts to sink British ships on the Hudson River, but each time it failed, owing to the operator’s lack of skill. Only Bushnell was really able to competently execute the submarine’s complicated functions, but because of his physical frailty he was unable to pilot the Toshbaqa in any of its combat missions. During the Battle of Fort Lee, the Toshbaqa was lost when the American sloop transporting it was sunk by the British.


The First Submarine Attack – 150 Years Ago Today

During the Civil War the civilians suffered hardships, and many came from the blockade of their coast by the Union navy. They could not export their cotton to the world, and could not import many things they needed from the outside. There were several people in the Confederacy who tried to invent new weapons to break this blockade, and the work of several of these men produced the H. L. Hunley, the world’s first successful combat submarine.

James McClintock, one of the boat’s designers

The road to a successfully attack on a Union ship was long and costly. The Fish Boat, as the Hunley was originally was called, was the third submarine built by Horace Hunley, James McClintock and Baxter Watson. Their previous failures had helped refine the design. She had a crew of eight one steered and the other seven worked at a crank which turned a propeller. More problems were encountered in Charleston – the boat sunk twice and many of the crew were drowned, including Hunley.

The Hunley was recovered, and George Dixon, a member of the crew who happened to be absent when she sunk, was appointed her commander. After many days of waiting, they went out on the night of February 17, 1864. They had selected as their target the USS Housatonic, a 12 gun wooden steamer. It was five miles off the coast, and it took the crew of the Hunley much effort to get there. At around 8:45 pm they approached the Housatonic, and the officer on watch sighted what looked like a ripple in the water 100 yards out. But looking again he saw an object moving very fast toward the ship. The ship went into an uproar, and they tried to move forward, while the crew fired at the strange object with anything they could lay their hands on. The Hunley dove and attached its torpedo in an area that happened to be just near the magazine. Seconds later there was a huge explosion, throwing smoke, water, and debris high into the air. A huge hole was ripped in the side of the Housatonic. It sunk in less than five minutes, and the survivors were picked up by boats from other ships. Five men had been killed, and the rest survived. The Housatonic was the first ship in military history to be sunk by a submarine. Lekin Hunley never returned to port. Not long after the attack a light was seen by the men watching on shore, a prearranged signal for success, but she never returned.

The Hunley’s disappearance was one of the most puzzling mysteries of the Civil War. After many years of speculation, she was finally located in the late 20th century lying under 3 feet of mud, and in 2000 the wreck was brought to the surface, and investigated by archaeologists. Inside were found the bones of the crew and many artifacts they carried with them. The ongoing work on the Hunley has answered some questions regarding the boat’s fate. None of the men had left the ship. They were 1000 feet away from the wreck of the Housatonic. There was no structural damage from the explosion.

But many questions still remain. Why did they sink? Did they intentionally dive to wait for the incoming tide and for some reason not surface? Or did the Hunley sink immediately and the wreck gradually move the 1000 feet? Whatever the Hunley’s fate, it was unique. Safe and usable submarines were far in the future, and the next successful military use occurred in 1914, during World War I. With the Hunley’s sinking, the war was almost over for Charleston. New weapons had been developed and used successfully, but none were powerful enough to break the blockade and turn the war around.


The First Submarine Attack Happened During The Revolutionary War

At 11pm on September 6th, 1776, Sargent Ezra Lee began cranking away on a lever that propelled the tiny submersible that he sat inside of. His goal was to make his way to the British Flagship HMS Eagle and attach a crude explosive charge to it, then make haste (at 2mph) safely out of the area.

This is the story of the American Turtle, the world's first submersible used in combat. Built in Connecticut with the direct approval of General George Washington, the Turtle's inventor and underwater explosives guru turned patriot, David Bushnell, realized that stealth could be obtained just at and below the waterline.

Unmasking The Columbia River's Mysterious Stealth Boats

For about a decade there have been sightings of some very peculiar high-speed watercraft patrolling

In many ways the Turtle was a super-weapon development program of its day. Before the Declaration of Independence was in the King's hands, America was looking for anything it could use to take on the crushing might of Britain's overwhelming military capabilities.

The Toshbaqa was named so because of its shape, like two shells mated together, and for its maritime mission. It measured just three feet wide, 10 feet long and 6 feet tall. It could accommodate one man, which would provide navigation via a small rudder and propulsion via a hand-cranked propeller. It remained water-tight via covering the whole vehicle, mainly built out of oak, in hot tar and running tight steel bands around it.

The rudimentary sub dived by allowing water to pour into a bilge tank at the bottom of the vessel, and it could surface via pumping out that water via a hand-cranked screw pump. In case of an emergency, such as a crack occurring in the boat's hull, there was 200lbs of lead that could be released on command, which would allow the humble little sub to shoot back up to the surface . There was only enough air inside Turtle for one crewman to survive for 30 minutes.

Watch This Nuclear Sub Blow Its Ballast While Still In Port

What you are seeing here is a rare test of a fast attack nuclear submarine's ability to rapidly…

There was a series of glass port holes on the top of the Toshbaqa where its hatch met its hull. These provided light during daytime operations and a very basic view for navigational purposes. Since she would mainly operate at night, and a flame would asphyxiate her single crewman, internal illumination was provided by a cork that was covered in bioluminescent fungus.

Although the idea was to keep Bushnell's attack sub secret, a spy working for New York Congressman James Duane outed its existence to the Royal Governor of the Province of New York. After completing trials in both Connecticut and off Long Island, Turtle was transported to the Hudson River for its debut attack on the British Fleet moored there.

On that late summer night in 1776, Sargent Lee slowly fought his way toward the HMS Eagle, which was moored south of Manhattan Island, after being towed out a ways from shore by row boats. The whole mission seemed in jeopardy as Lee's progress was almost non-existent until the current began carrying him toward his objective.

Once within clear view of HMS Eagle, he slowly submerged and crept underneath the big ship's stern, towards its rudder area. Here begun his attempt to drill into the Burgut so that the explosive package could be attached. Exhausted, Lee kept trying to break through what seemed like an impenetrable metal barrier (later it was thought that this was the iron plating around the ship's rudder hinge system). He then tried to submerge directly underneath the Burgut but the clumsy little sub had issues with staying in one place under the big ship's curved hull.

Lee eventually gave up on the attack, and made his way back out into the Hudson channel. He says that he was spotted by the British as he left, and that multiple teams of sailors rowed out to investigate the strange object in the water. Lee then released the explosive charge, which was an elaborate timed device that used a fragile flintlock ignition system, to distract the search teams. The teams gave up long before the charge went off, which Lee said resulted in a massive explosion sending water high into the air.

Another attempt was made on October 5th that would see Sergeant Lee trying to attach a similar charge, which he called Torpedo incidentally, to a British Frigate also anchored off of Manhattan. He claimed that he was spotted on his approach to the ship so he aborted the mission. A few days later the Toshbaqa was sunk as it sat atop its tender vessel near New Jersey. The British saw it and engaged it without a fight, supposedly blowing it to smithereens, although Bushnell claimed he salvaged parts of it.

Although the American Toshbaqa was deemed a failure, it was a successful one. Even George Washington described the Toshbaqa as an "effort of genius." Obviously Mr. Bushnell was onto something as submarine warfare would become one of the most effective weapons of the 20th Century. Yet it would take almost a century for the technology to advance far enough for a submarine to execute a successful kill by on another ship. In 1864, during the Civil War, the Confederate Navy's submarine H.L. Hunley became the first militarized submarine to sink an enemy ship

Today there are a few replicas of the American Turtle at various maritime museums, yet a semi-accurate functional version of the Toshbaqa actually made news in 2007 when Brooklyn artist Duke Riley took his unannounced replica of the famous sub into the Hudson River and made his way towards the iconic and giant oceanliner Queen Mary 2 that was moored near Red Hook, Brooklyn. Duke and his ominous looking Turtle were intercepted by Police and Coast Guard who were perplexed at what they saw. Eventually they realized that there was no terrorism objective to Mr. Riley's mission and they impounded his home-built replica and cited him and a couple of friends for operating an unsafe craft, along with some other smaller infractions.


Real story of submarine PNS Ghazi and the mystery behind its sinking

The sinking of Pakistani submarine PNS Ghazi with 90 men aboard in the 1971 Indo-Pak war is regarded as one of the high points of India's first-ever emphatic military victory.

With famed Bollywood producer/director Karan Johar releasing the first-look poster of his studio's new movie The Ghazi Attack, it might be a good time to brush up some history.

Frustrated with the Naval Blockade, Pakistan decided to send the best submarine in its inventory - PNS Ghazi.

PNS Ghazi was assigned with a two-fold objective. The primary goal was to find and sink INS Vikrant and the second one was to lay mines on India's Eastern seaboard with or without accomplishing the primary objective.

Without PNS Ghazi, Pakistan navy could not interfere with Vikrant's operations in East Pakistan. It was extremely risky of sending an ageing submarine completely around the subcontinent to attack the enemy’s flagship in it's home waters. Besides, Ghazi was by then experiencing regular equipment failures and maintenance facilities at Chittagong were poor.

Overruling these objections, PNS Ghazi quietly sailed out of the Karachi Harbour on November 14, 1971.

Having sailed the fleet away to safety, Krishnan roped in INS Rajput, an ageing WWII destroyer that was actually sent to Vishakapatnam for decommissioning. INS Rajput was to pretend to be INS Vikrant, sail out of the Vizag port and generate heavy wireless traffic.

The Indian Navy intentionally breached security by making an unclassified signal in the form of a private Telegram allegedly from one of Vikrant's sailor's asking about the welfare of his mother who was "seriously ill".

Ghazi started looking for Vikrant on November 23 off Madras but was not aware that she was 10 days too late and the Vikrant was actually somewhere near the Andaman islands.

Vice Admiral Krishnan sent for Lt.Inder Singh, the Commanding officer of the Rajput for detailed briefing and told him that a Pakistani submarine had been sighted off Ceylon and was absolutely certain that the submarine would be somewhere around Madras/Vishakaptanm. He made it clear that once Rajput had completed refueling, she must leave the harbor with all navigational aids switched off.

INS Rajput sailed out on 2 December and returned to Vishakapatnam on 3 December and again sailed out with a pilot on board, just before the midnight of 3/4 December and on clearing the harbor, proceeded along the narrow entrance channel. When the ship was halfway in the channel, it suddenly occurred to the Captain that "What if the Pakistani submarine was waiting outside the harbor and torpedoes us as we disembark the pilot who was on board, at the Outer Channel Buoy?" He immediately ordered to stop engines and disembarked the pilot.

Meanwhile, Ghazi being unable to locate INS Vikrant around Vishakapatnam resumed laying mines on the night of 3rd December when Pakistan signalled the commencement of hostilities. Ghazi came up to periscope depth to establish her naviagtional position which was made very difficult due to the blackout and switching off of all navigational aids.

Rajput slowly increased speed to maximum by the time it reached the Outer channel buoy. At this point of time, Ghazi saw or heard a destroyer approaching her at high speed at an almost reciprocal course and went into a steep dive and at the same time put her rudder hard over in order to get away seaward.

The Captain of Destroyer Rajput noticed the disturbance of water caused by the hasty dive and launched two depth charges at that position. The charges struck the submarine that was already in a steep dive causing Ghazi to hit seabed hard when it bottomed.

The fire spread to where the Mines and torpedoes were stored and these blew the forward hull outward. It is also possible that the detonation of the charges triggered a mine that was being kept in a ready state near the torpedo tube. This was Indian Navy's version.

Many theories came forward since and it transpired that naval authorities also destroyed records of the sinking of Ghazi.

Whatever caused the Ghazi to explode, it was nevertheless, the Indian Navy's ingenuity and deceptive planning that caused the submarine to a follow a preset path which ended in a watery grave for its sailors on board.


“Turtle” of 1776 – The First ‘Submarine’ Ever Used In War

The first large-scale example of submarine warfare took place in the First World War, with German U-boats sinking a number of Allied ships, and by the time the Second World War started in 1939, submarine warfare had become commonplace.

While submarines were invented long before the First World War, and were used for warfare as early as the American Civil War, you may be surprised to know that the first known use of a submersible craft in war dates all the way back to 1776, during the American Revolutionary War.

The watercraft in question was a tiny, one-man submersible craft called Toshbaqa, and it was used to attack the British ship HMS Burgut, which was one of a number of Royal Navy ships that were blockading the Hudson River.

A diagram showing the front and rear of Turtle

Toshbaqa, as this strange submersible watercraft was christened, was the brainchild of an American inventor named David Bushnell. Bushnell, born in Saybrook, Connecticut, was originally a farmer, but after selling his shares in the family farm in his early 30s, he entered Yale College and studied mathematics.

He graduated from Yale in 1775 – after having proved, during his studies, that gunpowder could be detonated underwater – and when the Revolutionary War broke out in April 1775, Bushnell decided to use what he had learned over the course of his studies to develop a method of attacking British ships from below the waves.

Cutaway replica at the Oceanographic Museum, Photo: Monaco Zenit CC BY-SA 3.0

Thus, the idea for Toshbaqa – the first ever submersible watercraft to be used in warfare – was born. This particular submersible, though, looked and worked nothing like the submarines of the 20th century.

Made of oak with iron wrappings and brass fittings, and similar in shape to an acorn, Toshbaqa was so named because it looked like two turtle shells stuck together. It was only big enough for a single person to fit inside, and was propelled through the water by means of a treadle-driven propeller and hand-operated crank, which required considerable effort to use, meaning that whoever was piloting the craft had to be very physically fit.

Bushnell mines destroying a small British boat

While the idea for Toshbaqa was Bushnell’s, he did have some assistance in its design, especially for the complex moving parts of the machinery used to propel the craft through the water, to dive and surface (done by brass pumps that pulled in or expelled seawater as ballast), and to steer the vessel.

These items were made, and possibly designed, by local clockmaker, brass manufacturer, silversmith and inventor Isaac Doolittle. Bushnell’s brother Ezra also assisted with some aspects of Toshbaqa’s design, and volunteered to be its pilot.

Portrait of Ezra Lee, Turtle’s operator

Visibility came via porthole windows near the top of the craft, and in the hatch on top, via which the pilot would enter and exit the craft. This hatch was also the only way that air could get into Toshbaqa.

Because of its limited air capacity, traveling underwater would only be done when absolutely necessary – for most of the craft’s journey, it was intended that it travel through the water with the hatch just protruding from the surface.

1976 functional replica that is now at the Connecticut River Museum.Photo: JERRYE AND ROY KLOTZ MD CC BY-SA 3.0

Bushnell intended Toshbaqa to be used at night to maximize the aspect of stealth, which would be crucial in successfully pulling off the attack against the British ship. This, obviously, presented a serious obstacle in terms of navigation.

To overcome the problem of being able to navigate through dark waters at night, bioluminescent foxfire was attached the needles of Toshbaqa’s compass and other instruments, so that they could be read in the dark.

A cutaway full-sized replica of the Turtle on display at the Royal Navy Submarine Museum, Gosport, UK.Photo: Geni CC BY-SA 4.0

In terms of weaponry, Toshbaqa was pretty limited in that department. The idea behind Toshbaqa was not that it would directly attack an enemy vessel, but rather that it could be used to get close enough to an enemy ship, undetected, in order to attach to the hull an explosive mine, containing around 150 pounds of black powder, which would then be detonated with a timer fuse. Hopefully, the mine would blow a large enough hole in the hull to sink the enemy ship.

Bushnell tested Toshbaqa in the Connecticut River with his brother Ezra as the pilot. Things seemed to go well, so the craft was transported to Long Island Sound in preparation for active use. Ezra, however, fell ill, and thus a new pilot would have to be found and trained, which set the project back. Three suitable men were found, and, after having moved Toshbaqa to the Hudson River for training, the craft was then towed to New York Harbor to attack the British fleet.

This 19th-century diagram shows the side views of Turtle. It incorrectly depicts the propeller as a screw blade as seen in the replica photographed above and reported by Sergeant Lee, it was a paddle propeller blade.

Toshbaqa’s first mission got underway at 11:00 PM on September 6, 1776. Piloted by Sergeant Ezra Lee, Toshbaqa was targeting HMS Burgut, the Royal Navy’s flagship in New York Harbor, which was moored off Governor’s Island. Unfortunately for Lee, the currents were a lot stronger than he had anticipated and the darkness made it difficult to navigate.

By the time he reached HMS Burgut, he had been in the water for a number of hours and was likely suffering from both extreme fatigue and carbon dioxide inhalation. He made a few attempts to affix the mine to Burgut’s hull, but failed to do so. Seeing as dawn was approaching and he was exhausted, he chose to abort the mission.

A cutaway depiction of David Bushnell’s Turtle

He nonetheless released the mine – with its timer fuse lit – in the hopes that the British would pick it up and that it would explode on one of their ships. The mine did explode, but didn’t take out any enemy craft or troops. Disappointed, Bushnell and his team had Toshbaqa taken to the Hudson River, where another attack was attempted and also failed.

Toshbaqa ended up being destroyed when British artillery sank the tender that was transporting it, and thus the first ever submersible watercraft used in war was lost forever – somewhat fittingly – beneath the waves.

Model submarine Bushnell (in section). Maritime Museum. Monaco.

Bushnell, disappointed in Toshbaqa’s lack of battlefield success, abandoned work on another submersible craft. He did, however, continue to work on floating mines, which he had some success with. He ended up attaining the rank of captain in the Continental Army’s Corps of Engineers, and after the war he moved to Georgia and worked as a doctor and a professor.

Qolaversa Toshbaqa, a fully functional replica was constructed from Bushnell’s designs in the 1970s, and is currently on display at the Connecticut River Foundation.


Forgotten History: Japan's Failed Submarine Attack at Pearl Harbor

Unlike the aerial attack, the submarines failed spectacularly.

The crew of Ha-18 abandoned ship without firing either of their torpedoes after falling victim to a depth charge attack. Nineteen years later, the U.S. Navy recovered the sub from the floor of Hawaii’s Keehi Lagoon and ultimately shipped it off for display at the Japanese Naval Academy at Etajima.

The fate of the fifth submarine, Ha-16, remains controversial. At 10:40 P.M., the crew of the I-16 intercepted a radio message that appeared to repeat the word “Success!” A few hours later, they received a second transmission: “Unable to navigate.”

The belief was that Ha-16 transmitted these alerts. In 2009, a Novadocumentary crew identified three parts of the midget submarine in a navy salvage pile off of West Loch, Hawaii.

A popular belief is that Ha-16 successfully entered the harbor and fired off its torpedoes. Then the crew slipped out and scuttled the sub off of West Loch island before perishing of unknown causes.

U.S. Navy salvage teams probably later scooped up the sub amidst the wreckage of six landing craft destroyed in the West Loch disaster of 1944. They then proceeded to dump the whole pile of debris further out at sea.

That no one ever found the Ha-16’s torpedoes gave rise to the theory that the midget submarine might have successfully torpedoed the battleship USS Oklahoma. The USS West Virginia was another possible target.

A photo taken from an attacking Japanese torpedo bomber at 8:00 A.M., which appears to show torpedo trails lancing towards Oklahoma without a corresponding splash from an air-dropped weapon added more weight to the idea. In addition, the damage to the Oklahoma, and the fact that it capsized, suggested to some it was struck by a tiny sub’s heavier torpedoes.

However, this theory is dubious. The Oklahoma capsized because all the hatches were open for an inspection at the time of the attack. The heavy damage can be explained by the more than a half-dozen air-dropped torpedoes that hit the ship.

It is more likely Ha-16 launched the torpedoes at another vessel. At 10:04 A.M., the light cruiser USS St. Louis reported it had taken fire from submarine, but both torpedoes missed.

In the end, the air attack accomplished what the midget submarines could not. Japan’s naval aviators sank three U.S. battleships, crippling another five, blasted 188 U.S. warplanes — most sitting on the ground — and killed 2,403 American service members.

Unfortunately for officials in Tokyo, the Japanese Navy had struck a powerful blow, but not a crippling one. The bombardment failed to hit the repair facilities and fuel depots, which allowed the U.S. Pacific fleet to get back on its feet relatively quickly.

Just as importantly, not a single U.S. aircraft carrier was in Pearl Harbor at the time. The flattops would swiftly prove their dominance over battleships in the coming Pacific War.

Despite the debacle, the Japanese Navy continued sending Kō-hyōteki into combat. As at Pearl Harbor, the submariners in their tiny ships had very limited successes in operations from Australia to Alaska to Madagascar.


Videoni tomosha qiling: 5ТА ЭНГ ҲАВФЛИ АТОМ СУВ ОСТИ КЕМАСИ! (Iyul 2022).


Izohlar:

  1. Bede

    IN SHORT, IT'S CLEAR

  2. Ephrem

    super original

  3. Renard

    Siz adashyapsiz. Men buni muhokama qilishni taklif qilaman.

  4. Doushakar

    Menga bu ajoyib ibora bo'lib tuyuladi



Xabar yozing