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Spuyten Duyvil ScStr - Tarix

Spuyten Duyvil ScStr - Tarix



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Spuyten Duyvil

(ScStr: t. 116; 1. 75 '; b. 19'6 "; dph. 9'; dr. 8 '; s. 8)
k .; cpl. 22; a. spar torpedasi)

Fuqarolar urushi paytida Ittifoq floti Konfederatsiya torpedalarining portlashidan katta yo'qotishlarga duch keldi. Bu tajriba Ittifoq flotini ushbu yangi quroldan foydalanishga qodir kemalarni loyihalash va qurishga undadi. Bu yo'nalishdagi bir harakat natijasida dastlab Stromboli deb nomlangan, keyinchalik Spuyten Duyvil deb nomlangan vintli torpedo qayig'i paydo bo'ldi.

Stromboli Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari Harbiy -dengiz kuchlari bosh muhandisi Uilyam Vud Vud tomonidan ishlab chiqilgan, u Nyu -Xeyvenda (Konn., S. M. Puk) qurilishini nazorat qilgan. Uning qurilishiga 1864 yil 1 -iyunda shartnoma tuzilgan. Uning ishga tushirilishi va ishga tushirilishi haqidagi yozuvlar topilmagan. 1864 yil 19 -noyabrda qayiq Spupten Duyvil deb o'zgartirildi. 1864 yil 25 -noyabrda u ikkita torpedani muvaffaqiyatli otdi. 1864 yil noyabr oyi oxirida kapitan Charlz Styuart Boggz Spuyten Duyvil, 6 -sonli piket qayig'i va yuk tashuvchi Jon T. Jenkinsga yuk tashish uchun yuklangan edi. 2 dekabrda Boggs kemalarni Commodore TA Dorninga topshirdi, u ularni Xempton yo'llariga qolgan safari uchun muhandisning birinchi yordamchisi Jon L. Layga topshirdi. Kemalar Norfolkga 5 dekabrda etib kelishdi

Torpedo qayig'i, bir hafta o'tgach, Grantning Richmondda yurishi paytida, bu muhim suv yo'lini Ittifoq tomonidan boshqarilishini ta'minlash uchun, Jeyms daryosiga buyurtma berildi. U 15 -da Akin's Landing -ga keldi va u kampaniyaning qolgan oylarida Konfederatsiya to'siqlaridan pastroqda Jeymsning yuqori qismida operatsiya qildi. Uning xizmatining eng muhim voqeasi 1865 yil 23 va 24 -yanvarga o'tar kechasi Konfederatsiyaning Jeyms daryosi eskadroni Ittifoq otryadiga pastdan hujum boshladi. Aktsiya davomida Spuyten Duyvil daryodagi yagona monitor Onondagani qo'llab -quvvatladi

Li Richmondni evakuatsiya qilgandan so'ng, Spuyten Duyvil o'z torpedalaridan foydalanib, daryodagi to'siqlarni bartaraf etdi. Uning ishi prezident Linkolnga Malvernda bug'ni bug'latishga va Admiral Porterning flaqmani qurib ketgandan so'ng, sobiq Konfederatsiya poytaxtiga xavfsiz tarzda uchishga imkon berdi.

Urush tugaganidan so'ng, Spuyten Duyvil Jeymsning to'siqlarini tozalashda davom etdi. Keyin u Nyu -York Navy Yardiga qaytib keldi, u erda 1866 yilda oddiy joyga joylashtirildi. Keyingi yillarda u rivojlanish ishlarida ishlatilgan va ko'plab eksperimental yaxshilanishlar bilan o'zgartirilgan. Kema 1880 yilda dengiz floti ro'yxatidan g'oyib bo'ldi.


Spuyten Duyvil ScStr - Tarix

Spuyten Duyvil Shorefront bog'i 1987 yilda qirg'oq bo'yidagi mulkni o'z mahallasiga nisbatan tasvirlash uchun nomlangan. Gollandiyalik Spuyten Duyvil ismining kelib chiqishi haqida ikkita asosiy nazariya mavjud. Birinchisiga ko'ra, 1664 yilda Buyuk Britaniyaning Yangi Amsterdamga bostirib kirishi paytida Bronksga trubkachi jo'nab ketdi, u "Shaytonga qaramay" notinch daryosi bo'ylab suzdi. Ikkinchisi, 1647 yilda daryoga quyilgan favvoraga, "Spuit den Duyvil" (Iblis va Alphas Spout) yoki daryoning o'ziga (Iblis 's Spate) havolasiga asoslangan. Ismning kamida o'n to'rt xil imlolari qayd etilgan, ular orasida yuqorida aytilganlar va "Iblis bilan gaplash", "Speight den Duyvil", "Speit den Duyvil", "Spike & amp Ibil", "Spiling Ibil", "Spillende Ibil", "Spitendeuval", "Spitten Divil", "Spittin Debell", "Spitting Ibil" va Spitton Divil.

Nyu -York shahri bu erni 1882 yilda qoralash jarayonidan keyin jamoat bog'i sifatida sotib oldi. Bu Palisade prospekti, Edsall avenyu va Harlem daryosi bo'ylab o'tadigan Shimoliy metro temir yo'lining Gudzon chizig'idan tashkil topgan uchburchakdan iborat.

Parklar komissari va Genri Gudson Parkway ma'muriyatining prezidenti va yagona a'zosi sifatida Robert Mozis bu bog'da Genri Gudson ko'prigining shimoliy strukturaviy ustunini o'rnatdi. 1935 yil iyun oyida dunyodagi eng uzun plastinkali ko'prik qurilishi boshlandi. Yagona darajali to'rt qatorli ko'prik Harlem daryosidan o'tadi, Invuddagi (Manxetten) bir tomondan qoyalardan to boshqa tomonidagi Spuyten Duyvildagi (Bronks) baland qirg'oqlargacha, vertikal masofasi 142,5 fut. Ko'prik 1936 yil 12 -dekabrda avtoulovchilar uchun har bir o'tish joyidan o'n tsentlik to'lov bilan ochildi, 1938 yil iyulda ikkinchi darajali rejaga muvofiq qo'shildi.

Ko'prik Muso va Nyu -York shahriga to'liq magistral magistral tizimini ulash orzusining bir qismi edi. G'arbiy Yonni takomillashtirish rejasidagi asbob -uskuna, Genri Gudson ko'prigi G'arbiy Yo'l avtomagistralini Genri Gudson Parkvey bilan bog'ladi, bu esa o'z navbatida Manxettenni AQShning materik qismi bilan bog'ladi.

Bog'lar va dam olish boshqarmasi-1986 yil "Atrof-muhit sifati to'g'risida" qonun loyihasiga binoan-minora joylashgan qo'pol va qarovsiz erni qayta qurdi. 1994 yilda tugatilgan rekonstruktsiya natijasida toshloq yo'llar va piyodalar ko'prigi bilan ta'minlandi, bu esa piyodalarga Harlem daryosiga quyiladigan tabiiy buloq va kichik hovuzga kirishga imkon berdi. Bog'ni yanada qulay qilish uchun skameykalar, to'siqlar va panjara o'rnatildi. Daryoning ko'rinishini yaxshilash uchun teras qo'shildi, bu esa ko'rinmas ko'rinishga olib keldi va mulkning tabiiy va saqlanmagan sifatini saqlab qolish uchun mavjud o'simliklarni oz -ozdan kesib tashladi. Bundan tashqari, eroziya muammosini tuzatish uchun ham, atrofni obodonlashtirish uchun ham buta ekilgan va o't ekilgan.

Yangi ko'kalamzor hozirda bog'da tez -tez uchraydigan mahalliy yovvoyi tabiatni o'ziga jalb qiladi. Qushlarning ko'p navlari hovuz bo'yida yoki atrofdagi o'rmonlarda ko'payadi yoki doimiy ko'chish yo'llarida to'xtaydi. Qorli va sariq egrets, yashil va qora tojli tungi qahramonlar, halqa bo'yinli qirg'ovullar, mallardlar, dog'li va yolg'iz qumtepalar va mallardlar Spuyten Duyvil sohil bo'yidagi bog'da va uning atrofida topilgan.


Spuyten Duyvil o'yin maydonchasi

Spuyten Duyvil o'yin maydonchasi qo'shni davlat maktabi, yaqinidagi daryo va Bronks shimoli -g'arbidagi mahalla bilan bir xil nomga ega. Gollandiyalik Spuyten Duyvil ismining kelib chiqishi haqida ikkita asosiy nazariya mavjud. Birinchisiga ko'ra, 1664 yilda Buyuk Britaniyaning Nyu -Amsterdamga bostirib kirishi paytida Bronksga yuborilgan trubkachi "en spijt den Duyvil" (Iblisga qaramay) notinch oqimidan o'tishga qasamyod qilgan. Ikkinchisi, 1647 yildagi "Spuit den Duyvil" (Iblis va rsquos Spout) daryosiga yoki buloqning o'zi (Iblis va rsquos Spate) daryosiga oqib tushayotgan favvoraga asoslanadi. Ismning kamida o'n to'rt xil imlolari qayd etilgan, ular orasida yuqorida aytilganlar va "Iblis bilan gaplash, Speight den Duyvil", "Speit den Duyvil", "Spike & Ibil", "Spiling Ibil", "Spillende Ibil", "Spitendeuval", "Spitten Divil", "Spittin Debell", "Spitting Ibil" va Spitton Divil.

Garchi Genri Gudson 1609 yilda Yarim Oydan bu hududni o'rgangan bo'lsa -da, bu mulk 1850 -yillargacha Gudzon daryosi temir yo'lining kelishi va Elias Jonson va uning sheriklari tomonidan temir quyish va pechka zavodi qurilishi bilan rivojlanmagan. Jonson manfaatlari 170 gektar maydonni o'rganib chiqdi va ishchilar va ularning oilalari uchun qishloq sifatida ajratildi. Birinchi maktab 1857 yilda ochilgan va Bronks 1874 yilda Nyu-York shahriga qo'shilganda 46-maktabga aylangan. 1890-91 yillarda yangi maktab qurilgan va P.S. 1903 yilda 24. Spuyten Duyvil va aholi turar joylari Birinchi Jahon Urushidan keyin va Ikkinchi Jahon Urushidan keyingi o'n yilliklarda sezilarli darajada o'sdi.

1950 yilda Baholash kengashi maktab binosi va o'yin maydonchasi uchun Jeyms Duglasning sobiq mulkining ishlab chiqilmagan uchastkasini sotib oldi. Mulk Mustaqillik prospekti, Duglas prospekti (Bronks tadbirkorining nomi bilan) va W.235th va W. 236 -chi ko'chalar bilan chegaralangan edi (ular shu vaqt ichida yotqizilgan va asfaltlangan). Yangi Spuyten Duyvil maktabi (P.S. 24) 1953 yilda birinchi o'quvchilarini qabul qildi va P.S. Ikki yildan so'ng 24 o'yin maydonchasi hamma uchun ochildi. Ta'lim va istirohat bog'lari kengashi tomonidan birgalikda ishlatilgan o'yin maydonchasida uchta alohida dam olish joylari mavjud edi. Gandbol maydonlari va rolli konki yuzasi, bir tomonida basketbol maydonlari va markazda yarim qum maydonlari, qumtepa, bolalar bog'chasida belanchak va slaydlar, arra, suzish havzasi va boshqa tomondan qulaylik stantsiyasi bor edi. Nyu -York shahri va rsquos 641 -o'yin maydonchasiga keyinchalik Spuyten Duyvil nomi berildi.

O'yin maydonchalari 1998 yilda Kengash a'zosi Iyun M. Eisland va shahar meri Giuliani tomonidan moliyalashtiriladigan ikkita shartnoma bajarilishi bilan yaxshilandi. 240 497 dollarlik rekonstruksiya yangi o'yin uskunalari, asfalt qoplamasi va xavfsizlik qoplamasi, hovlidagi bayroq ustunini rekonstruksiya qilishni o'z ichiga oldi.


Ismda nima bor: Spuyten Duyvil dahshatli hikoyadan nom oldi

Bu Bronksdagi eng o'ziga xos ismlardan biri - Spuyten Duyvil. Mahallalar nomlari tarixini o'rganadigan seriyamizning bu qismida biz bu ism qaerdan paydo bo'lganligini bilib olamiz. NY1 muxbiri Erin Klark bu hisobotni taqdim etdi.

Garlem va Gudzon daryolarini bog'laydigan tinch suv havzasining dahshatli nomi bor: Spuyten Duyvil.

& quot; Bu iblisga qaramay ma'nosini anglatuvchi gollandcha ism, & quot; deydi Bronks tumanidagi tarixchi Lloyd Ultan, bu Bronksdagi eng o'ziga xos ismlardan biri - Spuyten Duyvil. Mahallalar nomlari tarixini o'rganadigan seriyamizning bu qismida biz bu ism qaerdan paydo bo'lganligini bilib olamiz. NY1 muxbiri Erin Klark bu hisobotni taqdim etdi.

Bronks tarixiy jamiyatidan Anxel Ernandesning aytishicha, "kuchli oqim tufayli shaytonga urilish".

Tomas Keysi, Xantington erkin kutubxonasi prezidenti.

Hech kim aniq nima uchun bunday obro' -e'tiborga ega bo'lganini aniq bilmaydi, lekin muallif Vashington Irving olovni yoqishga yordam berdi.

& quot; U ingliz floti Gollandiya hududini qo'rqitib kelganida, Piter Stuyvesant materikga xabarchi yuborgani haqida uydirma hikoya qiladi. Bu hududda kuchli bo'ron bo'lgan, lekin messenjer majburiyatini bajargan, shuning uchun u shaytonga qaramasdan, "bu tuyoqdan o'tib ketaman", deb aytgan va go'yoki, hikoyaga ko'ra, u cho'kib ketadi. deydi.

& quot; Uni juda katta baliq yeydi, - deydi Keysi.

Qo'rqinchli maxluqlarni chetga surib, Spuyten Duyvil -Krik suvli yo'l edi. Uning burilishlari va sayoz suvlari harakatlanishni qiyinlashtirdi va 1895 yilda Armiya muhandislari korpusi kengayib, uni chuqurlashtirdi.

Yillar o'tib, temir yo'l qurilgach, ko'proq odamlar mamlakat deb nomlanadigan joyga ko'chib o'tishni boshladilar va ular o'z nomini daryodan oldi.

& quot; Sizda katta mulk bor edi va siz ba'zida qayiqda sayohat qilganingizda, siz Gudson daryosiga borgansiz, - deydi Keysi.

Gudzondagi bu pozitsiya Spuyten Duyvilni inqilobiy urush paytida bir asr oldin eng yaxshi joyga aylantirdi.

Materik va hozirgi Manxetten o'rtasidagi yagona aloqani himoya qilish uchun Jorj Vashington Spuyten Duyvil daryosiga qaragan uchta qal'ani qurdi.

"Qirollik ko'prigini himoya qilish uchun 1 -sonli port, 2 -raqamli qal'a, 3 -raqamli qal'a o'sha erda joylashgan edi", deydi Keysi.

Qirolning ko'prigi, Spuyten Duyvil -Krikdan o'tib, oxir -oqibat yaqin atrofdagi Kingsbridj nomiga o'z nomini berdi.

Tarixga qaramay, ba'zilar Spuyten Duyvil nomi so'nib borayotganini aytishadi.

& quot; Spuyten -Duyvilning shimolida Riverdeyl va Riverdeylda boy mahalla bo'lish keshi bor va ko'p odamlar uni Spuyten -Duyvilga emas, balki kimligini bilishni xohlashadi.


YANGILIK HISOBOTI: SPUYTEN DUYVIL Jim, Bronx tarixining bir bo'lagi yo'qoladi.

Taxminan to'qqiz oy oldin taxtga qo'yilgunga qadar, Mustaqillik prospektining 2975-uyida joylashgan ikki qavatli eskirgan uy Frensis Shervier uyi va shifoxonasining tejamkor do'koni edi. To'qqiz gektarlik uy-joy kompleksining kichik qismini egallagan bino xavfli bo'lgani uchun tekislangan. O't ekiladi va bu joy kunduzgi parvarishlash dasturida uyning keksa aholisi va bolalar uchun park sifatida ishlatiladi.

Ammo tarixchilar inqilobiy urushning bir qismi bo'lgan, Italiya tuzilmasi yo'qolganidan qayg'uradilar, bu uy ham Riverdeyl tarixiy tumanidagi Gudzon daryosi villalarining zamondoshi edi.

Kingsbridge tarixiy jamiyati prezidenti Piter J. Ostranderning aytishicha, uy 1860 yil atrofida Strang ismli oila uchun qurilgan va birinchi marta 1867 yilda Yonkers xaritasida paydo bo'lgan. Uning aytishicha, umidlari o'tgan oy uyga purkagich bilan bo'yalganida oshib ketgan. Ammo ma'lum bo'lishicha, qoplama faqat qo'rg'oshin va asbestni buzish paytida uchib ketmasligi uchun qo'llanilgan.

"Biz Spuyten Duyvildagi eng qadimgi uyni yo'qotdik", dedi janob Ostrander, "lekin biz hamma narsani yo'qotmasligimiz kerak. Balki bu boshqa tarixiy joylar uchun ogohlantirishdir. & Quot

1982 yilda uyning diqqatga sazovor joyi maqomini olishga urinish muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchradi, chunki u me'moriy jihatdan mos emas edi, - deydi Entoni Robins, diqqatga sazovor joylarni saqlash komissiyasi xodimi.

Frantsiskan Sog'liqni saqlash tizimining yomon singillari tarkibiga kiruvchi Frances Schervier uy va kasalxonasi vakili Katrinka Valterning aytishicha, tashkilot bir paytlar xodimlar yashagan binoning tarixidan bexabar edi.

Uy 1776 yilda Dutches okrugi militsiyasi tomonidan qurilgan 1 -inqilobiy urush qal'asi joylashgan joyda edi, dedi janob Ostrander.

Uilyam C. Muschenxaym, Astor mehmonxonasining egasi, 1910 yilda uyda yashagan. Franciscan opa -singillar uy va erni 1930 -yillarning boshlarida sotib olishgan.

Janob Ostranderning so'zlariga ko'ra, tozalangan sayt tarix ixlosmandlari uchun imkoniyat yaratishi mumkin. Arxeologik qazish Amerika inqilobi tarixiga va jamiyatga qaytishi mumkin ", dedi u. ROSALIE R. RADOMSKIY


Ismda nima bor: Spuyten Duyvil dahshatli hikoyadan nom oldi

Bu Bronksdagi eng o'ziga xos ismlardan biri - Spuyten Duyvil. Mahallalar nomlari tarixini o'rganadigan seriyamizning bu qismida biz bu ism qaerdan paydo bo'lganligini bilib olamiz. NY1 muxbiri Erin Klark bu hisobotni taqdim etdi.

Garlem va Gudzon daryolarini bog'laydigan tinch suv havzasining dahshatli nomi bor: Spuyten Duyvil.

& quot; Bu iblisga qaramasdan degan ma'noni anglatuvchi gollandcha ism & quot; deydi Bronks tumanidagi tarixchi Lloyd Ultan, bu Bronksdagi eng o'ziga xos ismlardan biri - Spuyten Duyvil. Mahallalar nomlari tarixini o'rganadigan seriyamizning bu qismida biz bu ism qaerdan paydo bo'lganligini bilib olamiz. NY1 muxbiri Erin Klark bu hisobotni taqdim etdi.

Bronks tarixiy jamiyatidan Anxel Ernandesning aytishicha, "kuchli oqim tufayli shaytonga urilish".

Tomas Keysi, Xantington erkin kutubxonasi prezidenti.

Hech kim aniq nima uchun bunday obro' -e'tiborga ega bo'lganini aniq bilmaydi, lekin muallif Vashington Irving olovni yoqishga yordam berdi.

& quot; U ingliz floti Gollandiya hududini qo'rqitib kelganida, Piter Stuyvesant materikga xabarchi yuborgani haqida uydirma hikoya qiladi. Bu hududda kuchli bo'ron bo'lgan, lekin messenjer majburiyatini bajargan, shuning uchun u shaytonga qaramasdan, "bu tuyoqdan o'tib ketaman", deb aytgan va go'yoki, hikoyaga ko'ra, u cho'kib ketadi. deydi.

& quot; Uni juda katta baliq yeydi, - deydi Keysi.

Qo'rqinchli jonzotlarni chetga surib, Spuyten Duyvil Krik suvli yo'l edi. Uning egri va sayoz suvlari harakatlanishni qiyinlashtirdi va 1895 yilda Armiya muhandislari korpusi kengayib, uni chuqurlashtirdi.

Bir necha yil o'tgach, temir yo'l qurilganda, ko'p odamlar mamlakat deb nomlangan joyga ko'chib o'tishni boshladilar va ular o'z nomini daryodan oldi.

& quot; Sizda katta mulk bor edi va siz ba'zida qayiqda sayohat qilganingizda, siz Gudson daryosiga borardingiz, - deydi Keysi.

Gudzondagi bu pozitsiya Spuyten Duyvilni inqilobiy urush paytida bir asr oldin eng yaxshi joyga aylantirdi.

Materik va hozirgi Manxetten o'rtasidagi yagona aloqani himoya qilish uchun Jorj Vashington Spuyten Duyvil daryosiga qaragan uchta qal'ani qurdi.

"Qirollik ko'prigini himoya qilish uchun 1 -raqamli port, 2 -raqamli qal'a va 3 -raqamli qal'a o'sha erda joylashgan edi", deydi Keysi.

Qirolning ko'prigi, Spuyten Duyvil -Krikdan o'tib, oxir -oqibat yaqin atrofdagi Kingsbridj nomini oldi.

Tarixga qaramay, ba'zilar Spuyten Duyvil nomi so'nib borayotganini aytishadi.

& quot; Spuyten -Duyvilning shimolida Riverdeyl va Riverdeylda boy mahalla bo'lish keshi bor va ko'p odamlar Spuyten Duyvilga emas, balki shu bilan tanishishni xohlashadi.


1882 yil Spuyten Duyvil temir yo'l halokati

Senator Vagnerning jasadi hech qachon unutilmas tomoshadir. Boshi yonib ketdi va tanib bo'lmaydigan darajada yonib ketdi, oyoqlari yonib ketdi, magistrali ko'kargan va qiyofasi buzilgan edi ... Kechasi uni kundaligi "WW" bosh harflari va bir nechta gazeta varaqlari bo'lgan oltin soati aniqladi. uning senator okrugining saylov natijalari.”—Nyu -York haqiqati, 1882 yil 15 yanvar.

1882 yil 13 yanvar kuni kechqurun Chikagodan G'arbiy Ekspress Albani shahriga yigirma uch daqiqa kechikdi. Shtat Qonunchilik palatasi endigina dam olish kunlariga ruxsat berdi va Tammany Hall siyosatchilari hafta oxiri Nyu -York shahriga qaytishni xohlashdi.

O'rindiqlarga bo'lgan talab shu qadar katta ediki, temir yo'l 500 yangi yo'lovchini qabul qila oladigan qo'shimcha o'n besh vagonni oldi. O'n besh yangi xitga temir yo'l magnati va shtat senatori Vebster Vagner tomonidan yaratilgan sakkizta yaltiroq saroy mashinasi kirdi. Qolaversa, qo'shimcha og'irlikni ushlab turish va yo'qolgan vaqtni to'ldirish uchun ikkita qo'shimcha dvigatel qo'shildi.

Vagner, poyezd bortida, o'z hashamatli uylarini, yoki "8220 roliklarini" mag'rurlik bilan ta'riflab berdi va jurnalistlar va hamkasblariga shampanni to'kib yuborishdi.

Sayohat quvnoq edi. Poyezd janubga qarab yugurib kelganda, qor relslar yonida ohista joylashdi.

Safar davom etar ekan, kechasi ichkilikboz bakaloniyaga aylandi - mast yo'lovchilar burilish atrofida bo'layotgan falokatdan bexabar edilar.

Chikago ekspressi Gudzon daryosi Spuyten Duyvil bilan to'qnashadigan burilish burchagidan o'tgandan so'ng, lokomotiv to'satdan to'xtadi. Balki, ichkilikboz odam tormozni tiqilib tortgandir?

Harper ’s haftalik multfilmi, 1882 yil 4 fevral.

Vebster Vagner bundan xursand bo'lmadi. U muloyimlik bilan dabdabali saroy mashinasidan uzr so'radi va tergov qilish uchun qorli kechaga kirdi.

Bu uni oxirgi marta tirik ko'rish edi.

Kesilgan tepada, mahalliy quyish zavodidagi guruch ustasining shogirdi Uilyam R. Myurrey kutilayotgan fojia uning ko'z oldida qanday o'ynayotganini kuzatdi.

Keyingi guvohliklarida, Myurrey Kilcullen mehmonxonasining tepasida turganini, mehmonxona va salondan 125 fut pastda to'xtab qolgan poyezdga qiziqib qarayotganini esladi.

Kilcullen, bir vaqtlar Spuyten Duyvilning tinch qirg'oqlari yonida o'q -dorilar ishlab chiqaradigan Jonson temir zavodidagi quyish ishchilari uchun mashhur sug'orish teshigi edi va juma kuni kechqurun salon to'la edi.

1883 yilda Spuyten Duyvil, o'ngda Jonson Temir zavodlari va chapda Invud tepaligi.

Myurrey o'zining xavfsizligi nuqtai nazaridan, boshqa poezd - Tarrytown Special, shuningdek janubga qarab, chikago ekspressining orqa uchi bilan to'qnashuvni kesib o'tdi.

Olbani shahridan kelgan poezdda tormozchi, yaqinlashib kelayotgan poezddan ogohlantirish uchun behuda urinib, signal chiroqni silkitib, Tarrytaun poyezdi tomon yugurdi. Tarrytaun muhandisi to'xtab qolgan poyezdga urilishidan bir necha soniya oldin hushtak chaldi.

Tez orada Spuyten Duyvilning qor bilan qoplangan toza qirg'oqlari qon va olovning kaleydoskopiga aylandi. Tunda tunda qichqiriqlar paydo bo'ldi, ko'ngillilar tiriklayin yonib ketishidan oldin tirik qolganlarni to'qnashuvdan olib chiqish uchun do'zax bo'ylab yurishdi.

Frank Lesli ’ ning rasmli gazetasi, 1882 yil 21 yanvar.

Qozonlarning portlashi mumkinligidan xavotirga tushgan boshqa qobiliyatli ko'ngillilar gigant qartopchalarni haddan tashqari qizib ketgan dvigatelli mashinalar tomon siljitishdi. Ba'zilar hatto tirik qolganlarni, kiyimlari alangalanib, qartopi tashlab, odamlarning hayotini saqlab qolishga harakat qilishdi.

Tabiiy ofat temir yo'l sanoatiga shunchalik kuchli ta'sir ko'rsatdiki, Spuyten Duyvil ofati uning muqovasida tasvirlangan. Temir yo'l hikoyalari, poezd ixlosmandlari uchun pulpa jurnali, yarim asrdan ko'proq vaqt o'tgach.

Quyida, to'liq nashr etilgan, og'ir hisob Temir yo'l hikoyalari 1935 yilda.

Temir yo'l hikoyalari, 1935
Spuyten Duyvildagi halokat
Muallif: H.R. Edvards

Chikago-Nyu-York ekspressi atrofida engil qor aylanib yurdi, u 1882 yilning kulrang peshinida, soat 03: 06da-yigirma olti daqiqa kechqurun Olbani shahridan ikki marta chiqib ketdi, hovlilardan chiqib ketgach, "lak ipini" to'g'rilab, va Nyu-York shahriga 142 millik masofani bosib o'tishga qaror qildi.

Bu 13 -juma edi. Garchi o'sha poyezdda o'n uchta yog'och vagon bo'lgan bo'lsa-da, jinxning paydo bo'lishi Nyu-York shtati poytaxtidan janubga, Nyu-York Markaziy va Gudzon daryosi temir yo'llari tomonidan bepul o'tib ketayotgan yetmish etti siyosatchini tashvishga solmaganga o'xshaydi.

Ular bayramda maktab o'quvchilaridek kulishdi va qo'pol uylanishdi. Aslida, bu xuddi shunday edi. Shtat Qonunchilik palatasi dam olish kunlari tanaffusga chiqdi va ular katta shaharga-Brodveyning yorqin chiroqlariga va Yigirma uchinchi ko'chadagi uch qavatli qo'ng'ir toshli uylarga qaytmoqchi edilar.

1880 va#8217 -yillarda sayohatning hashamatini ko'rsatadigan salon mashinasining ichki ko'rinishi. Manba: Temir yo'l hikoyalari, 1935.

Ikkita lokomotivning orqasida ikkita pochta vagonlari, keyin yuk vagonlari va to'rtta yo'lovchi vagonlari, temir yo'lning barcha mulki ulangan edi. Va nihoyat, eng muhimi, Vagnerga tegishli bo'lgan "Qizil kurtka", "Sharon", "Vanderbilt", "Minnexaha", "Imperiya" va "Idlevud" kabi oltita mashina keldi. Nyu-Yorkdagi Drawing-Room Car Company har birining narxi taxminan 17000 dollarni tashkil qiladi.

Janob Vagnerning o'zi o'sha poyezdda ketayotgan edi. Vebster Vagner, Palatin ko'prigi, Nyu-York (Albani shahridan ellik besh mil narida). Uxlayotgan mashina ixtirochisi, Vagner kompaniyasi prezidenti, besh marta Shtat Senatiga saylangan va uning temir yo'l qo'mitasining nufuzli a'zosi.

Vebster Vagner, Manba: Vebster Vagner xotirasi, L. D. Uells.

Janob Vagner oltmish to'rtda edi. U baland bo'yli, keng yelkali, peshonasi baland va ko'zlari ko'k edi, yoshi kam odamga kamdan-kam kuch bag'ishlagan edi, uning yosh kuyovi Jey Teylor masjid-vagon konduktori bilan bir xil poezdda ketayotgan edi. Vagner harakatlanuvchi tarkibi.

O'sha kuni gazetalar Wagner kompaniyasi besh million dollarga va Pullman kompaniyasi o'n millionga, biroq yaqinda o'n ikki yarim millionga birlashishi mumkinligi haqidagi mish -mishlarga to'la edi. Bunday kombinatsiya maydonni monopoliyaga olib keladi, temir yo'llarda inqilob qiladi va har ikkala konsern aktsiyadorlariga katta daromad keltiradi. Bu Vebster Vagnerning uzoq va foydali karerasining tantanali g'alabasi bo'lishi kutilgan edi.

Vebster Vagner tomonidan imzolangan aktsiya sertifikati.

Gazeta muxbirlari janob Vagnerdan bayonot olmoqchi bo'lishdi, lekin u xuddi yaxshi siyosatchi kabi, tabassum bilan qo'llarini silkitdi va boshqa mavzularda gaplashdi. Chikago Ekspressi tushdan keyin qorong'i Gudzon qirg'og'ini o'rab, qorong'u tusda gumburlab yurganda, u sigaretlarni siyosiy yangiliklarga uzatdi va o'z hayotiy hikoyasini aytib berdi.

Janob Vagner 1817 yil 2 -oktabrda Palatin ko'prigida tug'ilganini, yoshligidan transportga qiziqqanligini va ukasi Jeymsga vagon quruvchi sifatida shogird bo'lganini ma'lum qildi. Keyinchalik ikki aka -uka hamkorlik qilishdi, lekin tez orada Vebster temir yo'lning kelajagi borligiga qaror qildi, shuning uchun u qayta tayinlandi va Palatin ko'prigida stantsiya navbatchisi bo'lib ishga joylashdi.

U 1843 yildan 1860 yilgacha shu lavozimda ishlagan. Shu vaqt ichida u o'z bekati yonida uzoq vaqt davomida poyezdsiz, qulay avtomobillar poyezdini kuzatib turdi va bir kuni unga shon -shuhrat va omad keltirgan g'oyani uchratdi.

Men uxlab yotgan mashina haqida hech o'ylamagan edim", - dedi janob Vagner jurnalistlarga.Men Palatin ko'prigi yaqinida yashovchi odam qurgan juda bema'ni naqshni ko'rdim. Bu odamning sarmoyasi ham, qobiliyati ham, ixtirochi dahosi ham yo'q edi. Men uning g'oyasi yaxshi ekanligini, lekin uni ishlab chiqish kerakligini darhol ko'rdim ».

Uilyam H. Vanderbilt 1880 va#8217 yillardagi savdo kartasi.

Menda ham katta mablag 'yo'q edi, lekin men Uilyam X. Vanderbiltga eski murabbiydan uxlab yotgan mashina nima bo'lishi kerakligini tushuntirish uchun ruxsat so'raganman. Men bilardimki, Gudzon daryosi temir yo'llari o'zi uchun kerak bo'lgan tungi qayiqlar bilan katta miqdordagi biznesni bo'lishadi. Olbani va Nyu -York o'rtasida qayiqda sayohat qilishda besh -olti soat yo'qolganiga har doim muhtoj bo'lgan erkaklar xafa bo'lishdi. Menga tez yurish paytida uxlashdan xursand bo'lgan savdogarlar va boshqalarni turar joy bilan ta'minlash orqali ko'p vaqtni tejash mumkindek tuyuldi..”

U to'satdan uzilib, derazani ochdi va tashqariga qaradi. Qor yog'ishni to'xtatdi. Kichkina bekat yig'ilish qorong'usida yugurib keldi.

Havo yaxshi his qiladi! " - dedi u va derazani yopdi. "Bu mashinalarda to'g'ri shamollatish men uchun juda qiyin edi. Ha, men aytganimdek, eski mashinaga bo'lgan iltimosim qondirildi va men uni joylarga joylashtirish uchun ishga kirdim. Mashinani tugatishim uchun bir necha oy kerak bo'ldi. Yo'lda ishlatishdan oldin ham uni Commodore Vanderbilt ko'rishi va tasdiqlashi kerak edi. Men uning o'g'li Uilyam H.ni cholni mashinamga qarashga ko'ndirishga undadim. Avvaliga Commodore mening talabimni inobatga olmadi, lekin oxir -oqibat rozi bo'ldi.

1858 yil yakshanba kuni ertalab, Vanderbilt va uning o'g'li Nyu-Yorkdagi o'ttizinchi ko'chadagi omborga tashrif buyurishdi, bu mening yangi g'oyalarimni ko'rish edi. Ular kelishidan oldin, men mashinada o'nlab yoki undan ko'p marta yurib, hammasi joyida ekanligini ko'rdim. Komodar tekshirgandan so'ng, u so'radi:

"" Sizda bu narsalardan nechta bor? "

"Faqat bittasi bor", dedim unga.

"" Oldinga! "Dedi u. 'Ko'proq qur! Bu shaytoniy yaxshi narsa, va siz ularning ko'piga ega bo'lolmaysiz.

Vagner saroyi avtomobilining ichki qismi, 1875 yil.

"O'shanda men o'z boyligimga erishganimni tushundim", deb davom etdi senator Vagner. "Akamning yordami bilan har biri o'ttiz ikki yuz dollarlik to'rtta mashina qurildi va ular 1868 yilning birinchi sentyabridan ishlay boshladilar. Birinchi mashinada bir qavatli o'rindiqlar bor edi va to'shaklarni yig'ish kerak edi. mashinaning bir chetidagi shkafda, shunday qilib qimmatli joyni egallaydi. Juda ko'p, aslida. Bir qavatli yotoqxona etarli darajada daromad keltirmadi, shuning uchun boshqasi o'rnatildi. Shunday qilib, zamonaviy uyqu mashinasi paydo bo'ldi. "

"Siz shamollatish haqida nima qildingiz?? ” muxbirlardan biri ixtirochiga eslatdi.

Oh Ha", Deb javob berdi. "Avvaliga shamollatish tizimi borligi aniqlandi nomukammal Yuqori to'shaklar juda yaqin edi, chunki tomi tekis edi. Bu e'tirozni yengish uchun men eski mashinalarga qaraganda ancha baland tomni qurdim va qo'lladim, shunday qilib shamollatish ta'minlandi va oxir -oqibat, keyinroq qabul qilingan va bugun ishlatilmoqda..”

Aytgancha, baland tomning ixtirosi shu qadar foydali ediki, u nafaqat shpallarga, balki kunduzgi murabbiylarga ham qo'llanilgan. 1867 yil 20-avgustda janob Vagner kunduzgi sayohatlar uchun birinchi xonali mashinasini ishga tushirdi. U chet elga ingliz, frantsuz va shveytsar yengil avtomobillarini o'rganish uchun bir qancha safarlarni amalga oshirdi, ikki yoki uchta halokatdan omon qoldi va nihoyat, 1882 yilda Jorj M. Pulmanning raqib manfaatlari bilan birlashishni intizorlik bilan kutdi. (Vagner ham, Pullman ham birinchi uxlab yotgan mashinani ixtiro qilmagan. 1843 yilda Eri temir yo'lida Jon Stivenson qurgan derazalari shakliga ko'ra "olmosli mashinalar" deb nomlanuvchi 2 ta shpal bor edi. Hatto bundan oldin, 1837 yilda, Kamberlend vodiysida "Chambersburg" shpallari bor edi, ular 3 qavatda 12 ta to'shakka ega edi, lekin to'shaklari yo'q edi..)

Ammo senator Vagner birlashish tugagunga qadar yashamadi. Hammasi, 13-juma kuni Albani-Nyu-Yorkka yotoqxonadagi mashinalarida o'tirgan siyosatchilar guruhi tufayli. Hech bo'lmaganda, poezd ekipaji keyingi tergovlarda shunday saqlagan, garchi hech kim aybdorning ismini aytishga kelmagan.

Hamma o'sha kuni tushdan keyin Chikago ekspressida yo'lovchilar orasida juda ko'p ichish borligiga rozi bo'lishdi, hatto yuk tashuvchilarning ikki -uchtasida mastlik belgilari bor edi. Dirijor Jorj Xanford keyinchalik guvohlik berganidek:

Biz bortda jonli partiya o'tkazdik. Mashinalar bo'ylab ular shishalarni o'tkazib, bemalol ichishdi, bosh kiyimlarini sindirishdi va qo'shiqlarga imzo chekishdi. Ko'rinishidan, ular Olbandagi poyezdga o'tirganlarida hushyor bo'lishgan, lekin ko'plari poyezd boshlanganidan keyin mast bo'lishgan. Men ularni nazorat qila olmadim. Kimdir, men bilmayman, kim havo tormozlari bilan bog'langan arqonni tortdi va poezd to'xtab qoldi, muhandis havoni chiqarib yuborishi uchun.”

Agar arqonni tortish hazil bo'lishi uchun mo'ljallangan bo'lsa, bu dahshatli bo'lib chiqdi. Poyezd Nyu -Yorkning chekkasida, Spuyten Duyvilning shimolida biroz to'xtab qoldi. O'sha paytda, stantsiyani ko'rishga to'sqinlik qiladigan chuqurlik kesilgan edi. Bir tomondan toshlar va baland erlar ko'tarildi. Ikkinchi tomon esa Gudzon daryosi tomon pastga burildi.

New York Herald xaritasi, 1882 yil 14 yanvar.

Kesikka kirishdan oldin, janubga qarab ketadigan poezd uzun egri chiziqni aylanib o'tishi kerak va ularning oldida bu egri chiziq atrofida nima borligini ko'rish kerak edi. Ilgari N.Y.C. & amp; HR xodimlari kesmaning har ikki chekkasida - Bill Makloflin va Richard Griffonni har oyda o'ttiz dollardan to'lab turishardi, lekin iqtisodiyot to'lqinida ular McLaughlinni bo'shatib yuborishdi, bu esa xavfli yo'lni etarli darajada qo'riqlamasdi. shimol

Ekspress -kamera to'satdan to'xtab qolganda, senator Vagner o'zining orqa tarafdagi ikkinchi mashinasi bo'lgan imperiyadagi ba'zi siyosiy sheriklari bilan gaplashayotgan edi. Ulardan biri shunday dedi:

Bu erda sizdan ruxsat olishni istagan bir nechta do'stlarim bor.”

Hech kim ixtirochining o'sha paytda fojiali voqeani boshidan kechirgan -qilmaganini bilmaydi, lekin u, albatta, rejadan tashqari to'xtash vaqtida bezovtalikka xiyonat qilgan. U o'rnidan turib dedi:

Xo'sh, janoblar, menimcha, men poezdni ko'rib chiqaman. Bu chalkash temir yo'llar mening eng yaxshi vagonlarimni sindirish ishtiyoqiga ega.”

Janob Vagner imperiyani tark etib, Idlewild avtomobiliga o'tirdi. Bu soat taxminan 7 da edi. Bu oxirgi marta tirik holda ko'rilgan edi.

Nyu-York markazida yigirma besh yil ishlagan birinchi lokomotivning muhandisi Edvard Stenford o'z poyezdini ishga tushirishga bir necha bor urinib ko'rdi, lekin faqat ikkita dvigatelni bog'laydigan tortish panelini sindira oldi.

Ikki boshli ekspressning ikkinchi muhandisi, bu yo'lda o'n sakkiz yillik dvigatelda ishlagan Archibald Buchanan, keyin aytganidek, u erda etmish besh funt havo bor edi va kimdir mashinalarga o'tirganda, u birdan qirqqa tushib ketdi. u shnur va tormozlarni siqib chiqarishga harakat qilgandi. Recharging an air cylinder, he pointed out, took about fifteen minutes.

Meanwhile, George Melius, the hind brakeman, swung into action. This was his story:

A minute or two after our train stopped I got my lamps, white and red, and walked back to protect the rear. I stood behind my train about two minutes, and then started back around the curve about six or seven car lengths behind my train. It took me about five minutes to walk that distance” – at the investigation later he was made to walk the same distance, which took only two minutes – “and I stood there perhaps two or three minutes.”

I waited there because I considered the distance sufficient to stop any train. While I was on duty at that point, the Tarrytown local came in sight, seven or eight car lengths from where I stood. Instantly I started waving my red lantern across the track. I think there was time enough to stop the train, even though I judged she was making about forty miles an hour.”

His brother, who was a conductor on the Poughkeepsie train, advised Brakeman Melius to modify that speed estimate in telling his story to the coroner’s jury – “chunki,” said Conductor Melius, “the Tarrytown local had just stopped at the Spuyten Duyvil depot and could not possibly have picked up so much speed in that distance. " So George modified his story for the official investigation.

At 6:40 p.m. the southbound local had left Tarrytown, N.Y., fourteen miles away, with Frank Burr at the throttle and Patrick Quinn wielding the scoop. Both were men of years experience in engine service on the N.Y.C.

We were five minutes behind time when we pulled out of Tarrytown,” Burr explained, “because we had waited for the Chicago Express to pass us there. The express went by at 6:15 at high speed, evidently making up for lost time. We stopped at Spuyten Duyvil depot at 7:04. We were then thirteen minutes behind the express.”

The number “thirteen” seems to run like a theme song through the history of this occurrence. It was Friday the 13th, there were thirteen cars on the express, and the local was running thirteen minutes behind the express.

“The northern boundary of Manhattan Island, N.Y. City, as it looked in 1882. This section today is served by two Metropolitan subway-elevated systems. At the upper left is the New York Central main line, which parallels the Hudson River to Albany.” Source: Railroad Stories, 1935.

After leaving Spuyten Duyvil,” said Engineer Burr, “we entered the cut at the rate of eighteen or twenty miles per hour. There was no danger signal or warning of any kind in the cut. And, I might add, Kilcullen’s Hotel, standing close to the right-of-way, completely shut off our view of the curving track until we were almost on top of the stalled train.”

We passed out of the cut into the curve – I was looking ahead at the time – when I saw a flagman (Melius) with red and white signals in his hands. He was swinging the red across the down track, upon which we were. At the same time I saw the rear of the express before me.”

When I first noticed the red light, the flagman was standing not more than two car lengths ahead of me, and the train was not more than thirty-five feet beyond the flagman. Altogether I was not more than three and a half car lengths behind the express when I first sighted her.”

I put on the air brakes at once, reversed the engine, pulled the throttle wide open, blew the whistle, and did all in my power to stop. But a collision was inevitable. I remained at my post until the engine finally plowed into the rear of the express and stopped there. Then I got out and did what I could do to help with the work of rescue.”

The locomotive of the Tarrytown local was only slightly damaged. Her overhauling was estimated later to be not more than a fifty-dollar job. She was embedded in the parlor car Idlewild. Her headlight, broken but still shining, had pushed its way a dozen feet within the luxurious car, casting a weird glare upon the terrified passengers.

“Scene of Spuyten Duyvil wreck, looking toward the northwest, just after the railroad tracks had been cleared. In the foreground is the creek, which marked the boundary line between Spuyten Duyvil and Manhattan. In the center are shown Kilcullen’s Hotel and Saloon, to which the victims were taken.” Source: Railroad Stories, 1935.

The Idlewild, in its turn, had been partly telescoped into the car ahead, which was the Empire. It was not known then how many persons had been killed or injured, but the engine had a full head of steam and a boiler explosion was feared. An explosion under those circumstances would have added frightfully to the casualty list.

Spuyten Duyvil train crash headline, New York Herald, January 14, 1882.

James Kilcullen, proprietor of the small saloon and hotel near by, had viewed the catastrophe from his doorway, and was one of the first to hasten to the rescue with a ladder, an ax, and a couple of water buckets. Said he:

If you want to use a shutter or two to carry the victims on, don’t hesitate to tear them off my house.”

Survivors of the wreck who had managed to scramble out of the cars, aided by a number of husky fellows who hurried to the scene from near-by villages, formed a bucket brigade and threw water from the Hudson River onto the last two parlor-cars, which had caught fire almost immediately after the collision.

Engineer Burr was the first to recognize the damage of a boiler explosion. Seizing the fireman’s scoop from Patrick Quinn, he commenced piling great shovelfuls of snow into the furnace. Fortunately, although it was mid-winter, the weather was rather mild, and the snow was soft enough to work with.

Water carriers, who had been emptying their pails onto the flaming cars, followed Burr’s example and dashed them against the locomotive boiler instead. Eventually the fire in the firebox was quenched, and attention was turned once more to the Empire and the Idlewild, from which came the agonizing cries of victims who were slowly burning to death.

Conductor Hanford, of the express, noticed that the occasional pailfulls of water were doing very little to check the blaze. "For God’s sake, hurry! " he cried. "Throw snow onto the fire!”

“In the absence of fire-fighting equipment, the trainmen, passengers and men from nearby farmhouses used huge snowballs to combat the flames and facilitate the task of rescuing survivors from the wreckage.” Source: Railroad Stories, 1935.

And, although badly burned about the face and hands, Hanford started to roll a snowball toward the terrible mass of burning timbers and hissing metal. Soon hundreds of willing hands were pushing great mounds of snow toward the danger spot. Some, braving the fierce heat, ran alongside the blazing cars and tossed the snow in through the windows. Others risked death themselves to drag out both the living and dead from the fiery hell-holes.

To enable rescuers to keep at work while removing the victims, their companions deluged them with water and pelted them with snowballs.

Sketch of crash with inset of Webster Wagner.

At the moment of impact, the lamps in one end of the Empire went out. Those in the other end gave a light, which, pale and sickly though it was, proved to be a blessing. With this illumination every occupant of the Empire was enabled to get out or be carried out alive before a wall of fire made exit impossible and no one perished in that car.

Until a year and a half before the accident the N.Y.C. & H.R. had lighted cars with candles. General Superintendent John M. Toucey maintained that these were safer than oil lamps but the traveling public had complained that they could not read by such light, and so oil lamps were substituted.

The cars were heated by the Baker patented process, not by stoves, and the heating apparatus was concealed from view. Nevertheless, according to Conductor Hanford, who had been in train service on that road for eleven years, this system was the cause of the fire, though oil lamps added to the conflagration.

Tons of snow were thrown upon the two cars, and in a short time the volunteer workers had the hills and roadway scraped almost entirely clear of snow. Even this, however, seemed hardly able to abate the heat. Late at night relief came with the arrival of the fire department from Carmansville, a wrecking train from the Thirtieth Street depot, and two or three ambulances made a long and terrible drive through the dark over snow-covered, muddy roads.

The fire apparatus, pumping water from the Hudson, soon put the fire out. But before this happened, the cars had been reduced to a shapeless mass of charred wood and twisted metal.

James Kilcullen threw open his place to the victims, dead and wounded alike. When the grim casualty list was finally counted, there were found to be eight dead – most of them burned beyond recognition – and nineteen persons were seriously injured.

The bodies were carried into Kilcullen’s saloon and there were laid, a ghastly spectacle, upon the floor and billiard tables. Two rival undertakers who had hurried over from Yonkers, N.Y., quarreled with each other as to which one should take charge of the bodies.

Aboard the wrecking train were General Superintendent Toucey, who was in charge of the entire N.Y.C. & H.R. Railroad between New York City and Buffalo, and Division Superintendent Charles Bissell. Both officials remained on the scene of the wreck all night, personally supervising the rescue work and disposal of the ruins.

“Clearing up after the wreck Manhattan Island in the background Kilcullen’s Saloon at right.” Source: Railroad Stories, 1935.

By 4 A.M. the two tracks were cleared sufficiently for trains to run in both directions. The trains from New York brought a throng of newspaper reporters and curiosity seekers. Kilcullen’s thirst emporium did a land-office business, scores of men all day long drinking and playing billiards on the very spot where bodies of the wreck victims had been laid a short time before.

The New York Truth, January 15, 1882.

The first of the dead to be identified was Senator Wagner. The famous inventor had perished in the Idlewild, with which he had sought to equip with every appliance of safety and comfort. Sorrowfully his son-in-law, Conductor Jay Taylor, claimed the body. One of the Wagner cars was draped with black and coupled onto a special train taking the Senator back to Palatine Bridge where he was born sixty-four years before, and where he had served the railroad for seventeen years as station agent.

Another of the dead was the Rev. F.X. Marechal, chaplain for Blackwells Island, New York City – the spiritual advisor for inmates of the workhouse, the insane asylum and the almshouse. He, too, was burned to death in the Idlewild.

So were Mr. and Mrs. Park Valentine, a young bride and groom who had been married the night before at a fashionable society wedding in New England. He was twenty-two she was nineteen.

Conductor Hanford was the last person to see the newlyweds alive. Forcing his way into the shattered and burning car, he saw the devoted pair standing together in the wreckage. Mr. Valentine was trapped beyond all hope of being extricated. His bride was clinging to him only her clothing was caught in the wreckage.

Hanford said later that if she had been willing to slip out of her clothing and leave her husband she could have been saved. This he urged her to do, but the hysterical girl refused to obey. The heat was too intense for Hanford to stay in there long enough to force her to do this, to save the woman in spite of herself, and so the young couple died together.

Immediately after the accident, according to A.H. Catlin, who had charge of the road’s air-brake equipment, the brakes on the wrecked train were examined and found to be in good working order. Just who had pulled that cord, at the height of revelry back there in one of the cars, will probably never be known.

Mr. Toucey, however, picked on Conductor Hanford and Brakeman Melius, particularly Melius, as the prime scapegoats.

The collision,” said he, “was a direct result of the violation of Rule Fifty-three. " Following is the rule he referred to, as stated in the N.Y.C. & H.R. Railroad rulebook:

Whenever a train is stopped on a road, or is enabled to proceed at slow rate, the conductor must immediately send a man with red signal at least half a mile back, on double track, and the same distance in both directions if on single track, to stop any approaching train, which signal must be shown while the detention continues.

This must always be done whether another train is expected or not. In carrying out these instructions the utmost promptness is necessary not a moment must be lost in inquiry as to the cause of stoppage or probably duration the rear brakeman must go back instantly. Conductors will be held strictly responsible for the prompt enforcement of this rule.

At the coroner’s investigation, the attorney for Melius asked the general superintendent: “Suppose one of the employees cannot read. How should he know what the rules are?”

Mr. Toucey replied: “If there is such a man he ought to leave the employ of the road.”

Do you know of any such? ” persisted the lawyer.

I do not,” said Mr. Toucey.

Then the truth came out. Although George Melius had been employed in train service on the New York Central & Hudson River Railroad for more than twenty years, he could neither read nor write!

It did not take the coroner’s jury long to reach a verdict. They held that eight persons had been killed “by criminal means and culpable negligence in the performance of their several duties” on the part of brakeman Melius, Conductor Hanford, Engineers Stackford, Buchanan and Burr, General Superintendent Toucey, and the railroad company itself.

Later the grand jury indicted Hanford and Melius on the charge of manslaughter in the fourth degree, and recommended:

(1) Discontinuance of the use of mineral oil for illumination in cars.
(2) Use of steam of hot water or hot air heating of cars instead of heating be direct radiation.
(3) Extension of the block signal system
(4) Larger train crews
(5) Employment of signalmen at all dangerous cuts and curves
(6) Trainmen and others holding responsible positions should be required to read and write.
(7) Inclusion of water pails and tools boxes containing axes, etc., on every train.
(8) The practice of giving free passes to legislators and others holding office under our state and city government is contrary to all proper ideas of good public policy and should be prohibited by law.

George Melius, The National Police Gazette, February 4, 1882.

On account of the death of Senator Wagner, who had been a member of important railroad committees, the Senate of New York State also made an investigation. Its report, June 1, 1882, was vague and obviously written by politicians but was definite about one point, namely, putting the blame upon brakeman Melius and not upon any of the railroad officials.

An aftermath of this disaster was revealed in a recent letter from Richard McCloskey, of Co. 3, Veterans Administration Home, Va., who wrote to Railroad Stories on his seventy-fifth birthday, June 10 th , 1935: “I was a witness of the wreck at Spuyten Duyvil and knew George Melius. About a year after the wreck I boarded a horse car on Second Avenue, New York City, and recognized Melius as the driver. He was well disguised by a long growth of whiskers.”

Spuyten Duyvil Station, 1907. Northwest view of crash site area across the Spuyten Duyvil shot from Inwood.

If any other Spuyten Duyvil witnesses are still living, the general yardmaster of RAILROAD STORIES wants to hear from them.


The Kingsbridge Historical Society

The Kingsbridge Historical Society was founded in 1949. It was the first, and is the oldest, local historical society in the Bronx. The society’s focus is on the history of the greater Kingsbridge area, located in the north-west Bronx. The society’s name is derived from the historic King’s Bridge and its environs, which include present-day Riverdale, Kingsbridge, Spuyten Duyvil, Marble Hill, Inwood, Van Cortlandt, and Fieldston.

It is comprised of members interested in all aspects of local history and has an archive of photos, maps, books and other items that document this area that is rich in history.

The Greater Kingsbridge area was home to the Native Lenape people and their ancestors, European colonists, and enslaved Africans. This area contains the boundary of the original Manor of Fordham of Jan Archer and the farm of Adrian van der Donck. It was home to over six American Revolutionary fortifications, battle sites, and the historic King’s Bridge, once the only land route out of Manhattan. With the industrial era came the Johnson Iron Foundry, Hudson River Estates, and the private community of Fieldston. The greater Kingsbridge area has just about something of interest for everyone.

The Kingsbridge Historical Society’s charter is to help preserve and keep alive the history of this area. Our motto says it all – “To lose our History is to lose our destiny.”


Abbott’s Spuyten Duyvil

2505 Palisade Avenue in the 1930s. This building has since been demolished.

Country store, 2553 Sage Place

Taken along Ewen Avenue at #2565. Images from Berenice Abbott's Changing New York, Museum of the City of New York

Though famed 1930s New York City photographer Berenice Abbott did most of her work in Manhattan, some of her few Bronx images were taken in a neighborhood that has vanished without trace…the deep valley separating Marble Hill and Spuyten Duyvil. These evocative pictures, from her book Changing New York, show Ewen Avenue and Sage Place. Neither my newer maps of the area or my very old ones showed such streets. Then I remembered…in 1970, when I was 13 and just beginning my map collecting hobby, I had purchased a Bronx Hagstrom…

…and there I found the missing streets and neighborhood, just west of the railroad spur on the map at left. The railyards and, we presume, Irwin Avenue, Sage Place, Ewen Avenue and Leyden Place were eliminated during the 1960s or early 1970s. Compare to the 2004 map showing Johnson Avenue curving around the top of the hill by itself, under the words “Marble Hill.” Did the old neighborhood leave any trace?

Sort of. Walking along Johnson Avenue north toward West 230th, you can spot several ruined staircases, each with leftover chain link fences unsuccessfully barricading them from the sidewalk. These steps probably led down to the now-vanished Irwin Avenue. In December 2004, workmen were removing the stairs, probably as a safety precaution.


BIBLOGRAFIYA

Freeman, Douglas Southall. Jorj Vashington. 7 vols. New York: Scribner, 1948–1957.

revised by Barnet Schecter

Ushbu maqolaga iqtibos keltiring
Quyidagi uslubni tanlang va bibliografiya matnini nusxa ko'chiring.

"Spuyten Duyvil, New York ." Encyclopedia of the American Revolution: Library of Military History. . Entsiklopediya.com. 2021 yil 17 -iyun va https://www.encyclopedia.com & gt.

"Spuyten Duyvil, New York ." Encyclopedia of the American Revolution: Library of Military History. . Entsiklopediya.com. (2021 yil 17 -iyun). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/spuyten-duyvil-new-york

"Spuyten Duyvil, New York ." Encyclopedia of the American Revolution: Library of Military History. . Retrieved June 17, 2021 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/spuyten-duyvil-new-york

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Videoni tomosha qiling: 3225 Johnson Ave #6J 2 Bedroom (Avgust 2022).